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The object with which these pages have been written 
is to show that a medical missionary's work in a 
heathen land has a powerful influence in affecting the 
minds of the people among whom he may labour, and 
that such work is very valuable in giving facilities for 
the more direct preaching of the Gospel. 

The experiment of medical missions has been fully 
tried in China, and the experience of many years has 
demonstrated that the agency has been successful, that 
the labour spent has not been hi vain, and that the 
success of the past gives reason to hope for still better 
things for the future. Doubtless China has been a 
good field for the trial of medical missions, and I feel 
assured that were they entered upon also in India they 
would have the same beneficial tendency, and help the 
various missions to a great extent. It is true, that in 
India there are many military, as well as resident and 
civil surgeons, who have given freely of their talent 
and labour for the good of the natives, and it has been 
supposed that this met the case, but it probably does 
not to any great extent. The medical missionary 


ought to be clearly identified with the mission station, 
so that it might be seen and known that the work is 
done as work for Christ ; and if it be carried on effi- 
ciently, by a properly qualified man, it will not be 
without good result, I would say unhesitatingly, that 
whenever the work has failed in eliciting the goodwill 
and sympathy of the natives, it has resulted from the 
medical missionary not making his hospital his chief 
work, giving to it his most earnest strength, and doing 
his work with sufficient energy. It is for this reason I 
urgently advise that the medical missionary be strictly 
a layman, for as a layman he can do all teaching and 
preaching that he has opportunity and ability for ; but 
he ought to have no responsibility as a pastor, or he 
will become distracted from his own line of operation, 
and thus be less willing to undergo the drudgery of his 
hospital ; and without the continuous work and effort 
there, he cannot expect to have a wide influence. 

Admitting most fully, as previously stated, the great 
good that all missionaries may do by the exercise of 
common sense in the use of a medicine chest, when no 
better aid is available, yet if the medical missionary is 
ordained, either a good surgeon or a good pastor is 
spoiled. I have seen this in Protestant and in Eomish 
missions ; a man attempts to follow two professions, and 
always fails signally in one, sometimes in both, and thus 
loses rather than gains influence and power for good. 

In describing the work of the various medical mis- 


sionaries who have engaged in this department of la- 
bour, the attempt has been made to give due pro- 
minence to each individual, and at the same time to 
make the history as continuous as possible. The cases 
quoted have been taken from a large number which have 
been reported from year to year at the different sta- 
tions ; the principle of selection has been to notice those 
in which the use of the hospital or dispensary has been 
a valuable aid to general mission work ; or hi which 
some characteristic trait of the Chinese mind may have 
been brought out and developed. The writer is well 
aware that there is little in the work of direct profes- 
sional interest, and also that the remarks on the diseases 
of the climate have been necessarily disjointed and not 
in proper continuity ; but while making the selections 
from the reports of the medical missionaries, it was 
judged best to attend chiefly to the history, and keep 
that in its integrity, allowing the remarks on disease, 
&c, to fall into their natural place in the account, 
rather than bring all professional remarks into one 
place, which would have broken the thread of the nar- 
rative. Thus it is hoped that his reference to the work 
at each station has been kept distinct, and the indivi- 
duality of each missionary maintained. 

Enough has been saM to show that the object with 
which medical missionaries were sent out has been 
fully met, and that the wished for result has in large 
measure been attained. 

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Curiosity respecting China. — Policy of Russia. — Her Acquisitions of 
Chinese Territory. — March of the English and French Armies. — 
Results of the Capture of Pekin. — Advantages of the Author. — 
Education among the Chinese. — School. — Private Tutors. — Ex- 
aminations. — Degrees. — Employment of literary Men. — Military 
Education. — Religion ...... Page 1 


Benevolent Institutions in Shanghai. — The She-e-kung-keuh. — The 
Tung-jin-tang. — Foundling Hospital. — The Kew-ting-keuh. — 
Punishments and Prisons. — Criminals. — Pirates. — Executions. — 
Sanitary Arrangements. — Cholera ..... 23 


Tea Halls in Shanghai, and in the Villages. — Refreshments provided 
gratuitously. - - Bathing Houses. — Suicides and Inquests. — Use of 
Arsenic. — Attempts to assassinate. — Native Remedies . 42 


Steaming Bread. — Production of Rice. — Beans. — Manufacture of 
Soy. — Pulse-curd. — Oil from Cotton-seed. — Varnish. — Method 
of collecting and using it. — Tea-chest Lining. — Bamboos. — Watch- 
springs. — Fancy Articles. — Casting copper Cash. — Silver Coin. — 
Gold 62 



Manufacture of Needles, Files, Boilers. — Iron Edge-tools. — Sharp- 
ening Razors. — Cleaning the Cotton Pod. — Pipe-metal. — Ivory 
and Wood Carving. — Enamel. — Feather Ornaments. — Beautifying 
Powder. — Water-jars. — Ice-houses. — Hatching Ducks. — Carrier 
Pigeons. — Fortune-telling by a Hen. — Factitious Fowls. — Popular 
Art. — Gas and Sugar Toys. — Barley-sugar. — The Ginseng 
Merchant ........ Page 85 


State of Medical Science in China. — Drugs. — Qualifications of the 
Medical Missionary. — Account of the Medical Missions to China. 
. — Dr. Morrison. — Dr. Parker. — Dr. Hobson. — Howqua, the 
Hong Merchant, and the Hospital at Canton. — Other Hos- 
pitals . . . . . . . . . .111 


Medical Education of Chinese Youths. — Medical Missionaiy So- 
cieties. — Professor Miller's Lecture. — Medical Treatises. — Dr. 
Hobson. — Hospital Practice at Canton . . . .138 


Chinese Gratitude. — Mr. Olyphant. — Hospital Patients. — Lunatic 
Asylums. — Diseases. — Native Physicians. — Religious Instruction 
to the Chinese. — Hostilities. — Chinese Medicines . .173 


The Hospital at Hong-kong. — Principal Maladies that affect the 
Chinese. — Beneficial Effects of the Hospitals established at Amoy, 
Fu-chau, and Ningpo. — Cholera ..... 202 


Shanghai. — Opening of the Port. — Establishment of a Hospital. — 
Native Medical Treatise on Vaccination. — Chinese Patients. — 
State of the Cities.- — Attendance on the Sick. — Self-mutilation of 
Beggars. — Earthquake at Shanghai. — Curious Customs. — Jugglers 
swallowing Needles. — Hydrophobia. — Drought. — Supercilious- 
ness of Government Officials. — Grateful Testimonials to the 
Author 234 



The Triads capture Shanghai. — Their Chief. — The City invested by 
the Imperialists. — Traitorous Provision Sellers. — The Wounded 
in Hospital. — Progress of the Siege. — Attack on the Foreign Set- 
tlement repulsed. — Imperialists defeated. — The French attack 
the City. — Famine. —Flight of the Triads. — Conflagration. — The 
City rebuilt Page 289 


Evil Effects arising from bandaging the Feet of Female Children. 
— Origin of the Custom. — European Works translated into 
Chinese. — Muirhead's Geography. — Milner's History of England. 
— Chinese Arithmetic. — Chinese Mathematicians. — Botany. — 
Herschel's Astronomy. — Medical Mission at Loo-choo. — Chinese 
Arms; the Gingall ; Fire-balls; Fire-pots and Stink-pots; 
Rockets .......... 334 


Diplomatic Missions. — War of 1839. — Evasions of the Treaty of 
Nanking. — Insults and Assassinations of Foreigners. — Mr. Parkes 
the Consul, and the Affair of the Lorcha. — Lord Elgin appointed 
Minister-Plenipotentiary. — Military Expedition of England and 
France. — Treaty of Tien-tsin. — Repulse at the Peiho Forts. — 
Second combined Expedition. — March of the Allies upon Pekin. 
Treacherous Seizure of Mr. Parkes and his Companions. — Capture 
of Pekin. — Destruction of the Emperor's Palace. — Convention. — 
Grave Error on th~ part of Lord Elgin. — Rebellion in the Chinese 
Empire. — Our Policy ....... 363 

Remarks on the Opium Question ...... 383 






The important change that has just been effected in 
the relations of this country with China, and a know- 
ledge of the stimulus it is likely to give to interests of 
the highest national consideration, have induced me to 
put forward a long experience of the habits, manners, 
and resources of the people of that enormous empire, 
acquired under circumstances peculiarly favourable for 
eliciting trustworthy information. 

It is not necessary to remind the reader of the claims 
of this singular race to his consideration historically, or 
ethnologically — morally and politically they are no less 
powerful; and the bringing of so large a population within 
the chain of community that binds the civilised world, 



marks an epoch that future ages must regard as one of 
the most suggestive in chronology. 

From the era of Marco Polo and Sir John Maiide- 
ville, the curiosity of Europe has only been excited 
to be baffled. Despite of a library of books of travels, 
the "Central Flowery Land" has remained hermetically 
sealed against the inquisitive Fanqui ; the influence 
of which, with some few exceptions, increased the 
appetite it attempted to satisfy. Elaborate descriptions 
of a portion of the littoral, and highly imaginative 
pictures of the interior, seemed all we were likely to 
obtain, till our recent warlike demonstrations threw 
open tracts hitherto unexplored, and our final march 
upon the great capital of the empire left the heart of 
the country exposed to our observation. 

The Eussian government anticipated us — not in a 
knowledge of the advantages of close commercial and 
political relations with an empire so enormous hi its 
resources, but in the employment of those arguments 
that alone could render a vain and effeminate state 
sensible of their value. An adventurous artist* has 
lately, no less pleasantly than graphically, shown the 
strides which during the last twenty or thirty years 
have been taken between Siberia and Pekin ; till the 
map of all the Kussias, published at St. Petersburg, 
includes that vast portion of Central Asia, heretofore 
the outlying provinces of the Chinese Empire beyond 
the great wall. Having placed a mission in the Chinese 
capital, and organised an overwhelming army in Chinese 
Tartary with magazines of warlike resources, which 

* T. W. Atkinson, author of " Oriental Siberia," and " Travels 
in the Regions of the Ainoor." 


it was impossible for any of the Tartar races to with- 
stand, Eussia easily secured a permanent footing in 
region after region, till she had dominated over, and 
then obtained the secession of, all the intervening space, 
leaving the conquest of the entire Chinese Empire to 
the time when it should please the reigning Czar to 
order his Cossacks to take possession. 

It is impossible to state with any precision the 
amount of moral or material support that the Chinese 
emperor received from his imperial brother and for- 
midable neighbour, which encouraged him to so obsti- 
nate a resistance to the demands of England and 
France : but a slight acquaintance with Eussian pohcy 
must satisfy any one, that having established itself as a 
favoured nation, Eussia could not regard with com- 
placency any attempt made by another nation to share 
such advantages. The march of the British and French 
army, therefore, must have been regarded at St. Peters- 
burg with unusual interest, and the total overthrow 
of the Tartar force, capture of Pekin, and flight of the 
emperor, not without anxiety. To assist in an arrange- 
ment that would send the conquerors away from their 
conquest was the part the Eussian authorities might 
have been expected to play, and they played it with 
characteristic ability. 

The treaty which has been signed between the belli- 
gerents has put an end to the exclusive right Eussia had 
established, of such close attendance upon this sick man 
as might enable her promptly to profit by his demise. 
For equally attentive and equally skilful nurses are 
now in attendance, who may probably assist in establish- 
ing the patient's convalescence. There is, however., 

B 2 


the chapter of accidents for Eussian policy to fall back 
upon, and it is one well known to be highly favourable 
to its development. 

The Tartar government has been shamefully beaten 
by the Barbarian it used to treat with contempt. The 
Tartar Prince has been humiliated, the Tartar Com- 
mander-in-Chief, covered with shame — the Tartar army 
thoroughly disgraced in the estimation of the Chinese 
population — the Tartar Emperor outraged by the 
plunder and destruction of his summer palace. These 
are elements of discord, which, we may expect, will 
not be lost sight of, in the hands of a skilful rival, who 
has every inducement to try to turn them to his profit. 

There is, however, another point of view from which 
the same circumstances may be regarded. Our Arm- 
strong guns have taught even the impracticable Tartars 
a great moral lesson, and the conviction of the futility 
of all their energies in the way of defence must put a 
restraint upon their inclinations towards another quar- 
rel. The signal and practical maimer in which the 
barbarous murder of the prisoners they had treacher- 
ously taken was avenged, will doubtless be appreciated 
by the Tartar mind. Brutality is cheap, but its con- 
sequences may be made expensive — and as soon as 
this becomes a recognised fact, it is not likely to be 
resorted to. 

The new position in which we have been placed 
as masters of the situation must have a beneficial effect 
upon the nation, and to make the most of it, we ought 
to render the advantages of our alliance and friendly 
communication clear to the Chinese people. Towards 
obtaining a knowledge of the various ways and means 


by which this may be done, an experience of twenty 
years, that combined within its sphere of observation 
all the most interesting classes of society, may mate- 
rially assist. Among the natives medical science is so 
imperfectly cultivated that reliance upon it is out of 
the question, and the foreign practitioner, who has 
given proofs of his skill in the treatment of disease, 
is treated with the highest degree of confidence and 
respect. The establishment of hospitals in the different 
cities on the coast frequented by our merchants — 
which will be fully detailed in subsequent chapters — 
is a boon the value and importance of which it is 
impossible for an educated Chinese to overlook ; and 
the better classes of the population are anxious to 
share the benefits which those institutions confer on 
their poorer countrymen. In this way I found ready 
access to individuals possessed of more or less social 
influence ; and my medical treatment having been suc- 
cessful, I was invariably treated as a benefactor and 
a friend. The absence of reserve, consequent upon 
the relation between physician and patient prevented 
that assumption of superiority which usually marked 
the demeanour of these Asiatics to strangers, and na- 
turally promoted a practical acquaintance with their 
ordinary modes of thought and action. The result I 
place before the reader. 


The Chinese are an educated people. They place 
a high value upon the attainments of the learned. 
Foreigners differ as to the amount of education of 

B 3 


the common people, yet a visitor to the streets of a 
Chinese city in the evening may usually see many of 
the working-classes, artisans, small shopkeepers, and 
even porters, sitting at their doors engaged with a 
book, or reading placards on the walls. Though they 
do not read fluently, they contrive to make out the 
meaning : there are very few who cannot do this. The 
people of a higher grade read and write with facility. 
Every one desires that his children may be taught, for 
which object, and if his means allow, he sends them 
to school. 

The people are encouraged to this by the fact that 
government offices are open to the poorest if he cares 
to study, the rule being to confer such employment 
only upon those who have reached some educational 
standing. The purchase of office is in China quite 
exceptional, and the government discredits itself when- 
ever it makes a sale of literary rank, in order that the 
buyer may possess the title of a learned character, 
or be eligible for some vacant post. The people de- 
spise him of whom they can say, " Oh ! he bought his 
degree to get a place." Such a proceeding is looked 
upon as a prostitution of the privileges of the univer- 
sities, and the emperor, who for the sake of the 
purchase-money permits it to be done, suffers in popular 

The education, such as it is, which has prevailed 
amongst the people, has proved one of then: national 
safeguards. China is the oldest empire in the world. 
She remains to this day a great and flourishing king- 
dom, having seen the rise and decay of Assyria, Egypt, 
and Greece and Eome. Education, and a feeling of 


mutual responsibility, have kept the people and their 
government together. Dynasties have changed; the 
imperial families have changed ; wars have affected 
their institutions ; but the people are still one, living 
under the laws, and customs, and manners which 
have prevailed for centuries. And may it not be said, 
in addition to these binding influences, China shares 
the blessing of the " commandment with promise," — 
" Honour thy father and thy mother ; that thy days may 
be long in the land which the Lord thy God giveth 
thee?" Filial obedience is recognised as the founda- 
tion of their institutions, popular and governmental, 
and the principle is universally honoured in a manner 
which has no parallel hi any other nation. 

To this people the advantages of education readily 
offer themselves on all sides. To be educated, is amongst 
them the surest mark of respectability. The know- 
ledge contained in their classics is, it is true, meagre in 
quality, and limited in its extent ; yet it has developed 
the intellect of the student, and of the people generally. 
The examinations necessary to be passed through, in 
order to a position, have at least the effect of sharpening 
the mental energies ; they increase the power of contem- 
plation and consecutive thinking on subjects which may 
call for serious attention in the future life. 

The schoolmaster is in every village. His office is 
reputed honourable, and frequently, men who have 
passed the preliminary examinations, but who being 
poor, or perhaps " sticket " scholars, go no further, 
open preparatory schools, and, if they have any tact in 
communicating knowledge, soon get pupils. 

The women in the lower class are very seldom able 

B 4 


to read, though you sometimes will meet with excep- 
tions to this. The girls in respectable families are 
taught this exercise, sometimes receiving a fair educa- 
tion, and attain to a good knowledge of the native 
literature. The boys of all ranks are sent early to 
school. They begin by learning separate characters, 
which are written on squares of red paper. These, 
with their proper sounds and tones, are drilled into 
them, day after day, until they know them thoroughly ; 
the meaning of the characters is deferred to future 
lessons. The Three-Character Classic, with other easy 
books, is next commenced ; the sounds and tones are 
again gone over assiduously, the pupil repeating line 
and page of his lesson again and again, of which also 
brief explanations are given to him. This is a somewhat 
dreary process, but in this way the characters, with their 
proper tone, are acquired, and some glimpse of their 
signification. This is followed by the Four Books of 
Confucius, which are gone through in a similar way, page 
after page being committed to memory, both of the text 
and the commentary. By means of this, and of the cha- 
racters, which have now been thoroughly learned, the 
meaning of the language is sufficiently attained. 

Chinese children are kept hard at work whilst at 
school. They take to their books kindly, because of 
the high value attached to study and education ; and 
the quiet work suits their natural disposition. Lessons 
in writing are also given. The little fingers are trained 
to fashion the characters correctly, and to form the 
strokes with exactness, the true position of the strokes 
constituting the spelling of the characters. 

From this first stage of education, the boy is sent to 


a more accomplished master, who is probably a student 
preparing for examination, and who supports himself 
meantime by taking pupils, or by living with a family, 
where he teaches the children. In a wealthy family 
there is always a student, or scholar of this character, 
as it is looked upon as a very respectable thing to have 
as resident tutor a scholar who is passing creditably 
through his course. He is introduced to the family as 
a learned man, who has taken such and such a degree. 
With this tutor a similar process is gone through as 
before, only now more care is given to explanation of 
words and phrases ; the pupil is led through the various 
classics, and prepares theses on separate passages from 
them, and when sufficiently advanced, proceeds to one 
of the local examinations, conducted by the magistrate 
of the district, who is assisted by local scholars of a 
certain rank. On the completion of this course, he 
passes on to the examinations of the department, and 
obtains a preliminary low rank. These two examina- 
tions may be compared to the matriculation pass in 
our own universities. Many of the candidates are not 
passed by the examiners ; but those who are successful 
are commended by their friends, and have a little repu- 
tation amongst their compeers. No degree is given to 
these undergraduates, but they are honourably men- 
tioned, and their names published. 

Those who succeed in the second examination, may 
enrol their names for the third, which is conducted by 
the literary chancellor, at the provincial capital. This 
examination is very strict, and great care is taken that 
the students do not carry in books or papers, to help 
them in writing their answers. A theme is announced, 


the student writing his thesis on the paper provided for 
him. The judgment of his ability rests upon the amount 
of learning which he displays, and his readiness in 
quoting the classics in exemplification of the different 
points of his subject. The handwriting and the correct- 
ness of the characters are closely observed. The 
student must not only write the ordinary character 
with accuracy, but must be aware of those characters 
which from various political or imperial motives have 
been changed. A character which he uses may, for 
example, be one that forms part of the emperor's name. 
This ought always to be denoted by the omission of a 
certain stroke. If the student show that he is ignorant 
of this, he is supposed not to be well read, and his 
thesis, however well written in all other respects, would 
be at once rejected. There is no viva voce examination ; 
all is conducted by writing, and the papers, finished in 
a given time, are handed in to the examiners. These, 
having, as is supposed, thoroughly investigated the 
answers, determine upon those who are fit for the 
honour. The degree of Sew-tsae (adorned talent), or 
B. A., is then conferred. 

The attainment of this degree is the great object of 
all students, only a portion of whom are successful. 
Lists of their names are posted outside the examination 
halls, and sent to the various cities of the province. 
Crowds of students, with their friends, wait anxiously 
for the appearance of these lists ; copies of them are 
taken, and at once printed off, and hawkers go round 
the city, with a small yellow flag, announcing that their 
sheets contain the fists of names, especially the names 
of the native scholars who have honoured their city, and 


the people eagerly buy up the whole stock. The 
students send messengers to their homes to tell the re- 
sult, and there being no electric telegraph, as yet, in 
China, the message is sent by carrier pigeons, to the 
friends at a distance. I have frequently observed these 
expectant crowds around the magistrate's office at 
Shanghai, who have displayed an intense anxiety as the 
moment drew near when the lists would be made 
public. Most of the crowd would have some relative 
or friend amongst the candidates for the degree. 

The holders of this literary distinction are at once 
the possessors of certain privileges. They are hencefor- 
ward exempt from corporeal punishment ; when one of 
them has business at the magistrate's office, and states 
that he is a Sew-tsae, the list is examined, and his 
statement being found correct, he is courteously treated, 
and is not allowed to remain amongst the common 
people. They take a prominent part in the presenta- 
tion to the magistrates of any petitions, and their names 
attached give weight to the statements winch they con- 
tain. The magistrates are constrained to listen with 
deference to the written wishes or representations of 
these graduates, who are the respectable members of 
the community, and their statements have more weight 
than those of the men of mere wealth. The people, 
also, ascribe great importance to whatever may be 
brought forward by these scholars ; I have often heard 
the remark, that such a thing must be carefully attended 
to, because the graduates have taken it up. There is 
always a considerable number of them in every city. 

Many are satisfied with the possession of this degree ; 
but those who wish to advance to the next honour, 


present themselves at the triennial examination in the 
provincial city. The literary chancellor and the highest 
magistrate of the department preside at this examina- 
tion also, which is conducted before imperial com- 
missioners appointed for the purpose. The degree that 
follows is that of Keu-jin, or elevated man, and 
is equivalent to our M.A. Those only who have 
passed the previous examinations can enter for this 
one, and the theory is, that this degree cannot be pur- 
chased, but is the reward of merit only. The examina- 
tion takes place only once in three years, and although 
many are rejected at the previous examinations, yet 
as these are annual, the list of successful candidates 
for the Keu-jin degree is always large, being com- 
posed of students who assemble from all parts of the 

The place of examination consists of a large enclosure 
filled with rows of cells, which are very small, and 
contain only a seat and a desk. The candidates take 
their places in these, and do not leave them until their 
work is done.* The themes for the day's examination 
are handed to them, at which they work, without 
hindrance, till they are finished. Special officers watch 
the cells to prevent communication from without and 
between the students themselves. The examination 
includes the classics, the laws of the country, its history, 
and rites and ceremonies, and is very severe. Original 
genius is not required so much as a facility in quotation 

* After the taking of Canton by our troops, some two years ago, 
Dr. Legge, who took the opportunity of counting these cells in 
the enclosure (or university) of that city, found them to exceed 


of various books, and in argumentation of a certain 
style. Two entire days are devoted to this examination, 
and so exhausting is the labour, that many candidates 
are prostrated, and several have been known to die in 
their cells. The fatigue at the time is severe ; but in 
addition, days and weeks previously have been spent in 
hard, uninterrupted study. 

Many Sew-tsaes are rejected, and some lose even 
their former degree : those who are simply rejected 
must wait three years for the next examination, and 
frequently men well advanced in years, fifty or sixty 
years old, present themselves. An instance is known 
of an old man of eighty years going up to be examined. 
He might not perhaps have gone through the hardships 
of the two days' labour, but the degree was bestowed 
as an honorary distinction. 

A month having elapsed for the scrutiny of the 
papers, the declaration of the successful candidates is 
published. This is waited for by crowds, in intense 
anxiety, and much greater excitement than on the 
former occasion. This is a more honourable degree, 
and these Keu-jin are received by the high officers, 
civil and literary, who strive to do them honour. The 
provincial city is greatly excited on the important day, 
and the inhabitants eagerly wait for the information 
that is to be published. The means before mentioned 
are adopted to send the intelligence as speedily us 
possible in all directions. 

The Keu-jin, returning to his native place, enters the 
town in state, being escorted to his father's residence 
or his own ; the magistrates wait upon him in high 
ceremonial, the wealthy make him presents, his friends 


flock round him to congratulate and give him money, 
the people send rolls of paper properly perfumed, on 
which he is requested to write a few characters and 
sign his name, and for tins autograph gifts are made. 
Honour is paid to his parents, who are publicly thanked 
for producing a son of such talent, and he also is feted 
and thanked by a grateful community for the honour 
he has conferred upon his native place. I called on 
one occasion at a very humble house in Shanghai, 
where I was told a newly-elected Keu-jin lived ; he had 
just been conveyed to the magistrate's office to grace 
a feast given in his honour. His father, meanwhile, 
received the guests who called with their congratula 
tions, and strove who should most exalt the ability of 
the son ; the old man, with quiet dignity, accepting their 
adulations. The enthusiasm thus displayed explained 
in great degree the eagerness to obtain literary dis- 
tinction. The possession of this degree, moreover, is a 
fortune to a man ; he is now eligible for office in the 
government, and generally obtains it. Should he choose 
not to enter official life, he may always secure a very 
respectable living as a teacher in a wealthy family, who 
delight to have such a man as the educator of their 
children. He is also much employed in the preparation 
of various documents, for which he receives large fees, 
and in the composition of odes on different subjects, 
which are treasured by the purchasers, People of all 
ranks seek to honour the man who has added another 
name to the roll of distinguished literati of the district. 
The next trial is for the third degree of Tsin-sze, 
or advanced scholar, equivalent to our LL.D. This 
examination is held every three years at Pekin, and 


is not very dissimilar to the last. It is conducted by 
examiners of higher rank, amid much of pomp and 
circumstance. At this many of the Keu-jin are re- 
jected. The successful candidates are presented to the 
emperor, and pay him allegiance, and are sure of 
appointment to high offices in the government. The 
first vacancies are filled by them, and they are enriched 
in various ways; great honour is accorded to them, 
and their literary rank is a passport as well to fortune 
as to fame. The Keu-jin was honoured in his province, 
the Tsin-sze is honoured throughout the empire, and 
wherever he goes the people flock to see liim, and show 
him respect and consideration. 

Again, every three years, comes the examination for 
the Han-lin degree. This is " the forest of pencils," 
and may be expressed by the title of Literary Chancellor. 
Successful competitors become members of the Im- 
perial Academy, and receive salaries. This is the 
highest literary degree, and for it the examination 
takes place hi the Emperor's palace. It is similar in 
kind to the last two examinations, but is conducted by 
the literati, and others of the highest rank, and is there- 
fore more honourable. They who are selected for the 
Han-lin, are men of high attainments, and are much 
employed; many in official positions at Pekin, and 
others in conducting the examinations, through the 
country. I have had opportunity of hearing from some 
of them of the arduous nature of their duties, in the 
last named of these employments. Some time ago, two 
of these gentlemen came from different places, at a 
distance, to put themselves under my professional care. 
They had both been seized with paralysis while engaged 


in the examinations, and said the work was so labori- 
ous, that they had no rest for several days and nights. 
They were utterly prostrated, and when taken sick, 
had of course to leave their work unfinished. In my 
hospital report for 1857, the following statement occurs 
respecting these persons : " Two gentlemen, of the rank 
of Han-lin, or Literary Chancellor, one from Hang-chau, 
the other from the province of Hu-pih, applied to the 
hospital during the past year, being afflicted with par- 
tial paralysis. They both attributed the origin of the 
disease to the severe long-continued mental exertion 
required at the examination for the Keu-jin degree, 
which they superintended. They said the work of 
examining the literary essays of the candidates was so 
o-reat that many of the Chancellors failed utterly under 
the labour, and, in their own case, they were compelled 
to throw up their office before the examinations were 
finished. Many of the candidates also fail during the 
trial from the labour of composition, and numbers of 
them have at various times been seen completely broken 
down in health, and rendered useless for life from 
cerebral disease, caused by their exertions to complete 
their essays. The examinations for the Keu-jin degree 
are much more difficult than for any other ; and the suc- 
cess of the essays depends not so. much on the genius of 
the writer, or his power of original composition, as on 
the strength of memory displayed by him in the use of 
classic allusions, and his skill in adapting them to the 
illustration of his composition. Perhaps no faculty of 
the mind wearies the body more, or is more exhaustive, 
than that of memory ; the strain on which at these 
examinations is excessive. As the obtaining degrees 


by examination is the stepping-stone to official appoint- 
ments, many students work for these degrees with 
great assiduity, and the effort of memory, as above 
stated, in their quotations from the classics is something 
wonderful. Thus examiners and candidates suffer alike 
in their eager pursuit of fame." 

In addition to individual labour on the part of the 
examiners, the officers, literary and civil, are responsible 
for the behaviour of the students during the examina- 
tion, and accordingly deal with them in a becoming 
manner. Very frequently, on account of some harsh 
treatment, the students have thrown aside their papers, 
left the hall in a body, and sometimes committed 
acts of violence. Some of them may be punished for 
this outbreak, but the entire blame is cast upon the 
examiners, who are charged with the disgrace of 
having offended the candidates, and are consequently 
degraded from their appointments. The possibility 
of such a calamity restrains the despotism which ac- 
companies authority, literary as well as civil, in China, 
in which country even, as is seen in this instance, the 
popular voice will, on occasion, make itself heard. 

It is the policy of the government to stand well with 
the literati for the sake of their great influence with 
the common people, who look to them for opinions and 
advice. The approval of the scholars of the district, of 
any project in hand, or to be proposed, is the best 
recommendation it can have to the favour of the 

In procuring degrees, and in obtaining official em- 
ployment, bribery and favouritism have their influence 
in China, as in Western countries. Chancellors, and 



other examiners, have not seldom been convicted of 
receiving money-bribes, for which they have been 
severely punished. They have been degraded from 
their office, and occasionally, even put to death. Bri- 
bery occurs most commonly at the examination for the 
Sew-tsae, at which it is easier to approve of deficient 
examination papers, and not so dangerous to sell the 
diploma, or certificate of the degree, which is at times 
known to be done. These practices have prevailed to 
such an extent at different periods that the examina- 
tions of certain years are spoken of by the people as 
remarkable for these evils. Still, the degrees are much 
sought after by crowds of students, who present them- 
selves for examination every year. The education and 
the love of learning thus diffused have a most salutary 
influence upon the people, the effects of which cannot 
be too highly extolled. Even when individuals who 
have reached the position of scholars are disappointed 
in their hope of employment under government, they 
are, notwithstanding, held in esteem, and have abund- 
ant opportunity of adding to their reputation, and also 
to their means. They are employed in the drawing up 
of letters, petitions, memorials, and official documents, 
and as teachers in families, as has been already stated. 
Some of them take profitably to " coaching " students 
preparing for the examinations ; others become secre- 
taries to the higher officers, who must have a staff of 
educated men to draw up despatches and reports, which 
have all to be written in a good style, requiring prac- 
tised ability. These secretaries are well paid, and 
receive, besides their salary, large fees ; then* emolu- 
ments are, in some cases, as large as those of their 


employers. Other literary men engage themselves as 
public notaries, writers and arrangers of legal pro- 
cesses ; all civil pleas before the magistrates are in 
writing, and sometimes of extraordinary length. The 
defence of a case was once given to me — it was several 
yards in length, on sheets of the usual Chinese writing- 
paper, which were pasted together, and all covered 
with the representation of the case. The compilation 
of these documents will sometimes require the engage- 
ment of several of the learned body. 

The course of study, and the examinations which 
have thus been spoken of, refer only to the degrees re- 
quired for the civil service in China. Whether obtained 
honourably by examination, or otherwise, a literary de- 
gree must be possessed before any one can enter upon 
official life. The officers of government are supposed 
to be persons of learning, and are respected accordingly. 
The competitive examinations instituted in England be- 
fore the civil service commissioners, are to a great extent, 
as to the manner of them, an imitation of the system 
which has been followed in China for ages. It may be 
hoped that, at least, similar and equal benefits will follow. 

The appointments bestowed upon the graduates are 
of much more value in the popular esteem, than the 
corresponding appointments in the military profession. 
A civil officer " with a blue button " ranks higher than a 
military officer who has the same decoration. It is 
said, "Such a person has a blue button," and the 
answer will be, "Oh! he is only a military officer ;" 
a detraction of his rank which he would not suffer 
were he in the civil service. 

The examinations necessary for appointments in the 

c 2 


army are of a much lower order than those above de- 
tailed, and consist chiefly in the exhibition of physical 
strength and prowess. These are shown in the drawing 
a ponderous beam of hard wood, lifting heavy weights, 
throwing large stones to a distance, and similar mus- 
cular efforts ; and then shooting at a target with bow 
and arrow ; sword exercise, with one or two weapons ; 
firing with the matchlock and the gingall (a weapon 
similar to a duck-gun, but throwing an ounce ball : 
tins is the most effective weapon of the Chinese soldier), 
and other such exercises which call forth the marks- 
man's skill. I have seen the candidates practising many 
of these exercises in the presence of the commandant of 
the garrison at Shanghai, and noticed the aptitude and 
strength displayed by several amongst them. They 
have also to show their skill in maneuvering large 
bodies of men in the field ; but the knowledge required 
on this point is more theoretical than practical. 

Candidates who have been approved are drafted into 
the military or naval service as required. There is 
nothing incongruous felt in the appointment of the 
general of an army to the post of admiral of the fleet — 
and the men are transferred, as occasion demands, in 
like manner. From all I have seen of Chinese troops, 
I beheve the brigade of gingall shooters to be the most 
effective part of them. Great pains are taken in the 
selection of officers and men for this brigade, and their 
firing at a mark is carefully attended to, so that they 
acquit themselves very creditably. These guns have a 
longer range than the ordinary matchlock ; and from 
my experience of wounds caused by gun-shot, in action 
with soldiers on land, or with pirates, who abound near 


the port of Shanghai — by far the larger proportion were 
from balls thrown by this weapon. 

It is not my purpose, however, to enlarge upon mili- 
tary training in China, and this reference to the sub- 
ject will suffice to show that education, as necessary 
for the performance of the duties of life, is recognised 
amongst all orders and ranks of the people. Before 
leaving the subject, I may instance an old teacher of 
the late Dr. Medhurst's, as showing the kind of educa- 
tion which is acquired by means of the examinations 
and studies that have been noticed. He was sixty-five 
years of age at the time referred to. A long time pre- 
viously he had taken the first degree (Sew-tsae), but 
poverty had prevented his proceeding to the higher 
examinations. For many years he had been engaged 
as a schoolmaster and private tutor, and was now with 
Dr. Medhurst as Ins Chinese teacher. The doctor, 
with other missionaries, was at this time occupied on 
the translation of the Scriptures. This old man always 
sat at the translation table along with other native 
scholars who assisted in the important work. When 
the exact force and meaning of a Chinese character or 
word, as used in native works of acknowledged stand- 
ing, was required, the question would be referred to 
him. After thinking a little, he would go to the shelves 
which contained the Chinese classics and the commen- 
taries, along with many other works of poetry and 
history, and in a few minutes return with book after 
book hi which he would produce a large number of 
passages where the word occurred and was illustrated. 
His services in this respect were invaluable, and made 
him a great help in the translation. He died of fever 

c 3 


before the work was finished. He is mentioned, how- 
ever, as an instance of the education of the memory 
which is required amongst Chinese scholars. He was 
a living concordance of the entire range of Chinese 
literature. He could find any passage without hesita- 
tion, repeat page after page of most of the works, and 
could easily take up any citation which had been begun in 
his hearing, and finish it without hesitation. This is not 
an uncommon thing amongst the educated Chinese, but 
this man possessed the facility in a remarkable degree. 

After all, perhaps, in the amount of civilisation they 
have attained to, the Chinese have reaped the fruits of 
an education which is merely secular in its character 
and its aims. In seeking to enlarge the horizon of 
their knowledge, and to raise them to a higher platform 
amongst their fellow-men, we wish not to change their 
educational habits, but to introduce an entirely new 
element into their system — an element which would 
revolutionise their modes of thought and feeling, change 
their darkness into light, their error into truth, and be 
followed by a perennial harvest of blessing amongst the 
entire people. 

The Word of God alone will do this ; and when once 
that Book finds a place in the schools of China, when 
the people read its truths as they now read their own 
classics, and inculcate its precepts as diligently as the 
precepts of their sages, and when above all, renouncing, 
under the influence of Divine teaching, the error and 
darkness of then: philosophic heathenism, they advance 
to the light and liberty of the gospel of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, their education in its character, its system, and 
its results will be complete. 







Of these there are several in the city of Shanghai, and 
supported by public subscriptions. The latest of them, 
the She-e-kung-keuh, or " establishment for gratuitous 
medical relief," was commenced in 1845, the year after 
the opening of the Mission Hospital, for the reason that 
a similar step had been taken " by a foreigner who had 
come to reside at the place, and therefore some of the 
wealthy citizens wished to show their benevolent feel- 
ing in the same way." It is said that in every Fu, or 
departmental city, there is an institution of this kind ; 
but the extent of their operation is probably not so 
great as, in this instance, at Shanghai, which, though 
only a He'en, or district city, has been thus favoured for 
the reason already named. 

This dispensary was attended by eight or nine native 
practitioners, some of whom gave their services, the 
remainder being paid out of the funds of the charity. 
The patients, of whom the number varied from 300 to 
500, were of all classes, and were seen and prescribed 
for in the large halls of the establishment, which are 
admirably adapted for the purpose. The medicines were 
supplied by the different apothecaries' shops in the city 

c 4 


in rotation, one shop dispensing the medicines required 
on one day. The medicines are paid for by a fund spe- 
cially subscribed for. The institution spent a portion of its 
funds in buying a large stock of the pills, bolusses, and 
powders, and also of the plasters spread on cotton cloth 
and paper, which are most commonly used by the Chinese 
for trifling ailments. These things were placed under the 
care of a resident clerk who knew a little of medicine, 
and who supplied them gratuitously to all applicants. 
At certain seasons, as the sprmg and autumn, cooling 
powders to prevent the possible occurrence of disease 
at the change of the seasons, as were given away in large 
quantities. The dispensary was kept open for not more 
than three months at one time, owing to the unwil- 
lingness of the medical attendants to bestow a longer 
attendance, but it was kept in operation for several 
successive years. This laudable attempt to follow the 
example afforded by the Mission Hospital was very 
pleasing to witness. The undertaking was conducted 
with spirit and energy, and had the medical men been 
better informed in the principles of the healing art, 
a yet larger amount of benefit woidd have been realised 
by the numerous patients. The attention paid to them, 
which I often witnessed on the prescribing days, and 
the interest in their welfare on the part of the physicians, 
were very commendable. 

The demands on the hospital were not at all di- 
minished by the opening of this native dispensary. The 
patients at the former came mostly from a distance, and 
their cases were generally of a more serious character 
than those which were undertaken by the native prac- 


The Tung-jin-tang, or " Hall of United Benevolence," 
has its office in the city, where the committee and 
managers meet for the transaction of business. It has 
also a large cemetery where the poor are buried, just 
outside the south gate, and where under certain restric- 
tions, coffins are given to such a\ ,e not able to buy 
them for their deceased relatives. This institution also 
supplies coffins on credit, a certain sum being charged 
when the article is supplied, and the price of the coffin 
paid in monthly instalments. The honour of the 
parties is found to be a sufficient guarantee for the 

Money is distributed monthly by the officers to the 
poor, especially to widows with families. There is also 
a hospital, or alms-house, outside the north gate, for the 
aged and infirm who have no relatives to maintain 
them, and who are received on the recommendation of 
the subscribers to the institution. 

The " Foundling Hospital " is another benevolent 
establishment at Shanghai, supported by subscriptions. 
It receives all the children who are sent to its protection 
and care. These are placed by their relatives in a sliding 
drawer in the wall near the front gate, and a bamboo 
drum is struck to give notice to the gatekeeper, who 
opens the drawer from the inside of the wall and transfers 
the little one to the care of the matron. Some of the 
children are sent out to nurse, others are kept in the 
hospital under the charge of wet-nurses who are hired 
for the purpose. Each of these women has two chil- 
dren to care for, and when she cannot afford them 
sufficient nourishment, she feeds them with flour and 
water, a supply of which is kept in readiness and given 


to the nurses every clay. The establishment seems to 
be tolerably well conducted ; the rooms are cleaner 
than is generally the case with Chinese apartments. 
The children appear well fed, and the nurses are 
healthy and strong-looking women. All the children, 
moreover, are under the medical charge of a resident 
physician, supposed to be skilled in the diseases of 
children, and who acts as one of the secretaries to the 
institution. An annual report is published, from which 
I learned that in 1841 the numbers were : — 

Children remaining from former year 
Received at the gate in the current year 
Received from Sung-kiang-fu . 
Sent out ..... 


Remaining on the books 

Many of the children are suffering from disease 
when they are received, and die in three or four days 
afterwards ; and, according to the report, more than 
half the deaths take place thus early ; but even after 
this deduction, the rate of mortality in the establish- 
ment is still excessive. 

As the children grow up they are taken by various 
families to be brought up as domestics or artificers of 
various kinds, or in other instances adopted as children ; 
the boys as heirs where there are no sons, the girls 
as the future wives of the sons or grandsons of the 
family. In the latter case, the object is that the wife, 
knowing no other tie than the family of her husband 
by whom she has been entirely trained, may continue 
entirely dependent upon them. This plan is said to 
work well in the majority of cases. Misconduct on 














the part of the girl is punished by the cancelling of 
the engagement, when she would be degraded to the 
rank of a servant. The law recognising the punish- 
ment, it could not be evaded. 

The Humane Society, or Kew-ting-keuh (establish- 
ment for saving life), is situated on the bank of the river, 
outside the great east gate of the city. Its object is 
sufficiently expressed by its name. When persons fall 
overboard from the junks in the river, boats are sent to 
rescue them. The bodies which are picked up are 
taken to the institution, where efforts are at once made 
to restore life ; but from the report it would seem to 
be the chief duty of the superintendent to provide 
coffins. This also is done at the expense of the society, 
which, like the Tung-jin-tang, is supported by public 
subscriptions. One of the plans for restoring suspended 
animation is to place the patient on his back, and then 
to invert a large iron boiler (commonly used for cooking 
rice) over the abdomen. This, they say, " because of 
the connection between the empty space and the dis- 
tended abdomen of the patient, causes the ejection of 
the water by the nose." Another plan is " to suspend 
the patient by the feet from the shoulders of a man 
standing erect, at the same time stopping the anus by a 
dossil of cotton to prevent the evacuation of the bowels, 
which would be fatal. This will soon be followed by 
the flowing of water from the mouth, and the patient's 
life will thus be spared." This institution does not seem 
to be carried on with much vigour, and the applications 
for aid are not numerous. The list for the year in- 
cluded not more than thirty or forty cases of those who 
had been saved and those who had been buried. 


The following Eeport of the dispensary previously 
mentioned is not without its interest : — 

" Report of the public dispensary attached to the Poo-yuen- 
tang, or Assisting Hall at Shanghai, for the 25th year of 
Taou-kwong (or 1845). 

" That part of the country called San-woo-he (anciently 
denominated the kingdom of Woo, and now corresponding to 
the province of Kiang-nan) is very damp, and that portion of 
it which lies near the seS is salt, and still more damp than 
the interior ; and in the summer and autumn is much exposed 
to strong winds. In the Hwang-pu and Wu-sung rivers, 
there are the day and night tides, but in the brooks and 
streams which join them, there being no ebb and flow of the 
tide, the water is still and stagnant, and acquires a greenish 
colour and a brackish taste ; the water of the wells is also 
affected in a similar manner, and as regards the people who 
live in these regions, the dampness moistens them, the wind 
shrivels them, the stagnant water soaks them, and they are 
thus rendered liable to disease. 

" On the cotton lands, if while the cotton plants are grow- 
ing up they be choked by weeds they will not thrive ; there- 
fore, after the rains during the fifth and sixth months, the 
labourers immediately leave their houses, and putting on their 
bamboo-leaf hats, and taking up their hoes, proceed to labour; 
and though midday may have passed, and the heat be in- 
tense, they do not stop till their work of clearing out the 
weeds is completed. Hence, during the summer and autumn 
months, much sickness prevails among the people. Those 
who have the means of doing so call in a physician to cure the 
indisposition, and it is thus of little consequence ; but if the 
poor and destitute be exposed to these pernicious influences, 
and become sick, they are unable to procure medical aid, and 
their diseases speedily become severe. 

" This state of things, having come to the knowledge of 


several benevolent individuals, has excited their compassion 
and sympathy. At Shanghai, several gentlemen have esta- 
blished the Tung-jin-tang, which has now been established 
for many years ; attached to it is an institution called the Poo- 
ynen-tang, whose object is to supply coffins on credit; in 
addition to this a public dispensary has lately been established, 
and the rules determined upon. The institution was opened 
on the 18th day of the 5th month, and was closed on the 
18th day of the 8th month ; during this time more than 
1 0,000 persons were attended to, all which has been clearly 
specified. Now, it is far more praiseworthy and meritorious 
to attend to persons while they are alive, than to afford coffins 
for them when they are dead ; if, therefore, the gentry would 
unremittingly do this, they would be the means of assisting 
the poor, and supporting the destitute ; and thus, by virtuous 
intentions and good plans, the people of this city would be 
enabled to attain to old age. These benefits will not be con- 
fined to Shanghai alone, but all persons having compassionate 
hearts, hearing of your good deeds, will they not at once try 
to follow your example ? He who first established the dis- 
pensary was Wang-Kwei ; those who carried on the work after 
him were Choo-tsang-ling, Shin-kwan, and others. 

" Signed by Shin-ping-yuen, of Tung-keang, an 
Imperial Officer, and Fung-chin Ta-fu, Sub- 
prefect of the Coastguard for the district of 
Sung-kiang, and Joint Examiner for the degree 
of Keujin or Master of Arts, in the province of 

In February, 1849, was admitted to the hospital a 
man about twenty-seven years of age, who was suffering 
from the effects of a severe punishment. He had been 
most barbarously beaten by order of the Chinese offi- 
cers, to the extent of one hundred blows with the 
smaller bamboo, on the thigh and leer of the ri°'ht side. 

o O o 


Mortification of the limb had made considerable progress, 
which was followed by extreme exhaustion, and he died 
during the night after his admission. He was a strong, 
robust man, of the working class, and had been in per- 
fect health up to the time of his punishment. The 
blows had been inflicted with the utmost severity with 
the edge of the flat bamboo, commonly used ; and the 
parts struck had been so mangled, that gangrene at once 

There are two bamboos, a larger and a smaller, in 
use on these occasions of punishment. They are made 
from a section of a large bamboo, about three and a 
half inches wide, and five feet long ; are flattened by 
having the joints smoothed down, and the whole in- 
strument is made thick or thin as may be required. 
The law permits only forty blows at one time, with the 
larger ; but if the officers are disposed to punish a pri- 
soner severely with the smaller instrument, the blows 
are given with considerable force, and even with the 
bamboo held edgewise. Such is the agonising pain of 
this treatment, and the injury inflicted, that one hundred 
blows frequently cause death. 

In the many cases of those who have come to the 
hospital after punishment at the magistrate's, a large 
slough of skin and flesh has had to be removed, often 
to the exposing of the muscles of the parts injured. 
This treatment often follows upon very trivial offences, 
the amount of the punishment being regulated less by 
the crime, than by the fee which the offender is dis- 
posed to pay, while suffering the bastinado. In front 
of the magistrate's office prisoners may be often seen 
whose faces have been shockingly torn by blows from 


a piece of hard leather, like a shoe sole. The lower 
jaw is occasionally broken, and death sometimes caused 
by the excessive swelling of the neck resulting from this 
punishment. Amongst several men who were thus ex- 
posed to public view, was one whose face was much in- 
jured, and his lips severely cut against his front teeth, 
which were broken by the force of the blows. The 
man had fallen down in a state of syncope. One day 
a woman was convicted of speaking falsely in her evi- 
dence at the magistrate's office, and was ordered to be 
beaten on the mouth with the leathern flap which was 
neither so hard nor so heavy as the above. After 
several sharp blows, as she persisted in her false witness, 
she was again beaten, and then expelled from the 

Great criminals, burglars, pirates, and such like 
offenders, are often cruelly dealt with. Though the 
magistrate may not authorise then* decapitation, he can 
inflict a severe torture, sometimes fatal in its effect. 
After the criminal has been beaten, he is tied to a low 
cross with arms extended, and kneeling on a coiled chain, 
a torture, the agony of which is inconceivable. He 
remains in this position, and sometimes in the sun, for 
hours. Exhaustion and death frequently follow in a 
few days ; and when this is not the case, and death 
does not relieve the victim while under the torture, he 
will be paralysed or crippled for the rest of his life. 

A plan adopted in the magistrate's office to extort 
money or evidence from persons of respectable position 
is this : A few short, thin bamboos are tied at one end, 
then separated at the free end ; the fingers are placed 
between, and the bamboo rods are drawn more or less 


tight by a string round them, until the man screams 
with pain, and will give his money or his evidence ac- 
cording to demand. 

In the summer of 1853, occasion was taken to visit 
the prison of the city, the people having stated that 
there was a number of men who had been severely 
wounded in the Che-heen, or magistrate's jail. It was 
ascertained that in a yard, a department of the inner 
prison, about fifty pirates, all Canton or Fuh-keen men, 
had been confined. On the morning they were visited 
they had been very riotous, endeavouring to break from 
prison, because they were threatened by the officers 
with additional hardships, and with being separated 
from each other. The soldiers of the garrison who had 
been called out, fired several rounds of musketry into 
the yard and the prisoners' cells, till the rioters were 
quiet, or disabled, and then rushed in and beat them 
for some time with heavy poles. Afterwards, all the 
prisoners were loaded with extra manacles, and those 
of them, not severely wounded, were forthwith basti- 
nadoed till they could hardly walk. The scene in the 
yard and the cells was perhaps common in Chinese 
prisons, yet, it is hoped, peculiar to them. 

Four men had been killed, and lay at the door in a 
heap, just as they had been thrown down. Of the rest, 
one had compound fracture of the thigh, three had 
compound fracture of the tibia, the result of gun shot, 
others had fractures of the legs and arms, from the 
blows after the firing had ceased, several had severe 
sword cuts, and others had bullet wounds in various 
parts of the body and limbs ; about twenty being 
wounded in the affray. The remainder had the skin 


beaten off their backs, thighs, and legs, by the bastinado, 
and the moans from all parts of the yard were heart- 
rending. The men with the compound fractures had 
chains on their hands, and bars of wood chained to the 
feet. In addition, there was a band or oval hasp of 
iron placed over the knee, the leg being flexed on the 
thigh ; to keep this in its place an iron rod was thrust 
through the middle of the hasp at the ham, and locked 
so that it could not be removed ; the forcible bending 
of the knee in this manner causing much agony to the 
wretched prisoners. 

As far as time (it was approaching dusk) and place 
would permit, all that could be done for the sufferers 
was effected ; bullets were cut out, wounds dressed, 
fractured hmbs bound up and put in position. The 
next day, bandages, splints, ointments, and whatever 
else was required, were supplied. Applications to the 
officers to cause the removal of the hoops and chains 
from the fractured hmbs, were refused ; and when at 
a later period the request was more urgently pressed, 
they persisted in their refusal, adding, that " they hoped 
the men would all die, and the sooner the better ; and 
that they wished no relief of any kind to be afforded 
them." The pirates themselves were thankful for the 
help which was given, and were kind and helpful to 
one another. One man whose leg had been fractured, 
had a pair of manacles that were too small for him 
placed on his wrists. Great swelling of the hands and 
fore-arm followed, till at last the handcuffs were buried 
in the flesh, and the bones exposed. The handcuffs 
were then filed through and removed, greatly to the 
dissatisfaction of the jail-keeper. 


The communication with the prisoners was main- 
tained through one of themselves, an intelligent young 
man, who spoke English fluently. He had been beaten 
on the thighs, and had logs of wood attached to his 
legs, and was not able to walk. Lifted to the back 
of another, whose hands only were fettered, he was 
carried from cell to cell to receive instructions, and give 
directions as to what was to be done between the visits : 
the men being from the southern provinces, did not 
understand the language of the north. The dead bodies 
spoken of, to which two others were afterwards added, 
remained in an outer cell for more than a week, covered 
with ice to prevent putrefaction, until the affair had 
been investigated^ and reported to the superior officers. 
Several of those who had been severely wounded died, 
and in time the rest recovered, after a rather large 
consumption of plasters and bandages. 

Upon the capture of the city in the autumn by the 
Triads, these pirates broke loose, and the first man they 
killed was the magistrate who had them in charge. 
The young man just alluded to, was found one day in 
command of a detachment of Triads, keeping the little 
east gate, wearing a sword, and dressed in velvet and 
satin ; he showed a different appearance from when he 
was loaded with chains, and covered with rags in the 
prison. He recognised me, and thanked me for what 
had been done for him ; and showed many acts of kind- 
ness to destitute persons in the city, releasing some of 
our converts who were anxious to leave the place. A 
few years afterwards, when I was at Hong-kong on my 
way to England, I accompanied the Eev. Dr. Legge in 
one of his religious services to the Chinese prisoners in 


the common jail. Amongst the crowd of listeners in 
the large room was a face I recognised, and after some 
time remembered the owner as the young man who had 
come under my notice at Shanghai, but he was not 
willing to recall the circumstance, nor admit having 
seen me before. He was now one of a band of pirates 
who had been captured at sea, and were awaiting trial. 
The circumstance was an unusual one, to have seen the 
same man in such very different positions. He had fled 
from Shanghai with the leaders of the Triad rebels, and 
failing employment, had turned to piracy, and was now 
reaping the reward of his misdeeds. I did not learn 
what became of him ; he would doubtless either be 
transported, or given up to the Chinese authorities. 

When at Canton, February 26th, 1839, I witnessed 
the execution of the Chinese, which was followed by 
such important consequences. An execution had been 
attempted on the same spot two months previously, but 
had been prevented by the interference of the foreign- 
ers. This second attempt was successful. The time 
chosen was the hour, about 5 p.m., at which the 
foreigners were absent walking, or on the river. Walk- 
ing with a friend up and down the flags in front of the 
factories, we were struck by the appearance on a sud- 
den of a file of Chinese soldiers, coming from one of 
the streets leading to the river front, and in the midst 
of them a man, who was carried in a basket, evidently 
to execution. An upright pole which they had brought 
for the purpose, was instantly lashed to a post in the 
factory ground, and through a hole in the upper end a 
cross bar was placed. To the cross thus formed the 
man was tied, with his feet on the ground, and a cord 

D 2 


which was coiled round his neck and the top of the 
pole was drawn tight by a man at each end of the 
cord, and the man was dead. So quickly was the tiling 
done, that remonstrance from the foreigners — some of 
whom had almost immediately joined my friend and 
myself — was too late. The soldiers proposed to leave 
the body where it was, but as its removal was insisted 
on, they removed it to the basket, and went back to 
the city. 

It was afterwards represented that the man had been 
an opium smuggler ; but it was clearly proved that he 
was a poor fellow to whose Mends the officers had 
paid a sum of money that he might be executed. As 
he was a consenting party the money was paid, and 
he was put to death. The real purpose of the trans- 
action was to insult foreigners by a pretended display 
of the imperial displeasure against dealing in opium, 
and making it appear that foreigners, by trading in the 
drug, caused the death of the natives. The man being 
purchased for the purpose of execution made it a mere 
tragical farce. Captain Elliott remonstrated warmly 
against the affair, but, as in all other cases where re- 
monstrance is all, the Chinese officers laughed at the 
remonstrants, and aggravated the original outrages by 
their sneers. This circumstance occurred four or five 
days prior to the arrival of Commissioner Lin at Can- 
ton, and was the initiative of the proceedings that led 
to the war, which was closed by the treaty of Nanking 
in 1842. 

The average of public health in the city of Shanghai, 
which may be taken as a type of Chinese cities, has 
often been to foreigners, especially during the summer 


months, a matter of surprise. The great heat of that 
season ; the crowding of the people in the narrow 
streets, and of several families frequently in the same 
house ; the absence of police regulations for the cleans- 
ing of the city and the canals, public scavengers of any 
kind being unknown ; would seem to ensure a larger 
amount of disease than is found to exist amongst the 

The sewerage is, moreover, of the most imperfect 
kind. The drains are no better than a continuous 
cesspool, where filth of all varieties is allowed to accu- 
mulate and pollute the air. In truth, were it not that 
the high market value of ordure of all kinds leads to 
the employment of a large number of men and boats 
in its deportation to the country for agricultural pur- 
poses, the health of the city would be seriously dete- 
riorated. Ordinarily, however, the nasal organs of the 
Chinese seem wanting in sensitiveness ; for while the 
foreigner is almost prostrated by the offensive odours 
which assail him on every side in a Chinese city, the 
natives care little for them either at home or abroad. 
Still, notwithstanding circumstances which are com- 
monly detrimental to health, the inhabitants enjoy a 
good share of bodily vigour, and in many instances at- 
tain a ripe old age. Epidemics of cholera have visited 
China occasionally, but, beyond a few cases during the 
summer months, it has not come under my observation 
in that country. 

In the months of May, June, and July, 1849, a form 
of petechial fever was fatal to a large number of the 
people of the city. Shanghai, like many other cities in 
the level parts of the country, is traversed by nume- 

D 3 


rous canals, which are cut for the purpose of traffic. 
The tide rises freely in all the trunk canals, but is pre- 
vented flowing through the branches, which are ob- 
structed, and hi course of time blocked up by the 
filth which is constantly being thrown into them. In 
the spring of the year the magistrate ordered the 
thorough cleansing of the whole range of canals, so that 
the tide might reach them all, for the convenience of 
trade, and for the sake of cleanliness. In doing this, how- 
ever, the mud from the canals was thrown on the bank 
that lines the city wall, and also gathered into heaps 
in various parts of the city, occasioning a stench almost 
intolerable. Had a plan been desired by which to 
make a district unhealthy, and a premium offered 
for the most likely method, perhaps none could have 
been devised more likely to be prejudicial, or better 
adapted to the production of wide-spread disease. The 
appearance at this time of a virulent form of low 
typhus, or rather petechial fever, could not be wondered 
at. The attack was fatal to very many, and during the 
epidemic numerous funerals were met in the streets 
daily, and the great majority of the people were clad in 

From the beginning of the attack the patient was 
much prostrated ; the skin burning hot ; the pulse 
quick and feeble, with extreme pain in the head, ac- 
companied by frequent vomiting, and in the worst 
cases, by excessive diarrhoea or dysentery. The pete- 
chias appeared on the thud or fourth day, the body 
being covered with the purple spots or patches, and 
when these came out freely, there was thought to be 
less danger as to the issue of the attack. Where the 


attack proved fatal, death occurred generally on the 
seventh or tenth day. In the other cases the patients 
had a long and tedious convalescence, and suffered 
much from extreme debility. Emetics in the first 
instance, with attention to local symptoms ; the exhibi- 
tion of camphor and nitre, with the early and free use 
of quinine, appeared to be the best mode of treating the 

Cholera occasionally presented itself ; the symptoms 
resembling those observed in Europe. According to 
native accounts, there are epidemic visitations of this 
fearful pestilence, causing great mortality, and in- 
spiring great dread of its approach. Such an epidemic 
must make sad havoc in the narrow lanes and streets 
so densely crowded of a Chinese city. Committees of 
public health in England can do much in the cleansing 
of the streets, opening avenues for the admission of 
pme air, and in other ways, to increase the salubrity 
of the towns ; but the state of the cities in China sets all 
such attempts at defiance. Perhaps, were it not for 
the abundant use of the fan, so common amongst them, 
even the Chinese mi^ht not be able to live in their 
crowded streets through the severe summer heat. To 
deprive them of their fans would be, while it lasted, a 
more trying punishment than to take away their food. 
Without the fan they would be utterly miserable ; and 
its constant use tends much to the comfort, and there- 
fore to the health of the people. They use the fan, 
not as Europeans in a quick and hurried way, which 
requires some exertion and soon wearies, but with a 
quiet uninterrupted motion, which, while dispersing 

D 4 


the heated air and serving the purpose of a refrige- 
rator, causes no fatigue. 

Such being the condition of a Chinese city, dyspepsia 
in various forms might be expected ; the wonder is, 
that in a country where in summer the thermometer 
ranges from 80° to 100°, and the personal and domes- 
tic habits of the people are so prejudicial to health, 
that disease is not far more common and fatal. It is 
remarked hi the hospital report for 1856, that if vio- 
lent epidemic fevers were to devastate the place it 
could hardly excite surprise. The canals, in part only, 
are cleansed twice a month by the spring tides ; but 
whenever the water thus rises it is carried to all the 
houses in the city for domestic uses. This water is 
surcharged with decaying matter, and likely to cause 
sickness of a serious character, yet the people generally 
maintain a full average amount of health. Though sal- 
low and pale, and sometimes deficient in energy, they 
are quite able to follow their occupations and prosecute 
their work efficiently. 

As tending to foster a healthy condition, the people 
are much in the open air. Their employments necessi- 
tate this ; their houses, besides, are put together very 
loosely, and are thus well ventilated, and their shops 
and work-rooms have no fronts, so that those engaged 
in business are literally in the open air all the day long. 

The practice of dressing in cotton- wadded and warm 
fur-clothing in the winter, making the wearers inde- 
pendent of artificial heat, is also very conducive to 
health. If you take the hand of a man who is occu- 
pying a cold, open room, you will find it warm and 


comfortable. Everyone who can afford this sort of 
clothing wears it through the winter ; and there are 
very few but can obtain a coarse sheep skin or wadded 
coat for a warm dress. Thus carrying a warm atmo- 
sphere about with them in the winter, helps greatly to 
their physical comfort as well as health. 


CHAP. in. 



In Chinese cities there are large shops, or halls, to 
which the people go for the purpose of refreshment and 
social relaxation, and where tea is the only beverage. 
Some few are in the habit of drinking native wine and 
spirits, but very few drunkards are seen in a Chinese 
city. Drunkenness is not a national vice hi China ; tea- 
drinking is so general that it may be described as the 
national habit. 

On occasion of a public show, or when people are 
much abroad for amusement, or visitmg the temples, a 
visit to one of the public tea shops is interesting. Many 
square tables are scattered over the room, each of 
which will accommodate four persons sitting round it. 
When a party enters and is seated, the attendant or 
waiter immediately places on the table one or more 
cups, each cup having a cover, and containing a small 
quantity of tea. He then brings boiling water in a 
kettle and fills the cups, or takes the cups to a large 
kettle, and having filled them, brings them to the table. 
The customers will perhaps ask for some kind of cake, 
or salted melon seeds and tobacco. The Chinese never 


seem to enjoy conversation unless they have melon seeds 
to crack at the same time. They are very fond of 
them, and when a man has leisure, he buys a few melon 
seeds, cracks the skin with his teeth, extracts the seed 
with his tongue, spitting out the shell at the same time, 
and the crackling sound produced when many are 
together, as at some entertainments, is very peculiar ; 
men, women, and children, busy with their seeds, as 
though they were essential to the carrying on of the 
conversation. The party of friends at the tea shop 
have each their cup with tea filled once and again, some 
melon seeds, and a little tobacco for their pipes, and at 
the end of their talk will each pay three cash for the 
tea, and two cash for the other refreshments. If a 
cake has been had, that will cost four or eight cash, 
according to its size and quality ; and if they sit talk- 
ing for an hour, they must repeat their order for tea. 
Thus a party of friends will spend their evening in 
company, drinking their tea, cracking their seeds, 
smoking and talking pleasantly, and at the end of the 
evening's entertainment, each person will have expended 
at the utmost the sum of one halfpenny. 

These shops are regularly authorised, and are under 
the surveillance of the police. Intoxicating drinks of 
any kind are not allowed in them, on the ground that 
where so many people congregate, the admission of 
wines and spirits would be followed by quarrelling and 
disturbance. The tea shops are the great places for 
talking, but while the citizens may talk politics as much 
as they choose, the police are on the alert against the 
utterance of seditious language. 

The kettle in which the water is boiled is a curiosity 


in its way. It is a large copper vessel ' capable of 
containing five or six gallons of water ; it is cylindrical 
in shape, or consists rather of two cylinders, the smaller 
one within the other, and these hold the water between 
them. The internal cylinder contains a fire-grate, the 
chimney of which protrudes at the top of the kettle. 
A charcoal fire is lighted, and the water, which is ad- 
mitted through a funnel and pipe from the top, is soon 
boiling. On the one side of the kettle is a handle, and 
on the other a large square spout which curves up- 
wards, and ends with a square, closed face, in the centre 
of which is a small hole. The kettle stands on a stool, 
and is so balanced as to be easily inclined in one 
direction. When the waiter tilts it up, the formation 
of the spout causes a jet of water to spring from the 
hole in the square face of the spout, from which he fills 
the cups, or the smaller kettle which he holds in his 
hand. Great dexterity is shown in this. The waiter 
will take three cups in his left hand, and tilting the 
kettle with his right, will manage it so cleverly as not to 
spill a drop of the boiling water. Though the skin of 
the Chinese is delicate, these waiters are not at all dis- 
tressed at holding the cups of boiling water in their 
hands. When one of them has filled his three cups, he 
will fill others in like manner, and piling six or eight of 
them on his left hand, go round to supply the tables. 
When filling the cups at the table, he has a kettle of 
boiling water, and though several persons are sitting 
round, he will, as it were, shoot the water into each cup 
so nicely as to exactly fill it and no more. Friends 
who have accompanied me to a tea shop have often 
expressed surprise that the waiter should do this in so 


adroit and confident a manner, without scalding those 
who were sitting so near, and who did not pause in 
their conversation for an instant, though prepared to 
administer a sharp scolding to the waiter had he fal- 
tered or hesitated in the supply of their wants. 

To entice customers, the proprietor sometimes invites 
a scholar who has the gift of eloquence or story-telling 
to speak on certain days or evenings. A table is placed 
on benches at the side of the hall, with a chair for the 
scholar, who takes his place, and having been supplied 
with tea and tobacco begins his story. His subject is 
often taken from some historical novel, as " The History 
of the Three States," or he will recite some classical story, 
or an adventurous history, or personal narrative. After 
leading his hearers to the point of the story, he pauses 
while his open fan is sent round for the contributions 
of the liberal. If he is satisfied he will proceed, but if 
not, he waits until they give more. The story is all 
the more telling when it partakes of the dramatic, 
enlivened by a little singing, to the accompaniment of a 
violin. The object of the proprietor is to attract pas- 
sers-by, who are at liberty to enter and listen to the 
story, but are expected to order one or more cups of 
tea ; the contribution to the story-teller is one or two 

Some of these men have a great reputation. A good 
voice, if well managed, and accompanied by a vivid 
imagination, ensures popularity. Crowds go to hear 
the story, which will be enlivened by humorous inci- 
dents and sketches of men and things. Placards at the 
door frequently announce the intention of a certain 
teacher to give some well-known history, and upon 


these occasions numbers of people collect early for the 
purpose of securing good seats in the hall. Others 
of these scholars occupy tea shops which are more 
retired, and before a select audience give explanations 
of the classics, or commentaries on some literary subject, 
and sometimes a digest of historical periods in the 
annals of the empire. The assembly in this case is 
composed of respectable men, who thus learn some- 
thing of their native literature, and revive their know- 
ledge previously acquired. The scene thus presented 
is a striking one ; the teacher discoursing eloquently, 
fixing the attention of his hearers, who, in their turn, 
pay him marked respect, as he thus enlarges their 
acquaintance with historical or general literature. There 
are also places which are much resorted to by the 
lower orders, where a scholar of smaller pretensions, or 
perhaps an itinerant story-teller, will occupy the table ; 
and where the stories are mostly descriptive of domestic 
life, into which indecent allusions are introduced to 
excite the laughter or the lower passions of the lis- 

There are no newspapers in China except the official 
gazettes, published at Pekin and the provincial cities. 
The news is therefore gathered by the keepers of the 
tea halls, and retailed to their customers, who on their 
part carry thither any information they pick up outside. 
A report is considered to be authenticated by the re- 
mark, "It is commonly spoken of in the tea shops;" 
or is supposed to be generally credited, when "it is dis- 
cussed at such and such a tea shop." At these places 
the state of public feeling may be easily learned. The 
magistrate of the city will send his officers there to 


listen to the conversation of the people, and if any ob- 
noxious sentiments are spoken, the proprietor is fined, 
or warned that a repetition of the offence will cause 
his house to be closed. The mutual responsibility 
acknowledged amongst the Chinese in their public 
relations operates strongly amongst these men. They 
are held accountable for the good and quiet behaviour 
of their customers, and are fined or punished for any 
breach of the peace. 

In addition to these establishments in the city, there 
are similar houses in the villages and by the road-sides, 
which are of great service to travellers and passers-by. 
Frequently when athirst and weary on a pedestrian 
journey in the hot summer day, I have enjoyed the 
cool shade afforded by these places, and the cup of hot 
tea prepared in the Chinese fashion. The boiling water 
is poured upon a small quantity of tea in the cup, which 
is covered for the tea " to draw." The drinker, then 
slightly tilting the small cover on one side, strains the 
leaves aside as he drinks, and proceeds on his journey 
refreshed and invigorated. When a student or a work- 
man expects to remain for any time at a place, he will 
take with him his teapot filled with weak tea, and 
refresh himself by sucking it from the narrow spout, 
which is somewhat difficult to pour from. Wherever 
you go, you will find the teacup or teapot ; in shops 
upon the counter, customers being perfectly welcome to 
use it as they choose, or when a visitor enters a house 
he is supplied with hot tea. A small table is at once 
placed by his side, and a cup of tea being handed to 
him, he is politely asked to partake, after which he 
makes his inquiries, or enters on his business. 


Wealthy persons by subscribing together, and at 
times entirely at individual cost, will provide during the 
heat of summer large buckets or jars filled with weak 
tea, for the refreshment of the public. These jars, with 
a cup floating at the top, are placed in a small mat 
shed in the public thoroughfares, in the main roads 
leading to the cities, or wherever large numbers of 
coolies or porters frequent. All coiners are invited to 
partake ; an announcement stating the tea to be pro- 
vided for the refreshment of weary and thirsty work- 
men and travellers. A crowd may be generally seen 
around the bench on which the jar stands, while tra- 
vellers, hot and dusty, sit in the shade of the mat, all 
enjoying their cup of tea without expense. It is 
thought highly meritorious of the individual who sets 
up one of these tea sheds for the refreshment of his 
poorer countrymen. The plan has been worthily 
imitated in England by the establishment of drink- 
ing-fountains, the scenes at which on a hot day in 
London have often reminded me of similar scenes 
in China. 

On the roads which lead over hills and through 
mountain passes stone pavilions are erected, with stone 
seats all round, where tea is gratuitously supplied to 
those who desire it ; there are also tea shops in the 
villages, where the beverage can be paid for. 

At Shanghai there are numerous bathing houses 
established by private persons as a source of profit. 
These houses are for the most part very commodious 
and clean, and much resorted to by the Chinese, 
especially in the latter part of the day. The cost of a 
bath is six copper cash, exactly one farthing of our 


money ; if a cup of tea and a pipe of tobacco be added, 
the charge will be nine cash. 

At the front of the house is a large hall fitted with 
boxes and compartments, where the visitors place 
their clothes under the care of a keeper, who supplies 
the bather with a clean towel, and is responsible for 
his property while he is absent in the bath. A passage 
from this hall leads to the bathing apartment, which 
is a small room, taken up, for the greater part, by a 
large water-trough about a foot in depth, made of 
tiles or slabs of white marble. Through the floor of 
this tiled trough two or three circular holes are made, 
into which iron boilers are placed, having their edges 
thoroughly cemented. When the trough is filled with 
water, a fire is lighted under the boilers in the fire- 
place which has been built for the purpose, and the 
water is soon heated. The bathers sit on planks placed 
across the trough, and wash themselves in the steam. 
A teacher of mine who was one day enjoying his bath 
after this fashion, slipped off the plank into the water, 
and was severely scalded. 

The water is usually changed only once, but in some 
establishments twice, in the day, — a circumstance 
which, though repulsive to the habits of Europeans, does 
not affect the Chinese, who enjoy their bath with quite 
as much relish in the evening as earlier in the day, 
when the water is fresh and clean. There is no doubt 
as to the value of these establishments (frequented only 
by the male sex) as regards the cleanliness and comfort 
of the people, who can have the luxury of a hot bath 
at a very low charge. The average daily attendance 
at the larger houses is said to be about 1000, and 



there are similar establishments at most of the large 
cities. Visitors to Japan remark, that in that country 
the bath-room is used by both sexes indiscriminately, 
without any apparent inconvenience. This is not the 
case in China. 

Four cases of attempted suicide are mentioned in one 
of my early reports from Chusan. A solution of salt 
and water had been used, half a pint of which when 
swallowed is supposed by the natives of Chusan to 
cause death. Sometimes an infusion of tobacco is added, 
which would be injurious in proportion to its strength ; 
and in one of the above cases a weak infusion of the 
narcotic had been taken, but with no other effect than 
nausea and vomiting. Although it is the common 
opinion that this draught is fatal in its effect, no such 
result has even been probable in any of the instances 
in which medical relief was requested. Two of these 
were women, who, after being beaten by their hus- 
bands, wished either to frighten or to bring the guilt 
of their death upon their offending partners. Another 
young woman had taken the solution, having been 
offended by her grandmother, who hindered her from 
washing her clothes when she wished to do so ; 
she therefore thought it better to die than live. The 
fourth was a man who had had a dispute with his 
sister's husband about a trifle of money, which not 
ending to his satisfaction, he attempted suicide. 

The ordinary suicides are by means of opium, or 
hanging, and drowning. Among rich people swallowing 
gold is sometimes adopted to take away life. Of 
suicide by arsenic, the case to be mentioned is the only 
one of the kind that was dealt with at the hospital. 


The opium-swallower takes one to three drachms of the 
drug as prepared for smoking, which he mixes with 
wine. The women generally hang themselves, and 
sometimes end their life by throwing themselves head- 
long into a well. Various accounts are given of the 
fatal operation of gold-swallowing. It is said that a 
bolus of gold-leaf, followed by a draught of water, 
causes speedy death ; or a handful of the loose leaf 
thrust into the mouth will have the same result through 
suffocation. The idea is that gold in the thin leaf is a 
powerful poison, but the effect can only be mechanical 
after all. 

The causes of suicide, however seemingly various, 
are chiefly disappointment and revenge. One man 
poisoned himself with opium because he had lost his 
money at the gaming-table, and was ashamed to meet 
his partner in business ; another attempted his life out 
of revenge upon his brother, who had defrauded him of 
some money, and who would have been held guilty of 
his murder. This mode of bringing disgrace upon 
others is not uncommon amongst the Chinese, even 
though it cost them the price of their own life. A 
woman attempted to poison herself that she might 
annoy her husband, who had reproved her for some 
misconduct. Another who had been refused some 
liberty she wished for, took this method of obtaining 
her freedom ; and others, from domestic differences, 
and other more trifling causes, such as pawning another 
person's clothes and not having money enough to 
redeem them for the owner, have little hesitation in 
depriving themselves of life. A young woman was 
seen on one occasion who was dying from the effects ol 


opium. Her husband, an old man, who had lately 
purchased his young wife, had reproved her for not 
trimming the lamp properly. Not liking his society, 
and knowing he had paid a high price for her, she 
revenged herself by swallowing a large dose of opium. 
On the bedclothes being thrown back during the 
attempts for her restoration, it was found that she had 
dressed herself in her best clothes, and had put on a 
handsome pair of new shoes. " Ah ! " exclaimed an 
old woman standing by, " see how determined she was 
to kill herself! She has dressed herself for the jour- 
ney." The bystanders were evidently shocked at the 
marked determination of the unfortunate young woman 
to put an end to her life. Very many of these suicides 
are from causes lamentably trivial. If a merchant 
or tea-broker, after bringing his goods to market, finds 
he has not managed well, or lost his chance of a good 
profit, he cannot bear to return to his native village, 
and therefore hangs himself. The blame is thrown on 
the native merchant with whom the man had been 
dealing, and who often gets into trouble at the magis- 
trate's office, and has to bribe the friends to silence. 
Two brokers, who had sold at a heavy loss, rather than 
return home hanged themselves in company in the 
bedroom of the hotel where they were staying. These 
hotels are kept by the city merchants with whom the 
brokers deal, who board and lodge at their expense ; 
these two men testified their repugnance to the mer- 
chant they were doing business with by destroying 
themselves in his house. 

A case of poisoning by arsenic was brought to the 
hospital, the only instance, as has been said, which 


came under my notice there. The patient was a barber 
by trade, and, having quarrelled with his partner about 
the spending of some money, to be revenged upon him 
took a quantity of white oxide of arsenic, about two 
drachms. This poison may be procured at the native 
drug-shops, though not without difficulty, nor by every 
applicant. Copious vomitings had followed the dose in 
this instance, and the greater portion of the poison had 
been ejected. The man had severe pain in the bowels, 
with excessive thirst, and a sensation of intense burning 
in the fauces. Six days after taking the poison he was 
brought to the hospital in a most distressing state, 
emaciated to the last degree, the mouth and throat 
covered with ulcers, and the patient constantly rolling 
in his bed in fearful agony. The mucous membrane of 
the stomach and bowels was evidently extensively ul- 
cerated ; neither medicine nor food would remain, and 
opiates gave but little relief. The day after he had 
rubbed the skin from his elbows, knees, and sacrum, the 
abraded surfaces showing a sloughy appearance, and no 
care nor pains could wholly prevent the flies from set- 
tling on them and depositing their eggs. Indeed, the 
state of the unfortunate man was one of such extreme 
and frightful misery as hardly to be equalled. On the 
ninth day after taking the poison he became insensible, 
and the following day died. 

In 1851 occurred a case of suicide by cutting the 
throat. The man was about forty-five years of age, 
and had been an assistant in a native tea-hong, or firm. 
He had lost his money in some business speculation, 
and the brokers declining to make him a further ad- 
vance, he resolved to finish his existence. Opium foil- 


ing him in the first instance, he had recourse to a 
sharp-pointed pocket-knife, of native manufacture, with 
which he made three incisions or stabs in the same 
spot over the trachea, into which eventually he made 
an opening. When seen about four hours afterwards, 
he was rapidly sinking. There was a wound about an 
inch long over the trachea in the direction of its tube, 
just below the cricoid cartilage, from which bloody 
froth was expelled at every expiration. The man was 
so far sunk as to be beyond the reach of assistance. 

The partners in the hong, hearing that the man 
would die, urgently insisted on his removal to another 
house, else their business would be ruined ; the officers 
of the law would hold them responsible for his life, and 
punish them if he died on their premises under such 
circumstances. It was told them that the man would 
die in the removal to another place ; but they replied 
that he would cheat all events, and they should remove 
him. This they did ; but the man did not survive an 
hour, probably not long enough to reach the other 
house, which belonged to a relative. This relative 
was a poor man, to fleece whom would be impossible to 
the officials, who might have obtained heavy sums from 
the tea-firm, as hush-money, or in commutation of the 
fine to which they could be made liable. 

Such is often the state of things in China, and life is 
sacrificed by the pretended anxiety of the officials to 
spare it ; for they are presumed to be guided in all 
their movements by a fatherly interest in the welfare 
of the people. It is easy to see, however, how this 
love of pelf on their part entails sorrow upon any 
wealthy man who is so unfortunate as to be brought, 


as in a case of the above kind, within the grasp of the 
law ; his only way of escape is by paying largely, and 
he may count himself happy if he be not ruined. 

A respectable Canton man was one clay brought in, 
who, in a fit of intoxication, after several incisions 
across the throat, divided the soft parts close down to 
the vertebras. The larynx was completely divided, the 
oesophagus partly severed, and the carotid arteries were 
beating on the surface of the wound. There was 
much bleeding from the great surface exposed, and the 
man was exhausted, partly from the haemorrhage, and 
partly from the suffocation caused by detached portions 
of muscle being sucked into the trachea at every in- 
spiration. Nothing could be done towards closing the 
large wound beyond the cleansing it of blood, and the 
removal of loose strips of skin and muscle, and mak- 
ing the man as comfortable as possible ; he was past 
relief. He lived thirty-six hours, could take no food, 
but had his mouth refreshed with tea. He retained his 
consciousness, however, to the last, and by signs seemed 
to express his remorse for the desperate act he had 

Another case of attempted suicide was that of an 
elderly woman, who, having been annoyed at some 
family discord, had cut her throat with a blunt knife. 
She had divided and torn the trachea just below the 
larynx, destroying part of the cartilaginous rings, and 
making a large hole in the tube. For the first two or 
three days after her admission to the hospital, she ap- 
peared to be sinking, and became so much reduced 
that her friends brought her grave-clothes, which were 
laid upon the bed that she might see how she was to 

E 4 


be buried. After this she began to revive, but had a 
severe attack of bronchitis ; the wound, which had 
been much inflamed about the edges, began to granu- 
late, and some hope of her recovery was cherished. 
Her friends insisted, contrary to all remonstrance, 
in removing her home, where, however, she continued 
to improve, the last news of her being that she was 
much better, and the wound diminishing in size. 

Inquests are held by the Chinese officers on the 
bodies of all persons who have met with violent deaths, 
and attached to every magistrate's office is a coroner, 
who investigates such cases as far as possible. 

In August 1850, a man was brought to the hospital, 
having received a violent blow on the abdomen, and 
shortly after admission expired. From his appearance, 
that of a person dying from haemorrhage, it was pro- 
bable that the spleen, or some other organ, had been 
ruptured. Late in the afternoon of the same day, 
Chinese police-runners arrived, and proceeded to ar- 
range a table and chair, as if for the reception of an 
officer. They stated, in reply to an inquiry as to what 
they were doing, that their master, the magistrate of 
the city, was coming to hold an inquest on the body of 
the man who had been killed that day. They acknow- 
ledged that they had brought no card, and that leave 
had not been given for their proceedings, but said 
the affair was urgent, and the magistrate was on his 
way. When they were told that they were knowingly 
guilty of impoliteness, and that they must bring a card 
before the magistrate would be allowed to enter the 
premises, they remonstrated. Finding this of no avail, 
they took up their cushions and carpets, and departed. 


They came back shortly afterwards with a small card, 
which they well knew would not be received, as 
it was a rudeness to offer it. Accordingly, when 
all their plans had failed, and aware that they would 
be punished if a complaint were made, they hurried 
off, discomfited, to stop their master, and obtain the 
large visiting card proper on such occasions, and come 
to the hospital to ask leave to enter the premises. 

Immediately afterwards the officer arrived, and was 
properly received. He took his seat, and examined 
the brother of the deceased, and other persons who 
knelt before him, as to the cause of death. He then 
went into the ward where the body lay ; the clothes 
were removed, and the surface examined, to discover 
the seat of the injury. As this could not be found, the 
assistant-coroner (the magistrate is the chief coroner, 
but the assistant, who is a medical man, transacts all 
the business of the department) said he thought the man 
was not dead. The officer was much confused at this, 
not knowing what to do next, and apparently wholly at 
a loss to ascertain whether the man was alive or dead. 
Both of them, after trying the pulse, said they felt it 
beating, their agitation evidently preventing a calm 
judgment in the matter. They were relieved, however, 
by the assurance that the man was indeed dead, and 
then the question came as to what had lulled him. It 
was explained to them that probably internal haemor- 
rhage had followed the blow, or that there had been 
a rupture of some internal organ which was the cause 
of death, but that an examination would soon settle the 
matter. This, they said, was quite out of the question, 
as being contrary to all Chinese custom ; and after 


debating as to the cause of death for some time, they 
agreed that nothing further could be known about it, 
and left, wholly undecided as to the finding. Eventually 
a verdict of murder was brought against the man who 
had struck the deceased, but punishment of death was 
only recorded. In such a case no time is fixed for the 
execution of the sentence, and after some months, when 
the affair is supposed to be forgotten, the cidprit is 
either heavily fined or banished the neighbourhood. 

A respectable money-changer who had been robbed, 
and then stabbed in the side, was carried to the hospital 
bleeding profusely from the wound, which was probably 
in the substance of the liver. After two days he died 
from internal hasruorrhaQ-e. The magistrate held an 
inquest at the hospital, and examined the friends of the 
deceased, as well as the persons who were with him at 
the time of the murder. The assistant-coroner examined 
the corpse, which was brought from the ward and laid 
on a mat in the yard. He decided that the wound was 
in one of the organs supposed by the Chinese to be 
vital, but without referring at all to the wound of the 
liver itself ; and the conclusion arrived at was that the 
man had been killed. The murderer was not known, 
and could not be traced, nor could any of the money 
be recovered, which seemed, after all, to be the chief 
cause of grief to the relatives and friends of the deceased. 

In the accounts of ague and its treatment by Chinese 
writers on medicine, there has been little found of any 
great interest. The descriptions of this disease are 
particularly meagre and unsatisfactory. But one pre- 
scription shows that the Chinese are acquainted with 
the power of arsenic in checking the periodicity of 


ague. This prescription was obtained from a teacher, 
who said it formed one of a series which had been kept 
for a long time in his family. As it relates to a subject 
of great importance, the prescription is given entire in 
the following translation : — 

" Prescription to stop the tertian, or great ague. 

" Take one dried orange ; orpiment, or sulphuret of 
arsenic, three drachms ; scoop out the inside of the 
orange, introduce the arsenic into the hollow, and over 
a slow fire let it be roasted to ashes, preserving the 
essence of both articles ; then reduce the whole to 
powder, and of this let each dose be three drachms, 
taken with old or mellow wine." 

According to this mode of preparation, the dose of 
arsenic must be very uncertain. The sulphuret being- 
volatile, a large portion will pass off, while some of the 
metal, in the form of oxide, will remain among the ashes 
in quantity sufficient for a powerful dose. The pre- 
scription is interesting as showing the Chinese to have 
discovered the value of arsenic in connection with 
ague, for which disease it is perhaps the most effectual 
remedy. The circumstance of this medicine being so 
used by the Chinese may lead to further researches 
into native medical treatises, and possibly to the dis- 
covery of other analogies between their practice and 
that of Europeans. 

" The collection of renowned prescriptions " contains 
the following, of which the first is for the cure of ague, 
and the others for diseases of the teeth. They are cited 
as showing that the drug is employed by the Chinese 
for diseases, and that so far their use of it is identical 
with that of Western physicians. 


" Prescription for ague. — Take of Fan-muh-peih seeds, 
having removed the shell and roasted the kernel, one 
ounce ; levigated orpinient, one drachm ; levigated cin- 
nabar, one drachm ; liquorice -root, one drachm : of the 
above each dose is to be from twenty-four to thirty 
grains, mixed with wine, and taken on the day when 
the attack of ague is expected." 

" A wonderful prescription for stopping toothache. — 
Take nitrate of potass, one drachm ; Borneo camphor, 
six grains ; orpinient, six grains ; sulphate of soda, thirty 
grains : grind the whole to a powder, with which rub 
the aching tooth, and the pain will be relieved." 

" Prescription for toothache, with ulceration of the 
gums. — Take of Chuen-lun, two drachms; orpinient, two 
drachms ; burnt alum, two drachms ; jin-chung-pih, one 
drachm ; burnt borax, one drachm ; musk, eighteen 
grains ; Borneo camphor, twelve grains ; fresh liquorice- 
root, eighteen grains ; bezoar, twelve grains : grind the 
whole to powder, first wash out the mouth with tea, 
then with a reed-pipe blow some of the powder on the 
affected part, and afterwards wash the mouth again." 

Whether the Chinese use arsenic for any art pur- 
poses is not known, but it may be mentioned that in 
the Government assay-office, when the molten silver is 
poured into the mould, a pinch of white oxide of 
arsenic is thrown on the surface, which cleanses the 
metal of impurities, and gives a bright and shining face 
to the ingot as it leaves the mould. 

In the manufacture of what is called Pekin tobacco 
the same article is used. A small quantity of the oxide 
is well mixed and worked up with the leaves, which 
are afterwards chopped small and formed into cakes 


which are of a greenish hue. This tobacco is only used 
in a " water-pipe," a kind of hookah, the smoke passing 
through water, which the Chinese say absorbs the 
greater part of the fumes of the arsenic, and prevents 
their being injurious to the smoker. The arsenic is 
added because it is said to give a peculiar pungent 
taste to the smoke, which is very agreeable to those 
who are used to it. This Pekin green tobacco is in 
large request, especially at the tea shops, but is not 
used constantly. Those who fancy this preparation 
have a division in their boxes, which hold the Pekin 
tobacco on the one side and the common yellow to- 
bacco on the other. 








The glimpses of Chinese industry and manners, sup- 
plied by the following brief notices, may help to a 
better understanding of the people. Seen " at home," 
their character reveals itself without restraint ; and 
their ingenuity, in the adaptation of their knowledge 
in various arts and manufactures, and the application 
of them, for purposes of use and ornament, is not 
more striking than it is worthy of commendation. As 
will be perceived, the statements for the most part 
relate to what came under personal observation. Much 
more of a similar character might be recorded, yet pro- 
bably sufficient is given in these pages towards forming 
a fair idea of the ways and doings of the inhabitants 
of China, and of their life in " the interior." 

The mode of steaming bread is curious. Flat cakes 
of wheaten flour, leavened, having been placed on a 
slightly heated pan, to cause them to rise, are trans- 
ferred to a steam-heated oven till they are thoroughly 
cooked. The construction of the oven is as follows : 
an iron boiler built into a fire-place has its upper edge 
projecting above the bricks, and round this is fastened 


a thin broad wooden hoop, with a groove near the 
lower rim which receives the edge of the boiler, the 
upper rim being fitted with another hoop about four 
inches in depth, and having for its bottom a bamboo 
network, being similar to a coarse sieve. Above this 
there are eight or ten hoops of the same description 
(the shaving of which these hoops are made is cut off 
a piece of fine-grained pine, by a large heavy plane, 
and is very neatly cut), and at the top is another, 
having a cover, close and light, of plaited bamboo 
and palm leaves sewed over it. The cakes of leavened 
flour are placed on the network in every hoop ; the 
water in the boiler is heated by a strong fire, till a hot 
steam is driven through all the divisions, and by-and- 
by the bread is, not baked, but thoroughly steam- 
boiled. These cakes are very light and good ; they 
were used as bread by foreigners in Shanghai for a 
long time after their first arrival there. Split and 
toasted as they were required, these steam-cooked 
cakes were very acceptable. 

Eice is the staple food in China, and is produced in 
enormous quantities. Wheat and maize, which are 
grown to a considerable extent, are used chiefly in 
making cakes of various kinds, the greater portion of 
which are eaten as a sort of luncheon, or, as the Chinese 
call it, Teen-sin, supporting the heart or adding to the 
spirits. These cakes, enclosing chopped leeks or onions, 
are then baked, and are much favoured by the Chinese, 
but are not eaten with much relish by the European. 

Eice is threshed from the ear with a flail. This 
consists of a handle of bamboo six feet Ions;, havinc; 
a spindle projecting laterally near the upper end. The 


flail, made of several pieces of bamboo, fastened side 
by side, and let into a heavy bit of wood at the free 
end, revolves round the spindle by a jerk of the long 
handle, and is brought down with a sharp blow on the 
ears of rice. 

The husk is cleared by another process. Two wheels 
of pine, each about two feet in diameter, are constructed. 
Pieces of the wood, about two inches thick and six 
inches long, are arranged in a circular bundle or faggot, 
and fastened round with strips of bamboo folded like a 
long cord, which is plaited together till it is very strong. 
Thin wedges are then driven into the interstices which 
remain between the pieces, till the whole is tight and 
firm ; projections are sawn away, to make an even 
surface ; and the cross grain of the wood being outside, 
gives the rubbing force, or grind, to the mill. One 
wheel is fixed on a firm heavy stool, and has an iron 
spindle in the centre, projecting upwards, on which 
the upper wheel works. The centre of this wheel is 
cut away around the spindle, and a cross-bar fixed 
across the hole on the upper side is pierced for the 
spindle. The rice is thrown into the mill, through the 
central hole in the upper wheel, which is made to 
revolve by means of a long handle with a crook at 
the end, which fits loosely into a hole at the edge of 
the wheel. A man pushing this handle to and fro, and 
giving it play, drives the wheel round. With a long 
paddle he throws fresh rice into the central hole, which 
is worked between the rough surfaces of the wheels, 
and, being rolled over and over, is pushed out at the 
sides and falls to the ground. The weight of the 
wheels, or wooden " mill-stones," is sufficient to rub 

eice. 65 

off the husk without breaking the hard grain. The 
gram is winnowed by letting a quantity of the 
husked rice fall from a height, for the wind to blow 
off the dust, or by a winnowing machine, precisely like 
the machine in use in England, which latter is probably 
a copy of the Chinese article in every particular, even 
to the catch or stop of the hopper. The rice thus 
cleared is placed in a large deep earthenware mortar, 
in which works a stone pestle, raised by a treadle, 
where it is not pounded, but, from the attrition of 
the grains, is well polished. A piece of chalk is 
thrown in to help this effect, and also to whiten the 
rice. The whole is then thrown on a large sieve, the 
dust cleared off, and the rice left clean and white, fit 
for domestic use. The broken grains are again sieved 
out of the dust, and sold at a cheap rate. 

The Chinese are very particular about the cooking 
of their rice. It is first washed in a bamboo basket, 
to remove the chalk., dust, and other impurities ; it is 
then placed in a boiler, with water enough to cover it, 
and, the boiler being covered in like the steam oven, 
the rice is soon cooked. Another mode is to fix the 
damp rice in a basket on a little bamboo trivet in the 
boiling water, cover the boiler, and the rice is cooked 
by the steam. 

Large quantities of pulse, a species of round white 
or yellowish bean, are grown in the north of China, 
at Shan-tung and Chih-le, and in the south of Man- 
tchouria, the yearly produce of this article is enormous. 
Its exportation forms a large branch of commerce ; and 
the carrying of the beans, oil, and cakes gives employ- 



merit to many thousand junks, which bring down their 
cargoes to Shanghai, Ningpo, and other ports. 

These beans are used chiefly for making oil : the other 
uses of them are subordinate to this. They are ground 
in two mills, the first of which has a hopper, whence 
the beans gradually flow on to a flat bed, on which two 
upright broad stone wheels revolve. These wheels, 
which closely resemble those in use in English oil-mills, 
crush the beans, which are then taken to the second 
mill. A circle of short curved stones, about thirty 
feet in diameter, is made on the ground. An an- 
gular groove of nine or ten inches in depth is cut 
around the edge, and in the centre is placed a strong 
revolving spindle. From this, horizontal arms, which 
stretch as far as the circumference of the circle, pass 
through the centres of as many upright stone wheels, 
which have their edges cut triangularly, to lit the large 
groove along which they travel. Buffaloes attached by 
gearing to the parts of the arms which project through 
the centres of the upright wheels, take the outside 
round of the large circle, and work the mill; the 
beans already crushed, being placed under the re- 
volving wheels in the angular groove, are speedily 

They are then transferred to baskets, which are 
placed on the top of a steaming apparatus, over a 
brisk fire, and covered with a wisp of straw, to be 
used afterwards, but which now serves to retain the 
steam over the beans while itself is being; heated. 
The workman now takes a small hoop of bamboo, not 
solid, but made of plaited strips, that it may be elastic 
and yield to pressure, and lays it flat on a board on 


the ground.* The beans are by this time very hot, 
the wisp of straw is removed from the top of the 
basket, and placed over the hoop. This wisp is a 
handful of straight straw, tied together at the thick 
ends, and is placed over the hoop, the straw opened 
out in a circular form, with the tied end in the centre. 
The basket of hot beans is emptied on the straw ; the 
projecting ends are doubled over the beans, and the 
whole is pushed into the hoop. Another hoop is now 
placed on the top, straw and beans are added, until a 
pile of hoops is formed, charged with straw and beans 
in alternate layers. By means of poles fixed at the 
sides of the pile, the workman stands upon, and presses 
it down. The pile being completed as rapidly as pos- 
sible, to preserve the heat, it is removed to a horizontal 
frame or press, having one end a few inches lower than 
the other. To facilitate this removal, a broad wooden 
spatula is thrust in below the upper half-dozen hoops, 
which are taken off and followed by the rest, which 
are removed in like manner. A circular piece of wood 
wider than the hoops is laid on the free end of the pile, 
with a system of wedges above. Long wedges are 
then driven in with a heavy stone hammer wielded 
by a strong arm, and the oil expressed from the beans 
oozes through the straw and the plaited hoops, and 
runs through a channel into a reservoir under the 
floor. It is allowed to stand some days to settle, when 
it is filtered, first through straw and then through cloth. 
It is afterwards poured into large baskets, which are 

* In Shanghai, these hoops were a foot in diameter, and one and 
a half inch in thickness ; in Shan-tung, these measurements were 
nearly doubled. 

f 2 


lined with a very tough thin paper glued to the inside 
of the basket by varnish, and then varnished over. 
The oil never exudes if the paper has been properly 
attached to the baskets, each of which wiU hold 100 
pounds of oil, and is of the shape of a large flat jar, 
with a narrow mouth. This is covered with varnished 
paper, when these baskets filled with oil are sent on 
board ship or overland, and travel without accident. 

The bean-cake, or residue after expression of the oil, 
is largely used as manure, and is found to fatten the 
land and improve the crops. It is never eaten by 

Soy is made from the same bean, which after being 
slightly boiled in water is placed in the open air, in 
large jars with basket tops, for the purpose of fermen- 
tation. The beans turn brown and soft, and become a 
brown pultaceous mass. After the soy has drained 
away or been expressed, it is strained and packed in 
small jars for sale. No use is made of the residue. 

Taufu, or pulse-curd, is made by steeping the beans 
in cold water, when being soft they are ground be- 
tween two flat stones. A spindle fixed in the centre of 
the lower passes through the upper stone, in which a 
hole is made about halfway between the centre and 
the rim. Through this hole the beans are passed as 
the upper stone revolves, by means of a handle fixed 
in the side of its rim. When ground they pass out at 
the rim as a creamy liquid, which is placed in a vat to 
settle. The supernatant fluid is afterwards drawn off, 
and the curd placed on a suspended square of cloth to 
get rid of more of the liquid. It is then transferred to 
square wooden frames fined with cloth, and next into 


a bean press loaded with a large stone. The remain- 
ing liquid drains out, leaving behind a thick cake of 
solid curd, which is cu$ up into small squares. The 
curd is also sold after it leaves the filter and before it 
is pressed, and in both forms is fried with a little oil, 
and eaten as a relish with rice. Sometimes cakes of 
curd are exposed to the air to ferment, when they 
become brown and dry, turning partly into soy, and 
form a tasty combination, much relished by the Chinese, 
of curd and soy. 

The beans are also given to animals, especially sheep 
and goats, as we give them brown peas. 

The seeds of the cotton plant are treated in the 
same way as the beans. The oil expressed from them 
is dark and thick, and is used for common lamps, but 
makes much smoke. It is used also by the makers of 
common Chinese ink to produce the lamp-black. The 
cake is highly valued as food for cattle. 

The bean-oil is used for lamps, and also for cooking 
purposes. It is a pale, thin, clear oil, rather strong in 
smell, but not disagreeable. 

The oil mills are very large establishments, and 
always at work. In some of them from fifty to sixty 
buffaloes are kept to perform the work at the stone 

Varnish — Lacquer — Paint — The pure varnish flows 
from incisions in the bark of the Ehus vernix, a spe- 
cies of sumach which is called the varnish-tree. The 
juice, at first, is of a yellowish-grey colour, which turns 
black on exposure to the air. It is very irritating to 
the skin, producing troublesome sores on the hands of 
those who gather it, if they allow it to come in contact 

r 3 


with them. It retains this quality even after the paint 
is dry and has been for a long time exposed to the 
air. Some foreigners are very susceptible to the action 
of the varnish poison. A visit to a lacquer-shop, or 
the varnishing of some article of furniture in the house, 
has been followed by an attack of severe nettle-rash, 
and sometimes even of erysipelas of the face. A patient 
suffering an attack of tins kind once sent for me. He 
had frequently experienced the effect of the varnish 
before, but could not account for the present attack. 
He said he had not bought or used any lacquer ware ; 
no new furniture had been brought in : but at last it 
was remembered that a carpenter had been repairing 
a door which had slightly warped, and it was found 
that on finishing his work he had rubbed a little varnish 
over the new surface caused by his plane. This was 
quite sufficient to affect the susceptible patient. 

Several of these varnish-trees grow in the gardens 
of the London Mission at Shanghai, and it was found 
that the varnish flowed readily from slight wounds 
in the bark, and dried in black stains on the stem. 
The chief districts where the article is produced are 
in the province of Ngan-hwui, which are also the 
green-tea districts. Hence it is generally found in the 
warehouses of the native wholesale tea-brokers. The 
varnish is gathered in the heat of summer ; it is 
scraped from the trees and carried home in bamboo 
cups, and emptied from them into wooden tubs lined 
with a stiff paper, and is then sent to market. All the 
articles used in the storing of the varnish acquire a 
beautifully hard, black, and polished surface, which 
even resists the action of boding water. 


The articles to be lacquered are of wood or paste- 
board. When a large surface has to be covered, it is 
daubed with a combination of pig's blood and lime, 
with some tow or hemp ; at other times the surface is 
covered with moist clay, which is rubbed into the 
grain of the wood and then scraped off, the wood 
being allowed to dry. After this a mixture is laid on 
of Tung-yew, or wood-oil (the oil of the Tung tree, a 
species of Dryandria), and lampblack for coarser ar- 
ticles ; but 'for those which are more delicate, a mixture 
of varnish and lampblack. The surface is again allowed 
to dry ; the varnish is applied with a hard brush in a 
thin layer, which after drying is rubbed smooth with 
Dutch rush and tutty-powder. Another thin layer of 
varnish follows, care being taken that each layer suc- 
cessively is rubbed properly smooth. For the finer 
tables and cabinets, this process of rubbing down and 
laying on the varnish is repeated ten or a dozen times, 
as the object is to produce a surface very hard and 
clear which retains its polish for a long time. 

Various colours are added to the varnish, according 
to the use made of the article. Cups formed of very 
than wooden strips are carefully lacquered, and serve 
for teacups or rice-bowls without shrinking from boil- 
ing water or being liable to fracture like porcelain. 
These are often of beautiful pattern, and finished with 
much artistic skill. One kind of lacquered ware, of 
the reign of Keen-lung, who gave the fashion for it in 
boxes, vases, cabinets, pictures, &c, is made by covering 
wood or cardboard with coatings of red lacquer to the 
thickness of a third or half of an inch. Upon this 
various figures, or fruits, or landscapes, are beautifully 

F 4 


carved in high relief, when the whole is finished by the 
application of a very thin layer of varnish over the 
whole surface. Many of these articles are perfect 
gems of art and finished carving, and are much prized 
by the Chinese. The better specimens are often copied 
by ordinary workmen, but they have a coarse appear- 
ance, and are far from equal to the superior productions 
of the reign of the emperor above named, who had so 
great a fancy for this branch of workmanship. 

The varnish which is generally used in house-work 
is a mixture of the pure juice and the Tung-yew boiled 
together. It is laid on with a stiff brush, giving a hard 
polished surface of a bright coffee colour, which is very 
ornamental. When it is wished to show the vein of 
hard wood, as in rosewood, Chinese mahogany, or 
elm, the pure juice or varnish is used ; it is rubbed 
into the wood and allowed to dry. After looking very 
dull and heavy for some months, it becomes bright, 
and, when wholly absorbed by the wood, presents a 
hard and transparent surface. The polish will retain 
its brilliancy for many years, and, whenever it may 
become dull, may be restored by means of warm 

The Tung-yew, besides being mixed with varnish for 
an ornamental paint, is also used alone or with linseed 
and other oils as a varnish for outside woodwork, where 
it resists the action of the weather very effectually. 
Mixed with linseed-oil, it is largely used on board ship ; 
rubbed over the masts after they have been scraped 
clean, and on all the woodwork inside and out, the oil 
sets off the vein, and gives an enduring surface. It is 
applied with a handful of hemp, well saturated, which 


conveys the mixture to all cracks and crevices, and the 
work is finished with a hard brush. 

This varnish will mix with any colour ; the finer 
pigments are used for lacquer, and the coarser are 
mixed with the oil. The most common colour used 
with the latter is black, or a dull red colour consisting 
of levigated iron rust. When the Tung-yew is not 
intended to sink into the wood, the surface is prepared 
with blood and lime-paste, as in the preparation for 

Dutch rush, mentioned in a previous page, is a 
siliceous rush, the same as that known in Europe, and 
is used by carpenters, carvers, and varnishers to smooth 
any unequal surface before polishing. It is more 
effective for this and other delicate manipulations than 
their sand-paper. For varnishing and lacquering it is 
especially valuable. It is plaited into a small pad two 
inches long by an inch wide, and is used with water. 

Great quantities of lead are used for making the 
thin lining of tea-chests, which is formed as follows : 
— The plumber has a furnace on the floor, with an 
iron pot on the fire with melted lead, and a small iron 
or brass ladle. He also has two flooring tiles rather 
more than a foot square, which are covered with paper, 
pasted smooth and firm over one surface. One of 
these tiles is placed on the floor, but raised about three 
or four inches, with the papered surface upwards. The 
other tile is laid upon this with its papered surface 
down. The man gets on the tiles, and sitting on his 
heels, takes a ladleful of lead ; putting the toes of 
one foot to the ground, he dexterously lifts with his 
left hand the front edge of the upper tile, and pours 


the lead with a sweep between them. Then, raising 
his foot from the ground, the upper tile yields freely to 
his weight, and the melted lead is pressed between the 
papered surfaces, the surplus escaping at the edges. 
He immediately raises the tile, removes the sheet of 
lead, and proceeds to make another. His fellow-work- 
men examine the sheets as they are thrown off. If, as 
happens at times, they are irregular, they are returned 
to the melting-pot. If they find them in good order, 
they rapidly cut them square by the aid of a rule, and 
solder the small sheets together to serve as large ones. 
Paper is then pasted down on them, and they are ready 
to be used as hning for the chests. Sometimes the 
thin leaden chest is covered with paper after being 
made up ; at other times the separate sheets are co- 
vered, and any imperfections attended to afterwards. 
The paper being inside, the lead chest does not affect 
the tea, which it would do were the lead and the tea 
placed in contact. 

The long stems of the bamboo plant are used for a 
variety of purposes. Split longitudinally into several 
long strips, and these split again and again, they are re- 
duced to ribands, with which baskets, various kinds of 
mats, scoops, hampers, hen-coops, dustpans, and other 
articles of domestic use, are made. With the entire 
stem, boathooks, very light and effective, are often con- 
structed. As these implements must needs be quite 
straight, and the stems originally are curved like a blade 
of grass, the workman proceeds to reduce the curve of 
the bamboo. At the joint where this commences, he 
holds the stem over a wood fire, to soften the fibre, 
and then, inserting the stem into a square notch in his 


working bench (sometimes he uses a broad square iron 
staple, driven into his bench, and a wedge), he strains 
on it until it is straight. This is repeated at every 
point of the curve until the whole length is straight. 
The fibre hardens as it cools, and retains its new di- 
rection. Bamboo pipe -stems are straightened in the 
same way. The lightness and strength of the scaf- 
foldings made by the Chinese of bamboo poles, bound 
together by rattan, are often surprising to see ; the 
scaffolding around a pagoda under repair is quite an 
astonishing piece of handicraft. When it is required 
to make a pipe or tube of bamboo, the sections are cut 
out with a curved chisel placed on a thin bamboo, and 
by working tlus round, the joints are broken, and then 
cut smooth from the inside. 

The roots of the larger bamboos are large and 
solid ; when a good one is found, it is taken care of for 
the wood-carvers, who buy such roots, and fashion 
them into mimic hills, with temples, cities, processions, 
and mountain scenery carved on their surface. 

The spring sprouts of the bamboo are much used as 
a vegetable, and when young and fresh are tender and 
very delicious. Large quantities of these sprouts are 
brought from the mountainous districts in the interior, 
in a slightly salted state, and thus prepared are also a 
good vegetable. 

The horn-lanterns, to which the Chinese are so very 
partial, are made of shavings of horn dexterously 
cut. The workman has, as usual, a stool, on which he 
sits in front of a charcoal furnace for heating his tools. 
These consist of a pair of large and strong iron cali- 
pers, the ends of which are thrust into the fire. When 


hot they are taken out and wiped, and between them the 
joint of two horn-shavings is placed ; they are brought 
together, and pressure is applied. The heat and pressure 
soften the horn, and cause the two pieces to unite firmly. 
This operation is repeated till all the joining is perfect ; 
the lantern, as it proceeds, is scraped and polished, and 
at length presents a very handsome appearance. 

On passing a lapidary's shop one day, I observed him 
busily cutting some article with his wheel. Looking 
more closely, I saw that he had, curled up as tightly as 
possible, an English watch-spring of blue steel. On 
each side a circle of thin wire had been drawn very 
tight, and in the space between the circles the work- 
man had applied the edge of his wheel, which was 
gradually cutting its way perpendicularly through the 
folds of the spring. In this way two perfect steel 
springs would be made, half the width of the original 
spring, and, though weak, would be placed in watches. 
The Chinese cannot make watch-springs, and therefore 
always import them. So far as my observation enables 
me to say, they cannot at Shanghai make elastic steel ; 
repeated attempts to induce them to make steel elastic, 
altogether failed. Their steel was hard, and they could 
hammer it out very readily and make edge tools with 
it, but had not the art of making it elastic. Whenever 
they had to make a spring, it was invariably of brass, 
which answers the purpose sufficiently, if the motion 
of the sprmg is not to be great. 

The wheel used for cutting the spring, and which 
is also used for cutting agates and other stones, is a 
thin disc of soft iron or copper, made to revolve by 
a treadle. As it revolves, fine corundum powder and 


water are applied to the edge, which enables it to cut 
the stone. The Chinese do not know the use of the 
crank, either for the lathe or the lapidary's wheel. 
They have two treadles with the ends of a cord at- 
tached to each, the centre of the cord passing twice or 
thrice over a wooden spindle. When the treadles are 
worked, the spindle makes two or three revolutions, 
and is then brought back again ; but no continuous 
revolution can be produced in this way. Chinese 
workmen, taught by Europeans, learn to use the crank, 
and work it readily, pleased at the improvement of a 
continuous revolution of the wheel. 

A short time since several chalcedony pipe mouth- 
pieces were sent to me, along with the lumps of stone 
from which they had been cut. The mouthpieces 
were three and four inches in length, and four of them 
had been cut out of one piece of stone, leaving four 
holes through it. They had apparently been cut out 
by a hollow circular drill, which, working its way 
through the stone, enclosed a cylindrical piece, that was 
afterwards polished on a stone wheel, and had a hole 
drilled through its centre. to adapt it for the pipe. 

Mother-of-pearl buttons are cut out of the shell in 
a similar manner, but, the shell not being thick, or the 
buttons long, as in the case of the above stones, a flat 
circular drill is used, which readily cuts out the buttons 
of a larger or a smaller size, as may be required. 

Pedlars go about the streets selling at a very trifling- 
cost a variety of pretty round buttons, arranged in 
fives on thick paper. Curiosity as to the process of 
their manufacture led me to a pedlar's house to 
see it. The mould was very ingeniously made, as 


follows. Two bricks are taken, and the face of each 
is ground smooth so that they will exactly fit together. 
Three or four moulds may be made in one pah* of 
bricks. The mould is formed by scooping out with a 
chisel the exact shape of the button, one half in each 
brick ; then two, three, or four small hollows, according 
to the size of the intended button, are made in the sides 
of the mould. When the mould is finished, and the 
two parts nicely adapted, a space is made for the shank, 
and to form this into a ring, a roll of paper is put 
through a hole in the brick, and traverses this space ; 
a small channel is made to the upper or outside surface 
of the bricks ; stops are let into one brick, which fit 
into hollows in the other, so that the bricks are kept 
together, and the moulds preserved from disarrange- 
ment ; and the roll of paper is put into its place for 
the shank. 

This being finished glass beads are placed in the 
hollows in the moulds, which are then closed ; through 
the channels melted pewter is poured in, which runs 
into the space for the shank, then into the mould, and 
fills the spaces left between the beads. When all the 
moulds are full, the bricks are separated, the paper 
rolls having first been drawn out of each mould, and 
the button is removed. The roll of paper shapes a 
very neat ring for the shank. The button and shank 
are then dressed with a pair of pliers, and are speedily 

Brass-founders make very good mouldings for small 
brass castings, by means of tiles or bricks. Two of 
these, fine-grained, are chosen ; one face of each ground 
smooth, that they may he close ; and stops and holes 


made in the bricks, to hold them together. The mould 
is cut out with great care from the face of the brick, 
one half in each brick ; a channel for the metal to run 
in is next cut ; then the bricks are tied together with a 
piece of string, and the mould is ready for use. 

The casting of copper cash does not admit the use of 
these brick moulds. For this a frame of wood is em- 
ployed. This frame is two feet in length by one foot 
broad, the sides about an inch square, and being laid on 
a board on the floor of the workshop, is filled with 
founders' sand, very similar to the sand used in this 
country by brass-founders. When the sand has been 
beaten into the frame till a fine flat surface is formed, 
a model of the cash required is laid upon it, and half 
driven into the sand by a few clever blows of a 
wooden paddle. This model, a foot and a half in 
length, of hard pewter, is shaped like the branch of a 
tree, with a central stem and small horizontal branches 
from it, at the ends of which are the model coins. 
The central stem and these branches, of which there 
are as many as possible, are the channels for the 
molten metal, the stem projecting at one end of the 
frame. Two such models are placed longitudinally in 
one frame, of which eight or ten, fitted and furnished 
in a similar manner, are arranged in a pile. The 
frames are then removed singly, each retaining its sand, 
and the models are taken out one by one. The frames 
being replaced and short bars of wood laid across, 
above and below, they are firmly tied together, to keep 
the pile solid. Holes are next bored with a wire, in 
various directions, for the escape of the air, and the 
system of moulds being placed endwise on the ground, 


the melted metal is poured in at the channels. As 
soon as this is cool, the frames are taken apart, the 
sand removed, and the cash on its branches withdrawn. 
After being broken off the branch by a hammer, the face 
of each coin is cleared by rubbing on a coarse tile ; 
they are then strung by the hole in their centre on an 
iron rod, on which they are held tight while they are 
filed smooth and all irregularities removed, and the 
roll of cash is then finished. 

This copper cash is the only native currency in 
China. Silver and gold are largely used, but are paid 
by weight. Dollars are made occasionally for particular 
purposes, as lately in Shanghai, when the old Carolus 
dollars became so scarce that silver coin was wanted 
for the carrying on of trade. The local government re- 
solved to coin money, of the weight of a tael, an ounce 
and a third of silver. This was pure sycee, or unal- 
loyed silver, and proved to be too soft for continued 
use. This coin was at first taken by the people, who, 
however, after all the trouble and expense of the 
coining, when they received it in any large quantity, 
returned it to the crucible, and melted it into the 
usual shoe-shaped ingots ; in consequence of which the 
coinage ceased. 

Discs of silver * were first made by running the 
metal into flat moulds on iron plates, which closed like 
common bullet-moulds, each set of plates having three 
moulds. These discs, after their weight was proved, — 
if over or under weight they were at once returned to 
the melting-pot, — were hammered flat, and made as 
true as possible by the use of the file, so that when 

* For the production of this coin. 


finished they were perfectly smooth, and of one size. 
The pieces of silver were now taken to the stamping 
press, where they were impressed with rows of Chinese 
characters, stating the weight, place of coinage, the 
maker, and the name of his bank or assay-office, the 
local officer, the date, and the name of the emperor. 

The die for these impressions consists of two parts, 
the obverse and reverse, which are cut on the faces of 
two pieces of steel, square, and a little larger than the 
silver discs. The reverse has steel sides made to it, in 
the form of a square box, with the corners open, into 
which steel box the obverse die exactly fits, being kept 
in its place by the sides.* The press had a large block 
of granite for a stamping stool, and affixed to it a per- 
pendicular slide about ten feet high, across the top of 
which is a piece of wood, well oiled, and, some little 
distance off, a powerful winch. The stamping weight 
consists of a block of granite about 200 lbs. m weight, 
and bevelled off at the top so that a hole may be 
bored through. A strong rope attached to the winch 
and passing over the slide is fastened to the top of 
the stone, which, when hoisted to its place, is held 
there until it is required by a peg in the slide. 

A thick piece of folded paper is laid over the lower 
stone, upon which is placed the box-like die, with a 
silver disc inside. The obverse is then fixed, covered 
on the top or outside with another thick piece of folded 
paper. When all is ready, the peg is drawn out from 
the slide, and the stone mass faUs on the die, impressing 

* The steel die from which these coins were made is now in the 
Museum at Jermyn Street. 



the coin very efficiently. The stone is then hoisted for 
another disc to be placed, and so the work of stamping 
the coin proceeds. 

These coins were milled at the edge with a cross 
pattern, in a very simple manner. The pattern, cut on 
a narrow slip of steel eight inches long, is fixed at the 
bottom of an angular iron groove of the same length, 
to enable the coins to run readily along the groove on 
the slip of steel. A man, with one of the finished 
coins between his thumb and finger, as it rolls along 
the groove, strikes its upper edge with a light wooden 
hammer. In this way the pattern on the steel is im- 
pressed on the edge, and the coin, now complete, is 
taken to the office for examination and distribution. 

In all Chinese cities are large establishments for the 
melting and assaying of silver. In the course of trade, 
when silver passes from hand to hand, a small per- 
centage is usually allowed for re-melting the ingots, 
or, as they are called, shoes, of sycee silver (they are 
somewhat in the form of a Chinese shoe). Silver paid 
to the Government is also melted, brought to a regu- 
lated standard, which is rather higher than that used 
in commercial transactions, and cast into square flat 
bars, and goes by the name of custom-house or offi- 
cial silver. Dollars also are put into the crucible, and, 
having been brought to the required standard by the 
removal of the alloy, are cast into the usual ingots. 

The crucibles, made of fine fire clay, though very 
soft and friable, stand the heat remarkably well, and, 
being cheap, can be used freely. Large quantities of 
them are kept in store, as they improve by keep- 
ing. A crucible, when not suffered to cool, is used 


three or four times, after which it is broken up, and 
examined for any particles of silver. When used, it is 
placed on a stand in the furnace, over a fire of charcoal 
urged by bellows ; the silver is put in, and covered by 
a tile ; charcoal is thrown over all, and the fire urged 
to a white heat, which is concentrated as much as pos- 
sible by curved tiles placed around. As soon as the 
silver melts, pieces of lead are thrown in, and a quan- 
tity of nitre, which causes violent ebullition and froth- 
ing from the crucible, into which fine white sand is 
then cast, and the vitreous scum that rises to the sur- 
face is removed by a pair of long tongs or pincers, 
which are stirred round and round till all the scum 
disappears. These pincers are used because, when their 
points are dipped into water and violently opened, the 
vitreous matter gathered around them may be readily 
knocked off, and they may be used again without delay. 
The workman then holds his pincers over the silver to 
see if their reflection be clear and distinct ; if not, nitre 
and sand are again used to separate the remaining lead 
and copper. When at length the reflection of the tongs 
is bright on the surface of the glowing silver, a pinch 
of white oxide of arsenic is thrown into the crucible. 
This speedily evaporates, and is said to have the effect 
of giving splendour to the silver, — " making it shine," 
" giving it shine " or " brightness." The tiles are then 
removed, the crucible drawn out with tongs having 
semi-circular ends, and the silver poured into an iron 
mould. It is stamped as it cools, and afterwards sent 
to the office to be weighed and registered. 

The tael of silver weighs an ounce and a third, 
which is the general standard of the currency, the 


only native coined currency being, as already stated, 
the copper cash. The tael even is only a weight, the 
dollars which are used being all of foreign manufacture. 
When silver is scarce, and it is wanted in the interior 
for the purchase of silk, the dealers are willing to 
advance on its usual value in copper cash. The com- 
mon price of a tael of silver may be 1600 cash, but 
this price rises and falls according as silver or copper 
is wanting in the market. Again, Spanish dollars may 
be in request when bar silver may be plentiful ; their 
relative value is hereby affected, and the latter may 
decline while the dollar rises. At certain times, when 
the officers of government have to send lars;e remit- 
tances, gold being the most convenient in bulk, there 
is a run on the market for this metal, and the price at 
once advances. There is a similarity in this respect 
between the Chinese money-market and the markets 
of Europe ; the value of money is most carefully 
watched, and messengers go from bank to bank, and 
among the money-shops, buying and selling, endea- 
vouring to forestall each other as best they can. 










Needles have been in use amongst the Chinese from 
a period probably anterior to their introduction into 
Europe. It is not improbable, indeed, that Europeans 
copied the use of the needle from the Chinese. These 
latter make them from thin steel wire, which is cut 
into lengths, having one end a little flattened. A row 
of ten of these lengths is taken, and their other ends 
sharpened on a wheel with powdered corundum. A 
workman sitting at his table, with the rows of tens in 
his left hand, holds them on a small anvil, and with a 
light drill bores the eye in the flat end, after which 
they are hardened, and polished with corundum. These 
needles are short and thick, with the eye end larger 
than the body, but are easily worked with by the 
Chinese tailors, who stitch very neatly. It is the 
curious practice of these tailors when arranging the 
parts of a dress, instead of basting them with long 
stitches, to paste them with flour and water till they 
are sewed in in a proper manner. A man was frequently 
seen in the tea-gardens selling what appeared to be 

G 3 


copper needles, which the people readily bought. 
Wondering how he could make copper needles so hard 
and sharp, I procured a supply, and, thoroughly deceived, 
not trying the experiment of breaking them, showed 
them to my friend Dr. Percy, who, on examination, 
found they were steel needles, coated with copper by 
being dipped in a solution of the sulphate. 

Files are made of soft steel, a bar of which, the size 
of the intended file, is placed on an anvil by a boy who 
sits on one side, holding the steel in his left hand, and 
in the right a sharp, hard chisel. On the other side of 
the anvil sits a man who wields a heavy hammer with 
both hands. The boy places the chisel on the file, 
when it is struck with the hammer ; it is quickly re- 
moved, and carried rapidly along the face of the bar, 
while the hammer comes down with short, sharp blows, 
until the file is cut over the entire length. It is 
then examined ; extra cuts are made if required, the 
steel is hardened, and the file is complete. The article 
is coarse, and not very serviceable ; they have usually 
a handle to each end, which gives an increase of power. 
The Chinese procure English files when they can, and 
admire them greatly for their regularity, hardness, and 

The iron boilers in use amongst the Chinese for 
boiling rice are made as thin as possible, for the sake 
of economising fuel. A merchant, some time ago, sent 
one of these boilers to England as a pattern. A large 
number were cast in Birmingham, which, when they 
arrived in China, could not be sold, being too thick for 
the Chinese, who said they required too much firewood 
to be economical. 


Their boilers being so thin are liable to crack and 
break ; but they have a very ingenious plan of repairing 
them. The tinker who undertakes this branch of art 
travels with his tools in a basket strung to one end of a 
short pole, and carried thus across the shoulders. At 
the other end of the pole is a neatly-made square box, 
containing several small drawers and the bellows at the 
bottom. When called to mend a boiler, he sets down 
his basket and proceeds to adjust his apparatus. The 
nest of drawers detached from the pole is placed on 
the ground. These drawers contain some of his smaller 
tools, files, nails, scraps of thin cast iron from broken- 
up boilers, little crucibles the size of half a hazel-nut, and 
various miscellaneous articles. The bellows he under- 
neath the drawers, and form part of the box, which 
is very neatly made, the whole being built together, 
and about fourteen inches high by twelve inches broad 
and six inches wide. The bellows, which occupy a 
square of six inches along the bottom of the box, are 
worthy of a brief description. The exit for the blast is 
at the side, and has a flap valve, which is attached to a 
partition inside, extending to within nearly an inch 
of either end, and about half an inch from the side 
in which is the exit-pipe ; in the remainder of the box, 
and nearly fitting the space, works a square piston, 
which is fringed round the edge by feathers, beautifully 
sewn into a narrow groove. Small holes are bored in 
the groove to hold the quill of the feather, the free end 
projecting laterally outwards, thus forming a stuffing for 
the piston, which now fits accurately and works easy and 
smooth. The piston-rod is square, and passes through 
a square closely fitting hole at the end, and has a cross 

G 4 


set handle. A valve at each end of the box opens in- 
wards ; the valve before mentioned is directly opposite 
the inner end of the exit-pipe, on each side of which 
there is a stop placed as in the diagram. 

When the piston is thrust down, the valve at the end 
is shut, and the valve at the exit-pipe thrown back (see 
above), so that the air must pass along the partition and 
through the pipe. When the action is reversed, the 
blast is driven through the other way. 

Having taken his stool out of the basket, the opera- 
tor fills a small furnace, three inches in diameter and 
three inches in depth, half full of coal, lights his fire, 
and attaches the furnace to the bellows by a short pipe ; 
he then brings out a small wooden tripod having no 
top, on which he places the boiler in an inverted posi- 
tion so as to give Mm ready access to the upper and 
under surface, and scrapes the edges of the crack or 
hole clean, rubbing them with sand to remove any 
grease. His implements thus arranged, he blows up 
his fire, and taking three or four of the little crucibles 
drops into each of them a scrap of iron, and places each 
of them in the fire. A wisp of straw, partly for fuel and 
partly to retain the heat, is laid on the top of the furnace 
over the crucibles. The iron melts in a short time, 
when he takes a pad of felt and presses one end of it, 
which has been dipped in ashes, against the hole on the 


inside of the boiler, and, lifting one of the crucibles 
from the furnace with a pair of nippers, pours the drop 
of melted iron on the edge of the hole, dabbing the 
metal into its place with another pad of felt covered 
with ashes. The metal instantly cools, and the hole is 
so far lessened. Another crucible is taken up and its 
drop poured against the new edge, this process being 
repeated till the hole is filled up or the crack mended 
by the successive drops of iron. He then pours water 
into the boiler to see if it leaks, when, if found perfect, 
he rubs off any inequalities, scours the inner surface 
with wet sand, and hands the mended vessel to the 
owner. After receiving twopence or threepence, which 
he charges for the job, he throws water on the fire to 
save the coals, packs up his tools, refreshes himself with 
a pipe, and marches off to look for another customer. 
The remarkable feature of the operation is that, though 
the apparatus is so small, it is yet so complete as to 
enable the workman to melt the iron and finish his job 
in the easiest and most efficient maimer. I have often 
admired the expertness of these men, and have thought 
theirs was skilled labour of a very high order, but 
lightly remunerated. 

The blacksmiths of China have one peculiar mode of 
working with a chisel by which they plane off the sur- 
face of iron articles, and dress up the edge of hard steel 
instruments, such as razors and scissors. The chisel is 
long, narrow, and thin, made of hard steel and sharp- 
ened ; the handle is a bar of iron with a socket in the 
middle, in which the chisel is fixed by a wedge. At 
each end of the bar, which is about eighteen inches 
long, is a socket or broad ring for a handle, which 


rings, and therefore the handles, are at an angle of 
about 30° with the plane of the chisel. The workman 
sits astride a small bench, into which, immediately be- 
fore him, is fixed a broad square staple, with its upper 
flat part two or three inches above the bench. By his 
side are several small blocks of wood and wedges to fill 
up the space in the staple as required by the article he 
is working on. This may be the blade of a pair of 
scissors, which has been worked by the hammer to the 
proper shape, and is now fixed under the staple with a 
block and wedge. The workman, grasping the chisel 
by its handles, cuts the surface off the blade and trims 
it fine and smooth ; turning its edge uppermost, he 
shaves off the steel so as to produce the proper angle, 
and the blade is complete. A rough razor-blade is 
treated in a similar manner ; the sides are smoothed 
and trimmed, the edge cut thin, and a shaving taken off 
the edge itself to sharpen it, when all that remains to 
be done is a little setting on a hone. The amount of 
metal which these expert workmen can remove in a 
brief time with this simple but effective tool is sur- 

Cleaning the cotton pod of the seeds is effected by a 
hand-mill of very simple construction. A stout firm 
stool is constructed, above which project two wooden 
rests for two horizontal spindles of about eighteen 
inches in length — one of wood, an inch and a half 
thick ; the other of iron, half an inch thick — the ends 
of both supported on the rests. The iron spindle, which 
projects a little at each end, has at one end a bar of 
heavy wood, fixed by its centre, to act as a fly-wheel. 
The woman sits before this, and with one hand turns a 


wheel at her side, which has a strap passing over it to 
the free projecting end of the spindle. The spindles 
are very near together, but do not touch. With her 
unoccupied hand the woman takes up some of the 
uncleaned cotton in her lap, and, turning the wheel, 
presents the cotton to the spindle which is revolving 
from her. The small iron spindle, revolving very 
quickly, catches the fibre and drags it through, so that 
the seed is twisted round and round, and all the fibre 
pulled off. The wooden spindle revolves of course by 
the friction of the small spindle and the cotton. The 
seed is left on the woman's side of the mill, and falls to 
the ground, while the fibre is gathered into a basket 
on the opposite side. 

Pipe-metal is made by welding together pieces of 
white and red copper, and of white and yellow brass. 
The " water-pipes " of the Chinese are a sort of hookah, 
the tobacco smoke passing through water on its way to 
the mouth. These pipes are very neatly made, appa- 
rently of the white copper, or tutenague ; this being more 
costly than red copper, they weld a piece of each metal 
together and roll them out. Two thin flat bars are first 
scraped smooth and clean ; powdered borax is scattered 
on one bar, and the other placed on this ; several bars 
are thus arranged at the bottom of a furnace, heated to 
redness, and the metals are thus welded together, and 
afterwards rolled out thin, or worked in any other re- 
quired manner. The Chinese unite a small cast-iron 
pipe head or bowl to a small brass pipe to fit on the 
bamboo stem. This is done with borax and hard brass 
solder, which make a very good junction. 

Carving in wood and ivory is all done by the chisel 


and the drill. The carver has a large assortment of 
chisels of all sizes, straight and crooked, flat and curved, 
and uses them very dexterously in the production of 
this handiwork, for which China is so celebrated. Two 
beautiful pieces of carving were done in my house on 
one occasion, at the request of a merchant who desired 
a piece of carving as good as could be made. This 
piece of workmanship consisted of two panels of red 
Manilla rosewood, an inch and a half thick, two feet long, 
and one and a half broad. A deep border ran round 
the edge, and in the centre was a richly- wrought land- 
scape, with numerous figures of men. There were two 
patterns, one on the surface, and the second cut deep in 
the wood ; both being most beautifully finished, far sur- 
passing in their exquisiteness all other specimens which 
I have seen. They were very expensive, having occu- 
pied two clever artists three years and a half in their 

In making open carved work for borders or frames, 
a piece of hard wood, as rosewood, box, or sandal-wood, 
is chosen, and when the pattern has been drawn on it, 
it is fixed on a bench by one end, the other being left 
free. The carver then drills holes in the pattern in 
every detached place where the wood has to be worked 
through. Taking a bamboo bow, short and stiff, and 
having a sharp angle at the curve, — the slip of bamboo 
being hard and thick, so as to give strength, — he fastens 
to one horn of the bow a long piece of brass wire, the 
greater part of which is also wrapped round the horn. 
The free piece is passed through a slit in the middle of 
the bow, to bring it into the centre, and, being notched 
with a chisel at intervals of a fine or two, the end is 


passed through one of the chill holes. The horns of 
the bow being brought somewhat near together, the 
wire is passed through a slit in the lower horn, and 
twisted up so as to hold tight, the bow keeping the wire 
on the stretch. The workman, now holding the upper 
horn, works it as a saw over the pattern, and very 
quickly cuts it all out. The wire is then untwisted, 
passed through another drill-hole, fastened again, and 
the work goes on. If the wire breaks, a fresh length is 
unwound from the upper horn, notched and used as 
before. The carving is finished with a chisel, aad this 
kind of work is speedily effected. I have seen those 
who were adroit at their business rapidly cut out very 
complicated patterns, in the most delicate and surprising 
manner, with this simple instrument, with which they 
will cut curves or the finest fine through the wood, or 
turn acute angles, with the utmost ease and precision. 

Ivory balls. — These well-known articles are cut out 
of a solid block of ivory. A piece which appears to be 
sound and free from cracks is placed in the lathe and 
cut to a round form, and pyramidal holes drilled in 
every direction from the outside to the centre. A sharp 
chisel, with its point bent at a right angle, is marked oil 
down one of these holes, to the depth of the internal or 
smallest ball ; at this mark is fixed a stop of wood or 
bamboo. The ball is placed in the lathe, and the chisel 
made to work all round these holes, one after another, 
until the inner ball is cut out, when it is loose. The 
chisel is then fixed opposite one of the holes, in such 
manner as to work upon the smooth surface of the inner 
ball, which is moved about until the required pattern 
has been drilled and carved upon it. The marking 


stop of the chisel is then fixed to the depth of the 
second ball, which is cut out and carved in like manner. 
And this is repeated with the remaining balls, the beauty 
of the carving increasing from within outwards ; the 
external ball being finished last of all, and carved in the 
most elaborate style. 

The Chinese women are fond of enamel ornaments 
for the head, for the frontlet, as well as for the artificial 
flowers or butterflies which are worn in the hair. These 
are made of silver-gilt, the edges being slightly turned 
up, and for the divisions of the pattern a silver-gilt wire 
is soldered round the parts of the device on which the 
enamel is to be placed. The enamel is a fine glass or 
paste of various colours, and is made up in cakes two 
inches in diameter, which are stamped with the maker's 
name. A layer of borax being placed on the part of 
the ornament to be enamelled, the space is covered with 
the paste mixed with borax and water. The flame of 
a lamp from the blowpipe is then applied, which melts 
the borax and fixes it to the metal surface. The work 
is proceeded with in this manner, using enamels of dif- 
ferent colours to complete the pattern. 

Another style of ornamentation is with the feathers 
of the blue jay, or of the kingfisher, and other birds of 
a bright blue plumage. The article to be thus orna- 
mented is of silver-gilt, the pattern drawn out with 
silver-gilt wire, as in the previous instance. The work- 
man sits at a table with the ornament in his left hand, 
having before him several small chisels of various sizes 
and extreme sharpness, and the plume of the feather, cut 
away from the rib, lying on a stiff paper. At his side 
is a small charcoal fire, on which a saucer-like cup holds 


a very adhesive glue, melted in native spirit, and near 
his hand are some small hair-pencils. Looking at the 
pattern, he guesses what morsel of the feather will fit 
the space, and dexterously, with one of the chisels, cuts 
it out the exact size and shape ; then, taking up with 
the pencil a little of the glue, he paints over the space 
on the metal, and with the pencil-point lifts the bit of 
feather and places it in position, where he presses it 
smooth with a wood or horn needle. This process is 
repeated till the design is covered. This style of work 
is rapidly done and is effective ; the gilt and blue give 
to the ornaments a peculiarly rich and brilliant appear- 
ance, which makes them in great request, especially for 
head-dress and for figures on fans. The delicacy and 
precision with which the feather is cut and adapted 
to its place are admirable, and show the patience and 
accuracy of the Chinese in works of this character. 

Kwong-fim, or beautifying powder. — A chalk-like 
cake was met with at Shanghai, which from its appear- 
ance and properties was at first taken for chalk, which 
is found in some regions of the country. This substance 
was evidently carbonate of lime, and, though softer than 
chalk, could be written with as easily. A portion of it 
was sent to England, where my friend Mr. Hanbury 
found it composed of a crystalline material, but not of 
shells at all. I then remembered having noticed a sort 
of mill with a large quantity of white earthy powder 
lying about, and on inquiry found that white marble 
was ground there. This marble is brought from a range 
of limestone hills in the interior, and is cut (at this mill) 
into slabs for tables, tiles for bathing-houses, flat dishes 
for flowers, and for various other uses. (The Chinese 


do not polish marble ; they rub it very smooth, but 
seem to be ignorant of the art of polishing.) At the 
mill, the lumps of marble were first broken by a 
hammer, and then thrown mto a circular trough filled 
with water, in which revolved two perpendicular stone 
wheels which were set in motion by a buffalo. The 
material when ground was shovelled out, and placed 
on a stone platform on which flat-edged stone wheels 
were turning, where it was ground very fine. It was 
afterwards levigated in a succession of tubs, the sedi- 
ment in the first two of which was returned to the mill ; 
that in the others was cut out and dried. The coarser 
material is used to whiten mortar and make whitewash 
with size ; the finer sediment is placed in moulds, and, 
when dry, packed in chip boxes, and sold for a farthing 
the cake of two or three ounces. 

This powder is used by ladies to whiten the com- 
plexion. It is not merely rubbed on, but worked into 
the skin, a string in the shape of " a cat's cradle " 
being used, see-sawing backwards and forwards till the 
desired whiteness is produced. The powder of medium 
quality is used to give the whitish gloss to rice, a cake 
of the chalk being thrown into the mortar where the 
rice is pounded after the removal of the husk. 

The Chinese have a method of taking impressions 
from stones on which inscriptions have been engraved, 
as follows : — The face of the stone is slightly damped, 
and then covered smoothly with a sheet of thin cotton 
paper which is rather tough in texture. The paper is 
then moistened. The workman sits before the stone, 
and carefully impresses the paper. A piece of felt a 
few inches long by two inches broad, and a tenth of an 


inch in thickness, is laid at the upper right hand corner 
of the stone, and passed gradually over the surface, the 
workman tapping it gently with a small hammer of 
light wood. If the stone be perpendicular, the felt is 
moved along the stones in vertical lines ; if lying flat, 
the felt is passed horizontally. This stage of the work 
requires great care on the workman's part, who has to 
manipulate the entire surface accurately, without tearing 
the paper, or injuring the stone by hard blows. Some 
hours are occupied over a large inscription, and when 
this preparation is completed, the paper is found to be 
driven into all the marks on the stone. 

A rubber, made of a thin strip of wood, covered on 
one side with the fibres of the coir palm, and charged 
with melted wax, Chinese ink, and water, is next drawn 
gently across the paper till its smooth surface is black- 
ened, the impressed portion remaining white. A wire 
basket filled with burninsr charcoal is held near the 
stone and passed over the surface to dry the paper. 
The paper is then removed, and if the work has been 
properly performed presents a perfect fac-simile of the 
impression on the stone. 

Many of the common acts of life exhibit ingenious 
and simple plans for economising labour and saving 
trouble. Outside the large shops or halls, where the 
people assemble to pass a social evening and drink tea, 
is a number of water jars of large capacity, which are 
filled daily from the river. This water, heavily charged 
with sand and clay, is cleared by alum mixed with it ; 
but after a few days the bottoms of the jars are covered 
with a thick coat of mud. This must be removed, and 
as to draw off the water would be too troublesome 



a process, the following simple plan is adopted : — 
A thick bamboo is chosen, all the joints are cleared 
out, except that at one end ; by the side of this, a small 
hole in the tube, which can be readily closed by the 
thumb, is made ; the thumb is placed on this hole, and 
the bamboo, with the open end downwards, is passed 
through the water to the bottom of the jar. The 
closed end preventing the escape of the air, of course 
no water can enter the bamboo, whose open end is in 
the liquid mud of the jar. When the thumb is removed 
the air escapes, and the mud is forced up the tube, upon 
which the thumb is replaced, and the bamboo with- 
drawn filled with mud. This is emptied by the raising 
of the thumb again, and the process is repeated till the 
jars are clean. 

During winter, in the north of China, ice is collected 
in large quantities, and carefully stored. The ice-houses 
in Shanghai have walls constructed of mud, about 
twelve feet in thickness, the roof is thickly thatched 
with rice straw, and the door well covered over at all 
times. Ice is used by the Chinese almost exclusively 
for the preservation of fish, which are sent in large 
quantities to the interior. The boats have a thick 
wooden cover, and are hned with straw ; ice and fish 
are stowed in alternate layers ; ice is laid on the top 
of all, and the boat filled up with straw. In this 
way the fish are preserved to the end of the journey 

Ice is sometimes used when a member of a wealthy 
family dies and it is wished to delay the burial a few 
days. If the weather be hot the body is laid on a 
plank, and two or three hundred weight of ice placed 


on the floor underneath, which as it melts is renewed, 
and keeping the body at a low temperature hinders 
decomposition. I have also seen ice in large quantities 
thrown over the bodies of persons who have died by 
violence, and which coidd not be interred till after the 
coroner's inquest. 

In the vicinity of most of the cities are large esta- 
blishments for the hatching of clucks. These houses 
comprise a suite of long, low rooms, with several offices 
attached. The country people, in the spring and 
summer months, bring large quantities of eggs which 
are purchased at a very cheap rate. These are put in 
flat baskets into a sort of fireplace made of brick and 
plaster, open at the top but closed below, much like a 
recess for a boiler. Below the open space is a very 
small charcoal fire to warm the mass of brick. When 
the place is warm enough the basket of eggs is lodged 
within, and covered over by a thick plaited straw pad 
to retain the heat, and after a day or two the basket 
is removed to another similar recess, which is slightly 
warmer. The eggs are turned over once each day, and 
carefully excluded from cold air or wind. After the 
required number of days, close upon the time of produc- 
tion, they are taken out of the baskets and laid side by 
side on a large table. This table is about thirty feet 
long by fifteen wide, and covered with cotton wadding. 
When the eggs, to the number of 1000 or more, are 
arranged, they are covered with a thin cloth, and over 
this one or more thick cotton quilts are placed. The 
removal of these as soon as the ducklings are found 
ready to break their shells, reveal an extraordinary 
scene. In all directions the little creatures are working 

H 2 


themselves free, causing a curious crackling from the frac- 
ture of the shells. An attendant watches the table day 
and night to remove them as they emerge, all folded up 
and apparently very weak, but speedily scrambling over 
the other eggs. They are removed to a basket in a 
warmer room, and fed by and by with flour and water. 
In a day or two their down is grown sufficiently to cover 
them, when they are sold to persons who come from 
the neighbourhood periodically to buy them. The 
price for a young duck is thirty cash, or about a penny ; 
the drakes seU for a little less, not being considered so 
useful as the other sex. These establishments, which 
require great care, are well conducted, and are profit- 
able to the proprietors, though these occasionally suffer 
great loss from sudden changes of weather ; a cold, 
northerly wind kills the ducklings in great numbers. 
The process is carried on only during the spring and 
summer, and the house is used as a lodging-house for 
the rest of the year. 

In Shanghai, the ducks paddle about for their living 
in the canals and ditches. On the Canton river large 
flocks of ducks are kept in spacious boats, called " duck 
boats," at the side of which a sloping plank leads as a 
pathway to the water. In the morning the ducks go 
down this plank and swim in the fresh water river, 
where they find an abundance of food ; in the evening 
the owner of the boat, by knocking on a board, makes 
a peculiar sound, which they learn to recognise. As 
soon as they hear this sound the ducks hurry, and 
scuffle, and fly to get into the boat, as the custom is for 
the last duck to be beaten with a bamboo flapper. 
The object of each duck is therefore to get home, and 


not be the unfortunate last comer that is invariably 
beaten. The early return of the whole family is thus 
ensured when the recall is sounded. 

Carrier pigeons are much used by the Chinese for 
sending messages from town to town. Near the house 
I once occupied at Shanghai, was a resort where these 
birds were kept : they seemed of the same breed as the 
carrier pigeons of England, but were somewhat smaller. 
Their keepers bestowed great care upon the birds, and 
devoted their whole time to superintending them. They 
were sent in baskets to the place whence the message 
was to come, and the persons in charge took the greatest 
pains to preserve them from injury. In this, as in 
all other cases where the Chinese have birds to care 
for, they make personal friends of them, and nurse and 
attend to them day and night. 

The pigeons are employed to carry from various places 
the news of the markets, as from Su-chau and Han- 
kau to Shanghai. The first and last-named of these 
are eighty miles apart ; frequent business quotations 
are sent backwards and forwards from Shanghai, as to 
the arrivals of junks and cargoes, the amount of imports, 
and such like items ; from Su-chau as to prices and 
sales. The chief piece of information is the value of 
the dollar in copper cash for the day. There are regular 
offices where bankers and money-changers meet at cer- 
tain hours in the clay. A broker mounts a table and 
offers to buy or sell dollars at a certain price. The 
standers-by bid more or less, according to circumstances, 
bidding against each other, at times in the midst of much 
excitement. The scene is something like what is wit- 
nessed in the English Stock Exchange, for although the 

H 3 


bidding may not rise by more than a cash or two, yet, 
if the transaction be for a large amount, much money 
is lost and won by the speculation. The result of the 
sale is at once sent off by pigeon to Su-chau, whence 
messages are returned as to the state of the exchange 
in that place. 

The pigeons are also in great request at the time of 
the literary examinations, as stated in a previous page. 
As soon as the lists are published the desired information 
is sent to the keepers of the pigeons, who transmit the 
message immediately. The messages, written on a slip 
of thin, stiff paper, are rolled up and tied to the leg of 
the bird, so as not to incommode the flight. Three 
hours is said to be the time required for the eighty 
miles of distance between Su-chau and Shanghai. 

The tea-gardens of the Ching-hwang-miau * are fre- 
quented by men who profess to tell fortunes by the aid 
of a hen. These men carry on their profession in the 
streets of the city also, where there is space available. A 
mat is spread on the ground, with a stick fixed at each 
corner, around which a strip of cloth is cast to form an 
enclosure for the fortune-teller and his hen, which is in 
a small bamboo cage. By his side is an open box con- 
taining a number of very small rolls of paper with 
sentences, or single characters written on them. In 
front of him is a long row of fifty or sixty small paste- 
board envelopes, which also hold single characters, or 
the divination sentences. A little board painted white, 
for writing on, and the " inkstone " and pencil are 
at hand ready for use. An inquirer who wishes to 

* The " temple of the Guardian Deity of the city" in Shanghai. 


consult him, squats down on his heels outside the 
enclosure, pays three cash (half a farthing) and tells his 
story, stating what he wishes to know. He is told to 
pick out a roll from the box, which having done, he 
hands it to the man, who unrolls it, and writes its 
contents on the board. He then opens the door of 
the cage, and the hen marches forward to the row of 
envelopes ; after peering over them inquisitively, she 
picks out one and lets it fall to the ground. A few 
grains of rice are thrown into the cage, and she re- 
turns. The envelope is opened, and the characters 
inside it also written on the board, from the two in- 
scriptions on which the consulter's prospects are an- 
nounced. The hen is regarded as the arbiter of fate ; 
incapable of moral motive in the selection of the roll ; 
and is therefore supposed to give the decree of fate, 
without the possibility of collusion, or misinterpretation 
of any kind. 

The public are sometimes asked to try the skill of the 
bird in selecting any envelope from the row which they 
may have previously chosen. This I have often seen 
done. A person takes an envelope, and inserting a 
scrap of paper, returns it to the row. The man shuffles 
them all, and lays them out in a line, edge upper- 
most. Mrs. Hen then steps forward, and, without 
the slightest hesitation, picks out the very envelope. 
This trick will be done for the moderate charge of one 
cash. The performance of the bird is curious, as 
showing what patience has done in training her to her 
part, which she fulfills with a business-like ah- that 
is very amusing, but always looking for the rice at the 
end of the process. The more customers the more rice. 

H 4 


Passing one day through the tea-gardens just named, 
I observed a man from the Shan-tung grain junks exhi- 
biting some kind of curious fowl to a crowd of admiring 
people. He had fixed a number of sticks in a circle into 
the ground, attaching them by a cord, with which to 
keep the throng at a distance, who stood gaping in 
amazement at the strange bird. Crossing over the cord 
to see what the animal was, it appeared to be of some 
remarkable breed, combining the peculiarities of a galli- 
naceous cock and of a common duck. On getting near, 
however, I found it to be a duck, dressed up in the 
skin of a cock, with the feathers on. This had been 
neatly drawn on hke a jacket and trousers in one, and 
partly sewn, and partly glued to the feathers of the 
duck, so as to look from a distance like a cross between 
a cock and a duck. 

" Far off stood the merry troop, 

Something in their midst concealed ; 
Till an opening in the group 

Their mysterious scheme revealed." 

Some of the common class of fortune-tellers eke out 
a living by a style of drawing with their finger-tips and 
nails. The skill and adroitness of these men I have 
watched with much admiration. They sit on the 
ground cross-legged, with a bowl of indigo and water, 
in which is a pad of cotton cloth by their sides. They 
hold on their knees a small board painted white, on 
which with the pad, they make a few dabs of the blue 
colour ; holding up the board, with a sharp puff of wind 
from the lips, they blow the colour in various direc- 
tions ; then trailing the colour here and there with the 
tips of their fingers, and giving it an occasional fillip 


with their nails, they shape various birds, either sitting 
or flying, according to fancy. The eyes of the birds 
are formed very neatly by placing the finger tip on the 
paint where the eye is to be ; removing it quickly it 
gathers up the colour, and leaves the shape of a most 
perfect eye. A favourite sketch of theirs is of two or 
three swallows flying round each other ; the different 
positions being very nicely drawn. Another sketch, is of 
stags and deer feeding in a wood : all done with re- 
markable quickness, the most surprising thing being 
the simple touches with the finger that completed the 
figures. The bystanders throwing a few cash to the 
artist, he would wipe off his sketch with a cloth, and 
begin again for a new set of spectators, who never tire 
of watching his pretty performances. 

In the streets of Shanghai, pedlars were often seen 
with a small box open at one side, and placed on a 
stand. In the box was a lamp, over which the pedlar 
held by a wire a piece of clay the size of a large olive. 
In a short time a jet of gas escaped from one end 
through a hole in the clay, and a light being applied, it 
would burn for some minutes, to the surprise and 
amusement of the bystanders. These pieces of clay 
the man sold for a few cash, at about the price of two 
for a farthing, and they were bought up readily. Pro- 
curing one of them, it was found that a piece of resin 
formed the centre of the little ball ; this was covered 
with clay, through which at the smaller end, a hole was 
pierced to the resin, and a shorter hole in the side for the 
insertion of the wire by which to hold it over the lamp. 
The heat would of course cause the resin to evaporate, 
and the gas thus formed, passing through the hole at 


the end, could be easily ignited. The man seemed 
always to find a ready sale for these articles. 

There is a particular sort of thin sugar-toy much 
favoured by Chinese children. A man appears in the 
street, striking a bamboo and uttering a peculiar call, 
which the children know, and brings them round him. 
He places a tall stand on the ground, and upon it the 
basket with the usual nest of drawers, in which itin- 
erant artisans carry their tools. He has a httle furnace 
in the basket, on which is placed a copper bowl half 
filled with thick syrup, which when cold is of the con- 
sistence of toffee, or hardbake, and of this material his 
wares are made. There is also a number of hollow 
moulds made of boxwood, very thin, fitting accu- 
rately, and open at one end. These are for figures 
of various fruits and flowers, birds, animals, the melon, 
the calabash gourd ; they are steeped in oil, and do 
not afterwards require to be greased for use. Placing 
the two parts of the mould together, the man takes a 
small tube or pipette of copper or brass, lifting on 
one end as much of the melted sugar as he thinks 
requisite ; and, blowing this like a glass-blower into 
the open end of the mould, he causes the sugar to cover 
its sides in a thin flake. This cools instantly; the 
mould is opened, the pipette removed, and the end 
of the sugar twisted so as to close the orifice, and 
the article is sold for one or two cash, according to its 
size. These toys are very prettily shaped, and are very 
acceptable to the juveniles. 

The Chinese are very partial to a sweetmeat which 
resembles barley-sugar. Barley, malted, is bruised in a 
mill and boiled in water, which when strained leaves a 


sweet wort. This is boiled down with sugar till it 
becomes a thick syrup, then mixed with rice flour 
till stiff, and a lump of it taken and cleverly dealt 
with, by the aid of two sticks. One of these is fixed 
perpendicularly in a heavy stool or the corner of a table; 
the other stick is held in the hand. The lump of barley- 
sugar is pulled out with the hands, its centre cast 
over the fixed stick, and with the free ends thrown 
round the loose stick, it is pulled out still more. The 
maker now by a clean twist of his hands doubles it, 
throws the centre again over the fixed stick, and pulls 
it out for some time longer. By this means the mass 
becomes thoroughly mixed and stringy, and when it has 
attained the proper consistency and stringiness, it is 
rolled out on the table, cut into pieces an inch square, 
and sold to customers. There is always a crowd 
waiting for the much-desired confection. 

Ginseng comes chiefly from Corea and Tartary ; that 
from the former place being the more valuable. It is 
the dried root of the Panax Quinquefolia, which grows 
mid in the districts where the root is collected. It is 
a curious fact that it will not bear cultivation. All the 
Ginseng gathered in the empire, is imperial property, 
and sold to those who have the privilege of dealing in 
it, at its weight in gold. Large quantities are imported 
from the United States, but this is not esteemed so 
highly as the native growth of the root. 

The root is generally divided into two or three fingers, 
connected together at their base ; it is semi-transparent, 
and ought to be entirely free from stringy matter. It 
is a mucilaginous, carminate tonic, with a bitterness 
something like that of gentian root, but milder, and has 


a sweetish bitter taste. This tonic is much esteemed 
by the Chinese, who consider it a specific in all cases of 
debihty, and in fact, give it as a restorative in most 
diseases. Its high price, however, renders it a remedy 
used only by the wealthy, who frequently have recourse 
to it when other specifics fail. 

Presents of this root are frequently made ; and ac- 
companying the medicine is usually sent a small, beau- 
tifully-finished double kettle, in which the ginseng is 
prepared as follows. The inner kettle is made of silver, 
and between this and the outside vessel, which is a 
copper jacket, is a small space for holding water. 
The silver kettle, which fits on a ring near the top of 
the outer covering, has a cup-like cover, in which 
rice is placed, with a little water ; the ginseng with 
water in the inner vessel ; a cover placed over all, and 
the apparatus put on the fire. When the rice in the 
cover is sufficiently cooked, the medicine is ready, and 
is then eaten by the patient, who drinks the ginseng tea 
at the same time. 

A ginseng merchant of my acquaintance, who had a 
small office at a goldsmith's shop, near the great east 
gate of Shanghai, has often exhibited to me his stock 
of the valuable root. He was a man of literary tastes 
and ability, and by profession a physician, but gave his 
whole attention to the sale of this article ; his entire 
stock of which was contained in two strong boxes. 
When I have caUed to see him, he would first order 
tea, and after a little time spent over this in general 
conversation, would ask if " I wished to see his stock of 
the root ? " On replying in the affirmative, he deli- 
berately fetched his keys, and calling an attendant to 


shut the door, so that neither strangers from the outer 
shop, nor damp air, might enter his clean and beautifully- 
furnished sanctum, which was also thoroughly dry, pro- 
ceeded slowly to unlock the boxes. Opening the outer 
box, he removed several paper parcels, which appeared 
to fill the box, but under them was a second box (or 
perhaps two small boxes) which, when taken out, 
showed the bottom of the large box, and all the inter- 
vening space, occupied with more paper parcels. These 
parcels, he said, " contain quicklime, for the purpose 
of absorbing any moisture, and keeping the boxes quite 
dry ; " the lime being packed in paper for the sake of 
cleanliness. The smaller box, which held the ginseng, 
was lined with thin sheet lead ; the ginseng, further en- 
closed in silk wrappers, was kept in little silken-covered 
boxes. At last after opening many receptacles, the actual 
medicine was displayed, each root sewn with silk to its 
silken wrapper. Taking up a piece, and requesting his 
visitor not to breathe upon it, nor handle it, he would 
dilate upon the many merits of the drug, and the numer- 
ous cures it had effected. The cover of the root accord- 
ing to its value, was silk, either embroidered or plain ; 
cotton cloth, or paper. Some of the root was worth 
not more than six to twelve dollars an ounce ; other 
portions rose in price, to the most expensive, which was 
of the enormous value of 300 and even 400 dollars 
an ounce. This latter the merchant prized of course 
very highly, and allowed only a glance at it, as he said 
" it might be injured by exposure to the air." The 
inspection finished, each root was carefully returned to 
its place in the box, and this to its position on the lime ; 
the parcels of the latter were readjusted, the outer 


box locked ; and my friend, with a look of relief, would 
sit down and continue his conversation. 

This man, who had a great repute for exceedingly 
good ginseng, was well known by the common dealers, 
who regarded him as an authority in his line of 
business. When asked as to the amount of his trade, 
he replied that he sold a good deal of the commoner 
kinds ; and every now and then a little of the higher- 
priced article to government officers and wealthy 
persons, who gave it to their wives when pregnant, 
supposing that it marvellously purified the blood and 
invigorated the system. Another cup of tea, and thanks 
for the courtesy, would close the interview. 

I occasionally took visitors to this merchant's little 
office, to see his mode of business, and more especially 
to see himself, as a good specimen of the rich, and 
quiet, and respectable Chinese tradesman — not eager 
for crowding customers, but depending on his reputa- 
tion for the sale of his goods. 







In the following papers on medical missions, it is 
not intended to give a history of the labours of all 
who have carried out this Christian design in China ; 
but rather, to offer in brief detail some views of the 
subject which the writer has derived from his own 
experience. At the same time, he would accord all 
honour to those who have preceded him, as well as to 
those devoted labourers of different sections of the 
Church of Christ, whom he is rejoiced to have had as 
colleagues. Animated by one sincere desire, they 
sought, by the blessing of God, to make their know- 
ledge serviceable in helping forward the great cause of 
missions to the heathen. 

Various travellers have found the possession of me- 
dical and surgical knowledge of great value in the 
prosecution of their undertakings. The relief they 
have afforded to sick natives, both of high and low 
degree, has often brought them help in their progress 
which they would not otherwise have received. The 
records of our most enterprising adventurers in every 
clime sufficiently attest this fact. 


The same auxiliary has been employed in the mis- 
sionary enterprise ; and whether we look at the icy 
regions of Greenland ; the burning plains of Africa ; 
or the broad valleys and populous cities of India ; at 
the green and fertile islands of the Pacific, or the com- 
mercial ports of the sea-board of China ; in one and 
all of these regions the missionary has found the way 
to the hearts of the people most speedily who has been 
able to give relief from their bodily infirmity. In 
many of the early missions, the first step towards win- 
ning the confidence of the natives, has been the judi- 
cious use of this means. 

Neither apology nor eulogy will be needed for the 
science and practice of medicine. The liability of 
man to disease has called forth his best attention to 
the relief of those who are suffering. However inde- 
finite and uncertain are many of the plans proposed at 
various times, yet great is the benefit conferred on 
afflicted humanity by the healing art. 

In Europe, much talent and energy have been spent 
in ascertaining the true principles of medicine and in 
improving its practice ; and in consequence, the advance 
in every department of medical science has been both 
remarkable and rapid. In heathen lands but little has 
been done for medicine as a science. The functions 
of the body being scarcely understood, the application 
of remedial agents is necessarily very imperfect, and 
the practitioners of medicine are held in little repute. 
This is especially remarkable of China, in which, though 
a great, populous, and civilised country, with a people 
largely educated, medicine has not yet been studied to 
any purpose. There is no recognised system of teaching 


medicine ; and no diploma or certificate of any kind 
is required. When any person, as for instance an edu- 
cated man, intends practising medicine, he will read such 
books as he thinks most desirable, more especially any 
manuscript books he can procure, and which contain 
the results of the experience of any old practitioner. 
Books of this kind are carefully retained in families ; 
and if a man can say in his card that he is a physician 
of three, four, or five generations, he is supposed to 
possess the ability and experience accumulated by his 
forefathers. Many unsuccessful scholars take to me- 
dicine; and thus, for the most part, the physicians 
are men who have received a good education. The 
practice of medicine in China is subdivided into various 
branches : one man will profess to treat general diseases, 
as fever, rheumatism, &c. ; another, the diseases of 
women ; another, the diseases of children ; while an- 
other confines his attention to affections of the bowels ; 
and so on. 

The practitioners of surgery, or those who attend to 
external diseases, are of a lower grade than those who 
treat internal affections, chiefly because surgical ma- 
nipulations are little understood. None but the most 
trifling operations are attempted, and, in fact, small 
attention is paid to this branch of practice, because the 
relief afforded is so insignificant. 

The physicians, thus basing their practice in great 
degree on experience, treat many of their cases very 
judiciously. Though their theory of medicine is im- 
perfect, yet they have learned the use and properties of 
many medicines ; they have seen the propriety of 
various forms of diet ; being accurate observers they 



can carefully trace out the history of their cases, and 
finding certain plans of treatment successful, they adapt 
their action to the disease empirically. Though ever 
in the dark as to their principles of treatment, they 
are by this means frequently successful, and many of 
them obtain a good reputation, and are sent for to see 
patients at a great distance. When a person is sick his 
friends consult some physician, who examines the case, 
states his opinion and his plan of cure, perhaps, on the 
first or second visit ; and the case is left in his hands 
for a day or two. Should it not follow the course 
expected, another practitioner is sent for, and some- 
times six or seven physicians may successively take 
charge of the patient. They are called in one after 
another, until the friends are satisfied with the account 
given of the case, when perhaps it will be left alto- 
gether in the care of one person, who is again changed 
if recovery does not speedily ensue. The patient and 
his friends are very whimsical, and uncertain in their 
adherence to one medical attendant. 

Some practitioners confine their remedial skill to 
the use of acupuncture, which is very dexterously per- 
formed. It is largely resorted to for rheumatism, deep- 
seated pains of all kinds, sprains, swellings of the 
joints, &c. Others adopt the moxa as their panacea, 
which they apply very freely to all parts of the body, 
and often with much benefit. 

In their theories the organs of the body are allied 
to various material substances, as earth, metal, stone, 
air, water. These have certain distinctive qualities, 
hot, cold, moist, dry, windy : diseases also have these 
same qualities, partly in then- own nature and partly 


attributable to their exciting cause. Medicines again 
have these various qualities, and are classified accord- 
ingly. The object of the practitioner is first to find 
out the class of the disease, and then out of the appro- 
priate class of remedies he chooses those that he 
thinks best adapted for the case thus ascertained or 
supposed. The pulse helps him much in arriving at 
his conclusions. 

To this great attention is paid, and its indications 
are divided into an almost endless variety, which are 
for the most part fanciful. It also has its fine pecu- 
liarities, and the same routine is practised in applying 
the condition of the pulse to the diagnosis of the case, 
and in the adoption of the remedies. Much attention 
is paid to the relative condition of the pulse on the 
two sides of the body, and in different regions of the 

Diet is carefully regarded, and strict rules are laid 
down for the use or disuse of certain articles, as hav- 
ing a heating or cooling, a dispersing or congesting 

The chief consideration regarding both medicine 
and diet, in the Chinese practice of physic, is the 
adaptation of the various properties of drugs and 
food — as heating or stimulating, cooling or dispersing, 
moistening; or drying — to the character of the disease. 
These are the things chiefly looked to, but these pro- 
perties are frequently assumed in a purely arbitrary 

In advocating medical missions to the heathen, as a 
desirable auxiliary in spreading the Gospel, I shall not 

i 2 


be supposed to undervalue in the least degree the 
supreme necessity of any appropriate means for the 
enlightenment of the heathen mind. The preaching 
and diffusion of the inspired Word amongst the people, 
and the training of the young in the knowledge of its 
sacred truth, can never be superseded. 

Various instrumentalities have been found valuable, 
not to say necessary, for the accomplishment of this 
great end. Some men are better fitted than others for 
certain spheres of labour in the mission field, and it is 
well that such should follow the direction in which 
their talents and their training lead them. Any one 
thus taking up his particular branch of labour, must 
needs enter upon it in the spirit of prayer, and pursue 
it with all fidelity and earnestness. Without these 
little good is done, either in the church or the world, 
while one great means of success is found in continuous, 
devoted labour.* 

I desire, therefore, to plead the cause of medical 
missions, believing that great good may be done in 
heathen lands by combining the work of the surgeon 
with that of the preacher and teacher. In China 
much success has been already secured, and the more 
fully this union is carried out the more will its utility 
be demonstrated. In opening a new station where 
foreigners have not previously resided (as was the case 
at Shanghai when Dr. Medhurst and the writer pro- 
ceeded to that city in 1843), it is very important to 
adopt a course which will speedily win the confidence 

* In no field of missionary toil can the harvest be reaped, where 
much labour has not been first expended in the painful tillage 
of the soil, and the careful, patient and prayerful sowing of the 


of the people. ~No course has been found more likely 
to effect this than the opening a dispensary and a 
hospital, where the relief which is afforded shows at 
once our object to be the welfare of those about us. 
The influence of a mission thus begun is immediate, 
and remains permanently in the memory of the people. 
I believe a similar result would follow the plan were 
it tried in India, and medical missionaries sent there 
as the pioneers of Gospel work. Our missions would 
then be more firmly established, and the work be yet 
more successful. 

The decided opinion to which a somewhat extensive 
experience has led me, is that medical missionaries 
should be laymen, — surgeons, not ordained minis- 
ters. I believe it a great mistake to suppose that an 
efficient medical missionary can be made out of a 
minister, by giving him a few months' attendance on 
lectures and hospital practice ; then, because he is 
going to practise only among the heathen, allowing 
him with but a slight examination to obtain a diploma 
and to think himself henceforth a qualified surgeon 
capable of assuming any responsibility. 

I have seen very serious consequences result from 
this more than questionable proceeding. Men venture 
to undertake severe cases, and suddenly find themselves 
in a position of grave responsibility, where life and 
death depend on their action. They are utterly unable 
to cope with the difficulty, and valuable fives may thus 
be perilled or even lost. Any one, even the most 
highly-accomplished surgeon, may, and often does, make 
mistakes, but that can afford no apology for a person 

i 3 


who is wholly inexperienced taking upon himself the 
duty of administering to every case that comes before 
him. Such an one must do more harm than good, and, 
besides, bring odium both on himself and his religion 
which he would commend to the people. 

The practice of having ordained medical missionaries 
is one which cannot be too highly deprecated. It is 
quite true, that a missionary may be placed in circum- 
stances far from medical help, where, in his family, 
among his friends, or the heathen around him, acci- 
dents and diseases occur, when he is imperatively 
called upon to act. In such emergencies he must, 
of course, do the best he can, and if he be one of those 
men who have an aptitude for picking up medical and 
surgical knowledge, he may very usefully apply what 
he has thus acquired. 

Such an one I have often assisted to the extent of 
my ability, as deserving of encouragement in these cir- 

If a missionary, going to a place where he cannot 
call in medical aid in case of sickness, be supplied 
with a good medicine-chest, and one or other of the 
dictionaries of domestic medicine (as Macaulay's), or 
any other work on its practice, some of which are well 
and simply written, and use his own common sense and 
observation upon the course of disease and the powers 
of various medicines, he will be able to do much good. 
The course objected to is that of the man who, after 
a brief attendance on lectures and a slight examination, 
is allowed to regard himself as a medical missionary. 
The medical and surgical knowledge thus acquired is of 
small practical use : it does not qualify the possessor of 


it to relieve disease, but often leads him into danger, 
because from his ignorance he is induced to undertake 
what he is unfit for. 

The natives soon find out if a man knows his work ; 
they will trust one who can help them, and, speedily 
ascertaining how far he can be trusted, will act accord- 
ingly. A missionary should not, therefore, profess to 
do that for which he is not qualified ; without pro- 
fessing to be a surgeon, showing a readiness to aid 
every one to the measure of his ability, he may confer 
great benefits upon the heathen. These know how to 
value the relief afforded to the sick, and to appreciate 
the sincere desire to give it on the part of the mission- 
ary-teacher, while the pretender they as easily see 
through, and his services will remain unsought. 

I should therefore recommend in every case that 
the medical missionary be a layman, and sent out on 
an equal footing with the ordained missionary. For 
the same person to attempt both these lines of duty is 
to insure more or less of failure in the one or the 
other. Either is usually quite enough to engage the 
attention, and a diligent missionary will find the pursuit 
of either occupy all his time : devoting his energy to 
his medical and surgical practice, he will preach but 
poor sermons ; on the other hand, sedulously preparing 
himself for dealing with the heathen mind, he wiU but 
indifferently perform his hospital work. He may ex- 
pect to be useful as he earnestly does the " one thing " 
for which he is more especially fitted. 

This, of course, will not prevent a medical mission- 
ary from the accomplishment of much general mission- 

i 4 


ary work. His office is that of a missionary : he will 
take every opportunity of Bible distribution, and avail 
himself of the occasions, peculiarly his own, of speak- 
ing to his patients privately. He will have services for 
their instruction, and will employ every means of diffus- 
ing a knowledge of the Gospel. 

The remarks which have been made respecting half- 
educated surgeons apply with equal force to half-edu- 
cated ministers, either of whom may be highly useful 
in his own department of labour, but is spoiled as he 
endeavours to combine both pursuits, succeeding only 
in presenting in himself the objectionable compound 
of " a medical divine," — an incongruity as great as 
though a tradesman should notify on his signboard 
that he was a gardener as well as a watchmaker. In 
both instances the practical result would be much the 

Since the beginning of this century several attempts 
have been made to confer on the Chinese the benefits 
of European medicine and surgery. The medical 
officers of the Honourable East India Company's Civil 
Service have been fervent in their endeavours, and the 
names of Pearson, Livingston, and Colledge are still 
had in honoured remembrance for the good which 
they effected during their residence in China. 

In 1805 Mr. Alexander Pearson introduced the 
practice of vaccination at Canton, and before he left 
the country in 1832 he had the satisfaction of see- 
ing Iris efforts so much appreciated that a large 
vaccine institution was established in that city. xV 
native surgeon, whom he had instructed in the art of 
vaccination, superintended the institution, which is still 


maintained with success. During Mr. Pearson's resi- 
dence in China he vaccinated very many. Sir G. 
Staunton translated a tract on the subject for Mr. Pear- 
son, which was extensively circulated and was very 
useful. Several editions of this tract, with alterations 
and improvements, have since, at various times, been 
issued. The invaluable blessing it refers to has proved 
so great a boon, that to have been the means of its 
introduction into so populous a country is no small 
honour. The name of Alexander Pearson will there- 
fore be associated with those of the benefactors of 

In 1820 the Eev. Dr. Morrison, in conjunction with 
Mr. Livingston, surgeon to the H.E.I.C., opened an 
institution for the relief of afflicted Chinese, and for 
the purpose of gaining some knowledge of the native 
mode of treating disease. This dispensary was con- 
ducted by native practitioners, under the superinten- 
dence of these gentlemen, and many patients were 
benefited during the period of its continuance. 

In 1828 Mr. Coheclge, surgeon to the H.E.I. C. 
factory, opened a hospital at Macao, which was sup- 
ported by the liberality of the Company and private 
merchants, and was conducted by him with most en- 
couraging success. The institution became the topic 
of conversation throughout the provinces ; praises and 
gratitude were heaped upon the manager by the bene- 
ficiaries and by their friends. 

Mr. Colledge gave his attention chiefly to diseases of 
the eye, in the treatment of which he found the native 
practitioners particularly ignorant ; and during the five 
years in which his other duties permitted him to con- 


tinue the institution, more than 6000 Chinese were 
gratuitously relieved. He urged upon the various 
missionary societies the desirableness of employing 
medical missionaries as pioneers in their Christian 
work, and several papers which he wrote for this pur- 
pose had considerable influence in directing attention 
to the subject. 

The idea of making the practice of medicine an 
auxiliary in introducing Christianity to China, was first 
practically adopted by the American Board of Com- 
missioners for Foreign Missions, and the Eev. Peter 
Parker was sent out with that view. After some 
time, which was spent in the acquisition of the lan- 
guage, he opened an ophthalmic hospital in Canton, in 
the year 1835. Here his labours were attended with 
an amount of success which his most sanguine hopes 
had scarcely anticipated. In one of his reports Dr. 
Parker writes : " It was after long effort that a place 
was found for a hospital, and when at length a suitable 
building was rented and previous notice had been given, 
on the first day no patients ventured to come, on the 
second day a solitary female afflicted with glaucoma 
came, the third day half a dozen, and soon they came 
in crowds. It is difficult to convey to a person who 
has not visited the scenes of the hospital a just idea of 
them. He needs to be present on a day for receiv- 
ing new patients, and behold respectable women and 
children assembling at the doors the previous evening 
and sitting all night in the street, that they might be 
in time to obtain an early ticket for admission. He 
need behold in the morning the long line of sedans, 
extending far in every direction ; see the officers with 

DR. PAEKEE. 123 

their attendants ; observe the dense mass in the room 
below, stand by during the examination and giving 
out tickets of admission to the hall above, where they 
are prescribed for, urgent cases being admitted at 
once, while others are directed to come again at a 
specified time. . . . Great numbers of patients 
are thus relieved every day, exhibiting more and more 
the confidence placed in the physician. . . There 
have been applicants from other parts of the country as 
well as from this vicinity. Numbers from other pro- 
vinces, from Nankin and Pekin, who were resident at 
Canton, have called ; several tea-merchants from the 
north and their friends have been healed." 

Much interest was exhibited in the labours of Dr. 
Parker by the foreign community, and by passing 
strangers, who contributed most liberally to the support 
of this useful institution. In 1836 some excellent 
suggestions were published for the purpose of drawing 
attention to the subject of " gratuitous medical relief 
to the Chinese, in order to facilitate the formation of 
a society for this special object, and to give more 
efficiency and permanence to the work of future 
labourers." These suggestions contained the following 
statement : " Viewing with peculiar interest the good 
effects that seem likely to be produced by medical 
practice among the Chinese, especially as tending to 
bring about a more social and friendly intercourse 
between them and foreigners, as well as to diffuse the 
arts and sciences of Europe and America, and in the 
end introduce the Gospel of our Saviour in place of 
the pitiable superstitions by which their minds are now 
governed, it was resolved to attempt the foundation of 


a society to be called ' The Medical Missionary Society 
in China.' " 

This society was formed, and the ophthalmic hospital 
at Canton, taken under its patronage, continued under 
the superintendence of Dr. Parker without interruption 
until June 1840, when the disturbed state of affairs in 
China compelled it to be closed. Up to this time, how- 
ever, from the opening of the hospital "upwards of 
9000 individuals had been relieved of their sufferings, 
their gratitude and confidence rather increasing than 
diminishing." A visitor remarks : " It is a pleasure to 
go to the hospital and witness the confidence manifested 
by the inmates. Those who have received some special 
benefit often seem to want language to express their 
gratitude. In some instances the blind of a distant 
village have united and chartered a passage-boat to 
come to Canton, and have waited four or five days for 
the hospital to be opened for the admission of new 
patients." Surely the confidence denoted by these 
expressions of gratitude, and gained by such disin- 
terested and useful efforts, can never be wholly lost. 
During the years 1836-37 Dr. Parker continued the 
ophthalmic hospital at Canton with growing success ; 
patients of all classes and from places at a consider- 
able distance constantly resorted to him. The reports 
published for this period (see " Chinese Eepository ") 
contain the grateful acknowledgments of both rich and 
poor, — gentlemen of official rank, others of literary 
standing, as well as native merchants, artisans, and 
other classes of the people. From July to October 
1838 Dr. Parker spent at Macao in opening as a 
hospital the house which had been purchased by the 


society for that purpose. In this brief period 700 
patients received treatment, and displayed the same 
confidence and eagerness as had been evinced at Can- 
ton. Owing, however, to the want of a medical officer 
to conduct this institution, it was shortly closed on 
the return of Dr. Parker to the latter city. 

In January 1839, the writer of these pages, con- 
nected with the London Missionary Society, arrived in 
China, and the hospital at Macao was placed under his 
charge. It had not been long open when the mea- 
sures of the Chinese Government against the English 
compelled him to again close it and to leave Macao. 
This was in September 1839, and, the hospital was 
not again opened until June 1840 ; the interval being 
passed at Batavia, in the study of the language under 
the Eev. Dr. Medhurst. The occupation of the island 
of Chusan in that year gave opportunity of beginning 
a hospital at Tinghai, the capital of the district, whither 
I proceeded at the end of August with that object. 
At the first establishment of the hospital the inhabit- 
ants did not understand its purpose, and were disin- 
clined to apply for medical relief. The attention paid 
to some sick that were met in the streets, and expla- 
nations made to others that medicine would be given 
for their ailments, had the effect of removing this 
feeling of doubt, and shortly the utmost eagerness was 
shown in seeking for assistance. Great numbers re- 
sorted to the institution, not only from the remote 
parts of Chusan, but from various places on the main- 
land, trusting themselves in the hands of the foreign 
surgeon with the same confidence as in those parts 
where hospitals had been established for a longer 


period, and where a better acquaintance had been 
formed with our skill and the disinterestedness of our 
object. A report of these operations in Chusan was 
presented by me, and published in 1841 with the 
general report of the society, in which there is given 
much useful information of the diseases met with in 
that part of the country. During this stay at Tinghai, 
from September, when the hospital was opened, until 
February, when the withdrawment of the British troops 
made a longer residence impracticable, upwards of 
3500 patients had been attended. It is worthy of 
remark that, while the majority of the cases treated in 
the hospitals of Macao and Canton had been in the 
surgical department, a large number of persons afflicted 
with fever and other diseases, generally classed as me- 
dical, applied for relief at Tinghai. 

I returned to Macao in 1841, remaining there 
during the period of hostilities between England and 
China. When the treaty of Nanking was settled, in 
1842, I went to Hongkong, in the hope of proceeding 
to Chusan, but was detained in the former place till the 
spring of 1843. In the interval I superintended the 
building of the Medical Missionary Society's hospital at 
Hongkong, which was afterwards placed under the 
charge of Dr. Hobson. The building bought for a 
hospital at Macao was then disposed of, as it was 
thought more desirable to have the hospital in a British 
colony than in the Portuguese settlement of Macao. 
Again I proceeded to Chusan early in 1843, and for a 
second time opened a hospital there, to which the 
natives flocked as during my former visit. At the end 
of that year I left the island of Chusan for the newly- 


opened port of Shanghai, the most northerly of the 
consular positions secured by the new treaty for the 
residence of merchants and other foreigners. A 
hospital was commenced there early in 1844, of which 
a fuller account will be given in the pages which 
follow : — 

" When the British had been expelled from Macao, 
in 1839, the hopes of the friends of the Medical Mis- 
sionary Society were encouraged by the arrival of two 
additional medical missionaries, Dr. B. Hobson, of the 
London Missionary Society, and Dr. W. B. Diver, in 
connection with the American Board of Commissioners 
for Foreign Missions. The offer of their services being 
accepted by the society, the hospital at Macao was 
placed under their joint charge upon Mr. Lockhart's 
departure for Chusan. Dr. Diver's health failing obliged 
him to leave China and return to the United States. 
The institution was thus left in the sole care of Dr. 
Hobson, who has pursued his labours with unwearied 
industry, and has succeeded in establishing among the 
Chinese the same confidence which has proved such an 
encouragement to others who have given themselves to 
the same course of usefulness." 

" Such is a brief outline of the society since its 
organisation in 1838 ; and though, owing to the un- 
settled state of political affairs in China, the medical 
officers have been occasionally interrupted in their 
plans and operations, there has been, with the excep- 
tion of three months, at least one hospital open for the 
reception of the sick, and, computing the whole number 
of the patients entered on the books of the institution, 
about 20,000 persons have been relieved of their suf- 


ferings. We cannot refrain from expressing our grati- 
tude to Him whose creatures we all are for the 
opportunity afforded of benefiting our fellow-men ; 
while we look forward with confident expectation to 
continually enlarged fields of usefulness and increasing 
opportunities of conveying to the minds of the patients 
the healing influences of moral care, and the hopes 
that the Gospel alone affords. It has been remarked, 
both by Mr. Lockhart and Dr. Hobson, that when 
patients have been removed from the surveillance and 
jurisdiction of Chinese officers, as they have been at 
Chusan and Macao, the most pleasing facilities have 
been afforded for distributing religious books and 
holding free converse with the people on subjects per- 
taining to their eternal welfare. These opportunities 
have not been neglected : suitable portions of Holy 
Scripture and select tracts have been freely distributed 
among all the patients, who have for the most part 
read them with care ; and, when the holy doctrines of 
the Bible have been explained to them, they have at 
least been received with attention and respect. If 
such an amount of good has been effected during the 
past years of difficulty, restriction, and warfare, amidst 
so many changes and uncertain prospects, what may we 
not hope for in the new era that will succeed the treaty 
of peace between Great Britain and China, and the 
removal of the many barriers that have obstructed our 
progress! The prospects now opening encourage us 
in the highest degree to persevere in the same course 
that has already proved to be so successful." 

" Peace has now been established with China, and 
upon terms that promise enlarged facilities for the pro- 


sedition of the labours of the medical missionary, as 
well as of others interested in the temporal and spiritual 
welfare of this large portion of their fellow-men. The 
efforts of this society need no longer be confined to a 
corner of the empire, nor its hospitals be limited to 
one spot, where the jealousy of a weak and despotic 
government has surrounded us with a system of re- 
striction that has rendered intercourse with the people 
limited and uncertain, where the inhabitants have been 
taught to look upon foreigners as unworthy to enjoy 
the ordinary liberty of men, and the rulers to consider 
it necessary that peculiar laws should be made to re- 
strain them from free intercourse with the people of the 
Celestial Empire, who would, hi their opinion, be cor- 
rupted by the wicked dispositions of the barbarians 
from the West. 

" The feelings of prejudice and dislike which this 
conduct on the part of their rulers has generated in the 
minds of the people, iiave been partly overcome by the 
medical officers of this society ; and we may con- 
fidently hope that ere long, by the blessing of God, 
such feelings will disappear before the healing truths 
of Christianity and the disinterested labours of its pro- 
pagators. Access is now given to five of the prin- 
cipal seaports of the empire, Canton, Amoy, Foo-chau, 
Mngpo, and Shanghai ; and in these we have the best 
grounds for believing that a free intercourse with the 
people will be available. It is with the liveliest gra- 
titude to the Almighty we are enabled to state that 
the Medical Missionary Society is in some measure 
prepared to take advantage of these new openings. 
Through the exertions of Morrison and other mis- 



sionaries, who have been during past years zealously 
labouring to prepare the way for the introduction of 
the Gospel among the benighted millions of this em- 
pire, many of the difficulties of acquiring the language 
have been overcome ; a knowledge of the institutions 
of the country has been acquired ; some insight into 
the mode of thinking and the prejudices of the people 
has been gained, and the paths made more easy to those 
who are to follow. 

" The three medical men now attached to the so- 
ciety, viz. Eev. P. Parker, Mr. Lockhart, and Dr. 
Hobson, whose labours have been summarily described 
above, have gained a respectable proficiency in the 
Chinese language, and are prepared to enter upon the 
fields of usefulness now laid open, and to continue their 
labours as heretofore. Dr. Parker, who, it will be re- 
membered, in consequence of the disturbed state of 
affairs in China putting a stop to his medical labours 
at Canton, left that country in June 1840, that he 
might regain the health and vigour which his exertions 
had in some degree impaired, as well as have an oppor- 
tunity of advocating the cause of the society in England 
and America, has returned to China and re-opened the 
hospital in Canton. It affords us great pleasure that 
we have been permitted to welcome him back to the 
same field where his labours have been already pro- 
ductive of so much good to others and so much 
honour to himself." 

In 1844 Dr. Parker reports that, after an absence of 
two and a half years in a visit to America and Europe, 
he re-opened the hospital at the end of 1842, in the 
building where it was first commenced. After speaking 


of the generosity and liberality of Howqua, the well- 
known Hong merchant, to whom the building belonged, 
and who not only charged no rent, but ordered his 
comprador to make all needful repairs and alterations, 
he says : " Never have the friends of this institution had 
more abundant reason to rejoice in its prosperity and 
influence. Never since its establishment has there 
been greater eagerness to take full advantage of it by 
high and low. On a few occasions about one thousand 
persons have been present on a receiving day. So 
dense has been the crowd that fears were entertained 
for the safety of individuals, lest they should perish in 
the crowd. As in former instances, we have to report 
men in the highest stations of influence and rank." 

" The Kwang-chau-fu, the highest magistrate in the 
department, and the High Commissioner Ke-ying, and 
several persons connected with his suite, availed them- 
selves of the aid of the institution. Ke-ying subse- 
quently sent two autograph tablets containing the 
following sentiments : Miau-shau-hwui-chwi — Under 
your skilful hand (from the whiter of disease) the 
spring (of health) returns." " Shan-she-jiu — With 
longevity you bless mankind." 

" Besides the hospital at Canton, others will, we 
have every reason to hope, shortly be in full operation 
at Shanghai, Ningpo, and Hongkong. Mr. Lockhart 
is now prepared to go to Shanghai or Ningpo, which- 
ever may be deemed most eligible for the establish- 
ment of a hospital. These cities are both situated near 
the centre of the coast of China ; and besides the large 
population and extensive trade which recommend them 
as suitable positions for establishing hospitals, they both 

K 2 


possess great facilities for communicating with the in- 
terior of the country, by means of which an influence 
for good may be exerted upon many with whom no 
present contact can be had." 

" Dr. Hobson has recently removed to Hongkong, 
and in four or five weeks will have a hospital in opera- 
tion there. After mature deliberation and much dis- 
cussion, the society came to the conclusion that it was 
on the whole desirable that the hospital should be 
removed from Macao to Hongkong. In a few months 
the majority of the foreign community will have left, 
and ere long almost completely abandoned Macao, and 
there is every probability of its becoming daily a place 
of less resort. At Hongkong, which has the prospect 
of rising rapidly into importance, and where a nume- 
rous foreign community have already taken up their 
abode, the other missionary societies and institutions 
are fixing their head-quarters. The greatest facilities 
will also exist for carrying on the general business of 
the society, and for obtaining assistance in the prepara- 
tory study of the language by those who may come 
out as medical missionaries. It was also deemed ad- 
visable that we should be prepared to meet the medical 
wants of the numerous Chinese population that will 
be concentrating in and around Hongkong and resort- 
ing to it for the purposes of trade from all parts of the 

In accordance with this resolution, the house in 
Macao was sold, and the erection of a new hospital in 
Hongkong effected for somewhat less than the sum 
obtained from the sale. 

" Three hospitals will thus very soon be open, and it 


is hoped that other zealous and enlightened individuals 
may come out, to join in spreading to the furthest 
corners of China the benefits which such institutions 
are calculated to impart." 

" In detailing the labours of the medical officers 
during the past years, the limits of this statement do 
not permit us to notice the many important cases that 
have come before them, and we therefore refer medical 
men and those curious in such details to the different 
reports which have been regularly published in the 
' Chinese Eepository.' In these reports they will meet 
with many interesting particulars relative to the history 
and treatment of diseases which, in countries where 
medical science has attained greater perfection, would 
have been checked in their early stages, but which 
here obtain a magnitude which is rarely or never seen 
among more civilised nations. We may look with 
confidence to the benefits which medical science may 
derive from the labours of the medical officers of the 
society, in the observation of new forms of disease, in 
larger additions to medical statistics, and in the dis- 
covery of new therapeutic agents among the produc- 
tions of this vast and almost unknown country." 

" To the various missionary boards, whose co-opera- 
tion is sought, we would respectfully say, ' Imitate Him 
whose Gospel you desire to send to every land. Like 
Him, regard not as beneath your notice the opening 
of the eyes of the blind and the ears of the deaf, and 
the healing of all manner of disease. Until permitted 
to publish openly and without restraint the truths of the 
Gospel, neglect not the opportunity afforded of freely 
practising its spirit. Scatter to the utmost its fruits 

K 3 


until welcomed to plant the tree that produces them — 
the tree of life.'" 

The foregoing quotations are from various pamphlets 
issued from 1834 to 1843 ; the latter extracts from 
the abstract of the " History of the Medical Missionary 
Society," published in Macao, 1843. 

" The object of the Medical Missionary Society," we 
learn from its report, " is to encourage the practice of 
medicine among the Chinese ; to extend to them some 
of those benefits which science, patient investigation, 
and the ever-kindling light of discovery have conferred 
upon ourselves. 

" In the midst of many improvements, and sur- 
rounded by numerous social advantages, the Chinese 
are nevertheless deficient in medicine and surgery, and 
acknowledge this deficiency by their conduct when- 
ever they can avail themselves of the well-directed 
skill and the superior adroitness of foreigners. The 
love of ease and the hope of health lead mankind to 
accept assistance wherever they can find it, to forego 
their prejudices, and sometimes to make large sacrifices 
even upon a very slender prospect of recovery. The 
Chinese, though exclusive in all their policy, form no 
exception to this rule, for they have come in crowds 
to the ophthalmic institution, submitting to operations 
and medical treatment with unbounded confidence, 
and obtaining health and restoration through the means 
of the physician, with every mark of the most un- 
feigned respect and thankfulness. 

" ' Heal the sick ' is our motto, constituting ahke the 
injunction under which we act and the object at which 
we aim, and which, with the blessing of God, we hope 


to accomplish by means of scientific practice, in the 
exercise of an unbonght and untiring kindness. We 
have called ours a 'Missionary Society,' because we 
trust it will advance the cause of missions, and because 
we want men to fill our institutions, who, to requisite 
skill and experience, add the self-denial and high moral 
qualities which are usually looked for in a missionary. 
By the employment of such an agency, the way will be 
paved to a higher place in the confidence and esteem 
of the Chinese, which will tend to put our commerce 
and all our intercourse with this nation upon a more 
desirable footing, and to open avenues for the intro- 
duction of those sciences and that religion to which we 
owe our greatness, by which we are enabled to act a 
useful part in this life, and which fit us for the enjoy- 
ment of a better life hereafter. 

" We would also refer to the benefits which are 
likely to result to medical science by cultivating it in 
China. Countries are not less characterised by the 
form and nature of the soil and productions than they 
are by the prevalence of certain maladies and a par- 
tial or complete exemption from others. The contem- 
plation of disease, as influenced by the position and 
height of a country, its inland or maritime location, 
and the general habits of the people, conducts the 
student to a most engaging range of medical philo- 
sophy, while it discloses many important lessons to 
assist him in benefiting his fellow-creatures. 

" It has been sometimes objected that to attend to 
the diseases of men is not the proper business of a mis- 
sionary. This objection may be shortly answered by a 
reference to the conduct of the Saviour and his apostles, 

K 4 


who, while they taught mankind things that concerned 
their eternal interests, were not indifferent to their 
bodily sufferings. What He was pleased to do by His 
divine power, and what they did by miraculous endow- 
ments, no one can in these days pretend to effect. But 
we are commanded and encouraged to imitate them by 
the use of such means as knowledge and the exercise 
of a genuine charity will furnish. 

" The importance of education has long been ad- 
mitted, and none regard its requisite expense as a per- 
version of sacred funds ; not that education can make 
the pagan a Christian, but because it is one of the best 
auxiliaries. Neither has it been considered a misap- 
plication of money, or of the missionary's talent, to 
employ science as an instrument wherewith to sweep 
away the foundations of idolatrous systems. Not that 
science can convert a heathen, but that, by demon- 
strating to him the falsity of his religion, it may pre- 
pare the way for him to seek the truth. A similar 
rank and equal consideration are what we ask for the 
healing science and practice. 

" A peculiarity of the Medical Missionary Society in 
China is that it addresses itself to the consideration of 
all ; the man of science and the philanthropist, who 
look especially to immediate benefits, are here in- 
terested. And to the sympathies of those who, while 
they equally appreciate the desirableness of contributing 
in every possible manner to the welfare of their species 
for time, contemplate with unspeakably more concern 
those interests which are eternal, it presents an irre- 
sistible, an overwhelming claim. When we reflect 
upon the present state of medicine and surgery in 


China, the suffering that is experienced, the lives an- 
nually and needlessly lost, and advert to the time when 
similar ignorance was the misfortune of the nations of 
Europe, and when we consider the rational basis upon 
which science is now established, and our facilities for 
imparting it to others, the obligation upon enlightened 
nations becomes imperative to improve the opportunity 
afforded of imparting to others the incalculable benefits 
received from the application of chemistry and natural 
and inductive philosophy to the subject of health, in 
the investigation of the causes and phenomena of dis- 
ease, and the means of controlling it." 





The education of Cliinese youths in the principles of 
the medical profession will prove a powerful agent in 
spreading a knowledge of science among their country- 
men, and in carrying out the objects we have in view. 
Chinese parents of respectability have shown no un- 
willingness that their sons should be placed under the 
care of foreign medical men for educational purposes. 
Before closing the hospital in Canton Dr. Parker had 
three youths who had gained considerable knowledge 
under his tuition, and Dr. Hobson has now with him 
two young men of promise who receive regular and 
systematic instruction in the elements of medical 
science, and have attained so much proficiency that 
with their assistance he had treated during the fifteen 
months previous to the time when his report was 
closed the very large number of 5265 patients. 

In connection with this subject is that of sending 
Chinese youths out of the country to attain in the 
institutions of England and America a more complete 
and extended education than can possibly be given by 
single individuals here ; and we observe with much 
satisfaction that the subject has excited considerable 


attention abroad, and that a society has been formed in 
New York for the purpose of supporting and superin- 
tending the education of such young men as may be 
sent to them. The subject has not yet, however, re- 
ceived the full attention of the society.* 

In the first address on behalf of the Medical Mission- 
ary Society in China, in 1838, are the following remarks 
bearing upon this point : " Another advantage will be 
the education of Chinese youths in those branches which 
belong to medicine. Young men thus instructed will 
gradually be dispersed over the empire, travelling for 
pleasure, honour, or reward, and will dispense the 
benefits of a systematic acquaintance with the subject 
whithersoever they go. The success of their measures 
will render them respectable, and of course will redound 
to the credit of those also from whom they learned the 
art. Their patients will not only hear, but feel, that 
the people from the West are good men. The effect of 
such influence will be silent but powerful ; for there is 
something irresistibly impressive in benevolent action, 
especially when it appears exempt from the imputation 
of interested motives." 

Dr. Parker early turned his attention to this matter, 
and, as above stated, had several young men, at differ- 
ent times, whom he carefully trained, and who thus 
acquired a large amount of medical and surgical know- 
ledge, which made them of essential service to him in 
carrying on his work. Some of these youths had pre- 
viously acquired a good Chinese education, and after 
being taught English were used both as medical as- 

* History of the Medical Missionary Society. 


sistants and interpreters in the hospital. I have been 
surprised to see in several instances the extent of their 
attainments, and to witness their ability among the 
patients. More than one of them, on leaving the hos- 
pital, have established themselves as surgeons in private 
practice in distant parts of the Canton province. 

Dr. Hobson, in 1845, states : " Probably a finer 
school for the study of ophthalmic diseases than the 
hospitals in China supply cannot be found ; hence them 
value to the native assistants training under the auspices 
of the society. And I am glad to have the opportunity 
of stating that Assam, who last year underwent a rigid 
examination in the presence of Dr. Anderson and other 
medical gentlemen, continues to give very great satis- 

. He is quite competent to take entire charge of an 
ophthalmic hospital, and I hope before long to see him 
established in practice for himself, and conducting a 
hospital on a similar plan to this in one of the popu- 
lous cities of the neighbourhood. I am very anxious 
to see a medical school established in the immediate 
vicinity of this hospital in Hongkong. And from the 
facilities such a desirable and useful institution as this 
would give to China, I trust no efforts will be spared 
to carry this project into effect." 

In one of his reports, Dr. Hobson says : " This leads 
me to express the interest I feel in the establishment of 
a medical class of from six to ten youths, and I embrace 
this opportunity of soliciting the countenance and sup- 
port of the gentlemen of the committee to the proposed 
measure. As preliminary to the study of subjects more 
strictly medical, I would endeavour to convey some 


instruction in the elementary branches of physics, che- 
mistry, and animal and vegetable physiology, considered 
with special reference to natural theology ; and with the 
opportunities of attending occasionally to practical ana- 
tomy and demonstrations, with the daily treatment of 
disease, as seen in the hospital practice, on their own 
countrymen, they would, by diligence and attention to 
their duties, be fitted both to practise and teach the 
profession to others. I feel convinced that this subject 
commends itself to the judgment of all, and I cherish 
the hope that, as early as circumstances will sanction it, 
the committee and friends of the society will provide 
the necessary means." The attention of Dr. Hobson to 
the education of young men as his assistants was amply 
repaid in the benefit derived from their intelligence. 
Some of those under his care were able to perform 
various operations, and one, more especially, had ac- 
quired so great an amount of professional skill that 
some of the European surgeons of the colony of Hong- 
kong, by whom he was examined as to his attainments, 
expressed their admiration of his training. 

Various circumstances retarded a like success at 
Shanghai. The young men whom I had under training 
did not stay long enough to go through any regular 
course, which led to frequent disappointment. One 
young man, who remained some time and was able to 
render valuable assistance, removed with his family 
from Shanghai, and has since turned the instruction 
he received to valuable account in his native district. 
Another, who is still engaged at the Shanghai hospital, 
was with me for some time and learned much of the 
practice of medicine and surgery ; upon my leaving, 


when Dr. Hobson took charge of the hospital, he con- 
tinued his education so as, when Dr. Hobson's health 
required him to leave China, to be able to carry on the 
work. In this he has received the occasional kind 
assistance of resident surgeons hi the more serious 
cases and operations. He performs all the minor opera- 
tions very well, and can prescribe for the ordinary 
cases that come before him in the hospital. 

The medical missionary of the London Missionary 
Society now at Canton, Dr. Wang-fun, was a pupil 
in one of the mission schools. Showing much ability 
he was sent to Edinburgh by the benevolence of some 
foreign merchants at Hongkong, and sustained there 
for several years. He acquired a thorough education, 
and passed through the University with much honour, 
taking several prizes, receiving Iris diploma and degree, 
and was honoured by the encomiums of his professors 
as one of their most creditable students. He offered 
his services to the London Missionary Society, and being 
accepted was sent to Canton, where he labours assidu- 
ously in the prosecution of his work, which will be 
further noticed in a subsequent chapter. 

Before glancing at the circumstances which led to 
this event, it may be allowed to make a brief reference 
to some of the earliest friends of the Medical Missionary 
Society, who, by their liberality and personal exertion, 
did so much for its establishment and support. From 
the names of many English and American residents, 
whose lasting honour it is to have materially helped the 
work, it will not be deemed invidious to select the 
names of J. E. Morrison, Wm. Jardine, Launcelot Dent, 
and Alexander Anderson. 


The first two of these died in 1843, and the society's 
report for the following year states : " Since the publi- 
cation of the last report we have had to deplore the 
death of two of the earliest supporters of the Society 
— Wm. Jardine, Esq., and J. E. Morrison, Esq. — and 
we would take this opportunity of recording our ap- 
preciation of the important services they rendered to 
the society, and our high estimate df their benevolent 
character. Theirs was not a charity that gave of their 
abundance merely to the subscription in aid of its 
funds ; they entered heart and hand into every good 
work, and their time and attention were ever ready to 
give counsel and assistance to benevolent undertakings. 
By the death of Mr. Morrison, who was recording 
secretary, the society has been deprived of a most effi- 
cient officer." 

Mi*. Jardine came to China as surgeon to one of the 
Hon. East India Company's ships, but settled in Canton 
and founded the celebrated mercantile firm that bears 
his name. He was always ready to aid Dr. Parker 
with his professional knowledge, in consultation as well 
as in operations, and took a warm interest in all that 
was done at the hospital. 

Mr. Alexander Anderson, the successor of Mr. Col- 
ledge as surgeon to the British factory, was in private 
practice in Canton and Macao. He was one of the 
most energetic supporters of the society, not sparing 
his help (as I have often experienced) in any way in 
which it might be required. At a meeting held in 
1845 was passed the resolution, " That the society are 
deeply sensible of the disinterested and important ser- 
vices rendered during a long course of years by Mr. 


Anderson, and that the secretary be instructed to 
convey to him the feelings of the society on the subject. 
And, now that he is about to take his departure from 
this part of the world, that they unanimously tender 
him their best wishes for his future prosperity and 
happiness." Mr. Anderson afterwards passed several 
years in America and Scotland, and died recently after 
long and painful disease. 

Mr. Dent, one of the worthiest and most influential 
of the English merchants in China, was amongst the 
foremost in whatever tended to the good of his fellow- 
men. By his liberality and his earnestness in conducting 
its affairs, he was of essential service to the interests of 
the society, and did much to insure its success. He 
died a few years after his return to England. 

In 1845 a series of circumstances produced dissension 
in the Medical Missionary Society, which, owing to the 
enlarged opportunities and the favourable prospects 
opened for medical missions in China at that time, had 
not so detrimental a result as might have been feared. 
It will suffice for the purpose of this history to state 
the occasion of a division in council winch ended in 
the formation of a second society claiming the name 
and position of the Medical Missionary Society. 

The society, originally formed in Canton, had been 
used to convene many of its meetings in Macao. The 
foreign community chiefly residing in Hongkong at 
this period, a proposal was made that meetings should 
be held in the latter place as well as at Canton. Ex- 
ception was taken to the proposal, and there being 
a difference of opinion also as to the use to be made of 
a sum of 5000 dollars which had been collected by 


Dr. Parker, partly in England, but chiefly in America, 
for the purposes of the Society, — supposed by the com- 
mittee to be at their treasurer's disposal for the Society's 
general support, and by the fore-named gentleman 
to be at his control as to its appropriation, — the two- 
fold difference ended in the naming by Dr. Parker of a 
committee of the Medical Missionary Society in Canton. 
In this way two societies of the same name were in 
existence — the one in Hongkong, with the history, 
constitution, and prestige of the original institution ; the 
other hi Canton, which also claimed to be thus regarded. 
For some years after this the two societies carried for- 
ward their benevolent purpose, but the sphere of such 
institutions had so enlarged during the progress of 
events in China, and local means been found so sufficient 
for the local necessities of the various hospitals which 
had been established, as to have dispensed with the 
rival distinctiveness of these two societies, and buried 
their differences in the common origin of that wide, 
Christian benevolence, which called into being the first 
of all Medical Missionary Societies in Canton, in 1838. 
While the efforts of the Medical Missionary Society 
in Hongkong were sustained for some years with much 
efficiency, its medical officers at a distance found that 
ample funds from the liberality of foreign residents hi 
the locality were available, which enabled them to 
form a society on the spot. This localising in several 
places of the means and agencies of the society at 
Hongkong, has obviated the necessity of its meeting for 
some time. The society in Canton still continues its 
operations in that city. Dr. Parker vigorously pursued 
his work for some years, until his departure from China. 



The operations of the hospital under his care and that 
of his colleagues will come up for further notice. 

Thus, while the Medical Missionary Society, as origi- 
nally organised, has been dissolved, the work it had in 
view has in no degree been retarded. It had, perhaps, 
completed its work. When foreigners were restricted 
to Canton and Macao it was possible to meet the de- 
mands of medical benevolence by a committee of 
management on the spot. This work was done well 
by the Medical Missionary Society, and its effect will 
not soon pass away. Now that foreign intercourse has 
become so extensive, the Society could not be expected 
to overtake the requirements of distant stations. These 
being so amply provided for in other ways, the neces- 
sity for it, as originally constituted, has ceased. 

The following remarks are abridged from the ad- 
dresses to medical students, published by the above 
society in 1856. Dr. Coldstream, in his lecture on the 
spread of the Gospel, says : — " I have adverted to the 
fact that it was on the occasion of Dr. P. Parker's visit 
to Edinburgh, that the first movement was made towards 
the formation of our Medical Missionary Society. The 
committee then formed had for its object exclusively 
the collection of funds, as an auxiliary to the society hi 
China. Shortly afterwards, in November 1841, the 
suggestion was made by Sir Culling Eardley, to form an 
independent society in Edinburgh, with the endeavour 
to form a centre of interests and action, with regard to 
all medical missionary affairs, but which should direct 
its first efforts to supply pecuniary aid to the Medical 
Missionary Society in China, and to the Syrian Medical 
Aid Association in London, and the society was consti- 


tuted which afterwards became the Edinburgh Medical 
Missionary Society. Dr. Abercrombie was the first 
President. He took a lively interest in its proceedings, 
and frequently attended the meetings, proving himself 
as wise in counsel as he was energetic in action." 

For the first three years the Society occupied itself 
in collecting funds for the Chinese and Syrian Associa- 
tions, and in diffusing information on the object and 
working of medical missions. In 1844, an endeavour 
was made to send a missionary of its own to China, but 
without success. In 1848, Dr. Wallace was sent as a 
medical missionary to Parsonstown, in Ireland, who 
laboured there for some time with much acceptance. 

The society has also issued various publications, as 
addresses and lectures, on the various phases of the 
work of missions, and publishes from time to time " The 
Occasional Paper " of the society, to give information 
on medical missions in various parts of the world. But 
the most important works published by the society are 
the two volumes of lectures and addresses. The first is 
called "Lectures on Medical Missions," delivered by 
some of the first medical men and preachers, who were 
members of the society, in 1849. The second is "Ad- 
dresses to Medical Students," delivered in 1856, also by 
members of the society. These works are admirably 
written, and are full of information on the subject of 
medical missions, and the general duties and responsibi- 
lities of medical men and students. If the Edinburgh 
Medical Missionary Society had done nothing further 
than causing to be delivered and published the above 
very valuable addresses, it would have accomplished a 
good work ; the opinions of such a body of men as were 

L 2 


the lecturers on these occasions, are worthy of all con- 
sideration. There are no other works which treat so 
achrhrably on the subjects indicated, and which better 
deserve the attention of all in the profession, whether 
they be on the threshold of their course, or have at- 
tained to the maturity and experience of advanced age. 
Counsel and instruction are here for all, and I cannot 
speak too highly of the wisdom and Christian earnest- 
ness that inspired the lecturers, or the liberality dis- 
played by the society, in publishing the series of 
chapters that form these unpretending but important 

Besides the above classes of work aimed at by the 
society, considerable attention was paid to the medical 
students who attended the various classes in Edinburgh. 
Some of these were helped in their education, funds 
being provided for their assistance, either by individuals 
or by the society. The students were induced to meet 
together for religious services, and to hear addresses on 
religious and missionary subjects, and also on the bear- 
ings of their present study on their future professional 
course. An attempt, and a successful one, was made 
to open a dispensary for the poor in the Cowgate, the 
details of which were carried out by the more expe- 
rienced and advanced of the students, assisted by one 
or more medical men, as occasion required. 

From the body of students thus influenced, three or 
four have gone out to heathen lands, among whom may 
be mentioned Dr. Wang-fun, a young Chinese, now in 
charge of the Chinese hospital at Canton, of whose 
labours mention is made in another place ; Dr. James 
Henderson, who has lately gone to Shanghai as medical 
missionary under the London Missionary Society, 


and Dr. Carnegie who, after labouring in the Lebanon 
Mission, has proceeded to Anioy as medical mis- 
sionary under the English Presbyterian Church, and 
who has been very successful thus far in the prosecution 
of his work. 

A portion of the society's funds has also been em- 
ployed in sending out supplies of medicines, from time 
to time, to medical missionaries in various parts of the 
world. The society has done its work well, and, it is 
to be hoped, will be still further encouraged to pro- 
secute its benevolent design. 

The "Hackney Chinese Association in aid of the 
Medical Missionary Society," has also been of great ser- 
vice in diffusing information on the work of missions to 
the heathen, by its occasional publications ; the funds 
collected by the devoted ladies who formed the com- 
mittee, have been used in supplying books, instru- 
ments, and medicines to the different stations in China. 
Those who laboured in the field were cheered in learn- 
ing that this society took so warm an interest in the 
object we had in view. The supplies that were fur- 
nished were of material service to the hospitals and dis- 
pensaries under our charge, and to the Chinese who 
resorted thither. In short, there has never been wanting 
a large measure of support in carrying on the medical 
department of the missions. Whenever assistance has 
been sought it has been most generously given. 

The "Juvenile Missionary Society," in connection 
with the Crescent Chapel, Liverpool, under the ministry 
of the Eev. John Kelly, sent frequent and liberal contri- 
butions to the Chinese hospitals at Chusan and Shanghai. 

A better view of the subject of Medical Missions can 

L 3 


hardly be given, than by an extract from a lecture by 
Professor James Miller, contained in the " Lectures on 
Medical Missionaries " above mentioned. 

" Now let us direct our attention to the suitableness 
of medical missions for obtaining the object in view — 
the spread of the Gospel. In the first place, we have 
the example and precept of the Great Prophet and 
Great Physician, our Lord. What more interesting at 
any time, but especially with a view to the present 
inquiry, than to peruse the narrative which immediately 
precedes that most wonderful of all preaching, the 
Sermon on the Mount? 'And Jesus went about all 
Galilee, teaching in the synagogues, and preaching the 
gospel of the kingdom, and healing all manner of 
sickness, and all manner of disease among the people. 
And His fame went throughout all Syria; and they 
brought unto Him all sick people that were taken with 
divers diseases and torments, and those that were pos- 
sessed with devils, and those that were lunatic, and those 
that had the palsy, and He healed them. And there 
followed Him great multitudes of people from Galilee, 
and from Decapolis, and from Jerusalem, and from 
Judea, and from beyond Jordan.' 

" After that sermon, in which the ' merciful ' and the 
peacemakers' were not forgotten in the beatitudes, 
His first act was to heal a leper ; the second to cure 
the Centurion's servant, ' sick of the palsy, grievously 
tormented ; ' the third, to raise Peter's mother-in-law 
from a fever ; the fourth, following the inspired nar- 
rative, — -'when the even was come, they brought unto 
Him many that were possessed with devils, and He cast 
out the spirits with His word, and healed all that were 


sick ; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by 
Esaias the Prophet, saying, Himself took our infirmi- 
ties and bare our sicknesses.' His whole life was 
one continuous round of ' doing good,' to both the 
bodies and souls of men. 'He went about all the 
cities and villages, teaching in the synagogues, and 
preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing 
every sickness and every disease among the people.' 
Associating His disciples with Himself in the labour of 
love, and bestowing on them the power to heal 'all 
manner of sicknesses, and all manner of disease,' they 
were sent forth, not merely to preach, saying, ' the 
kingdom of heaven is at hand,' but also to ' heal the 
sick, cleanse the lepers, and raise the dead.' Freely 
they had received ; freely they were to give. His last 
solemn injunction, we have already seen, was, 'Go ye, 
and teach all nations.' 

" After His ascension, we find Paul and Barnabas, in 
fulfilment of that command, ' separated ' for the mis- 
sionary work, and sent unto the Gentiles. And hardly 
had they begun their tour, when we read of Paul 
restoring the impotent man of Lystra, ' a cripple from 
his mother's womb, who never had walked,' and by 
that miraculous cure so arresting the public mind, that 
' scarce restrained they the people that .they had not 
done sacrifice unto them.' The first missionary — with 
all reverence be it spoken, was Emmanuel. He was 
and is, the Great Physician, and among the ' multitudes ' 
that followed Him, he not only preached the Gospel, 
but 'healed all manner of disease.' The first mis- 
sionaries to the heathen were Paul and Barnabas ; and 
' Luke the beloved physician,' shared both their travel 

L 4 


and their toil ; his own doings unrecorded, simply 
because he was himself the author of the narrative.' 

" Seeing, then, that the practice of the Apostolic 
Church points us plainly to the appropriateness of 
uniting the healing of disease with the preaching of the 
Gospel as a means of spreading abroad the latter, the 
only surprise need be that the system which was so 
hallowed by example, and enjoined almost by direct 
precept, should have been hitherto so little pursued. 
True, the circumstances of the present day and that 
epoch are not exactly the same. The power of miracles 
has been withdrawn, but the wisdom and experience of 
ages have been given instead ; and under many cir- 
cumstances, even now, the power of healing is very 

"The heathen or Gentiles, to whom the Apostles 
went, — the Eomans and Greeks, for example, — were 
highly civilised for the time, and more versant and 
skilled in the healing art, than all the nations around : 
for be it remembered, it was the time of Celsus, and he 
was the cotemporary of Ovid, Horace, and Virgil. The 
legitimate deduction from this, however, seems plain, 
that if under such circumstances, the admixture of the 
healing of disease with the preaching of the Gospel 
proved successful in securing confidence and winning 
souls, much more is it likely to succeednow, when the 
movement is by the skilled and experienced, upon the 
ignorant and uninformed. 

" Perhaps it is objected that the system is dishonest ; 
that the gift of healing is used as a lure to draw men 
under false pretences to change of religious belief. 
We answer that the Medical Missionary may well be 


content to underlie such an imputation, while he can 
point to Paul's noble vindication of his mission-work 
at Corinth : ' Be it so ; nevertheless being crafty, I 
caught you with guile.' Be it so, in the estimation of 
men. It may be * guile,' in the eyes of the scoffer, but 
surely in the sight of God it is a heavenly wisdom in 
any one, who, being ' crafty,' wins souls to Christ ; a 
wisdom, moreover, not only sanctioned, but hallowed for 
ever, by the example of Emmanuel. While He taught 
the multitudes, He not only healed them, but fed them 
too. And what impious breath is daring enough to 
prefer against His acts the imputation of double-dealing 
or dishonesty ? 

" But in truth there is no ' guile,' in the ordinary 
acceptation of the word. There is wisdom, and there 
is true benevolence, but there is no deceit. The mis- 
sionary does not pretend to heal disease miraculously, 
as if by Divine power. On the contrary, should such a 
thought possess the objects of his charity, it is protested 
against as solemnly as were divine honours by Paul at 
Lystra. Neither does he go to the heathen with his 
right hand extended, holding one thing only, and while 
doing that slyly seeking an opportunity to do another 
thing in secret and by stealth ; but he goes with both 
hands extended, each holding its gift, open and exposed ; 
each gift a precious boon, freely and fairly offered ; in 
the left hand, health for the body ; in the right, health 
and life for the immortal soul." 

Before noticing more generally the works on medi- 
cine, written in Chinese by Dr. Hobson, it will interest 
many to read the following remarks, taken from his 
Eeport of the Shanghai Hospital for 1858 : — 


" Healing the sick, with a benevolent object in view, 
has been my chief occupation since the commencement 
of 1840, at Macao, Hongkong, Canton, and Shanghai. 
But relieving suffering humanity is not the only object 
of a medical missionary ; it is to place Christianity in 
an attractive form, and facilitate its diffusion among a 
people singularly suspicious of, and averse to, foreign 
influence. The above remark applies with great force 
to Canton, where institutions of this character are 
more needed, and probably more appreciated than else- 

" Medical science in China is at a low ebb. It does 
not equal the state of the medical art in the time of 
Hippocrates and Celsus. The knowledge of anatomy 
and surgery in ancient Greece and Eome was much 
superior to anything now in India and China. I have 
been endeavouring to contribute my mite to the object 
of instructing the Chinese in medicine, and have just 
completed a series of volumes on medicine and the 
collateral branches, both for the instruction of native 
practitioners and to diffuse general information on these 
subjects, with the hope also that, ere long, the Chinese 
government will do something to encourage the study 
of the medical art. At present there are no colleges 
or schools in the country, excepting the Imperial Col- 
lege at Pekin, for the use of His Majesty and high 
officers. Anatomy is totally interdicted both by law and 
public opinion. Any man, however, may practice 
medicine, and thousands do so, with the slender know- 
ledge which books afford, or by the exercise of their 
own common-sense, which proves a safer guide, and 
brings persons occasionally into notoriety, and also a 


good income. In these books, which are based on 
principles adopted two or three thousand years ago, 
the important doctrine of the circulation of the blood 
is not only not understood, but preposterously confused 
and erroneous. Their theory of the pulse proves this 
to a demonstration. There is no distinction between 
arteries and veins — no knowledge of the heart's proper 
function, nor of the necessary changes the blood under- 
goes in the lungs and capillary system. The Chinese 
know nothing of the nervous system, its functions and 
diseases. They have names for the brain and spinal 
marrow, but nothing more. They have a pulse for 
every organ but the brain. The true position, forms, 
and uses of the viscera are not understood. They pro- 
fess to be so, but a glance at their drawings discovers 
the most glaring errors. There is no lack of books 
and observations on the functions of the body ; for 
everything, even the most inscrutable and mysterious, 
is explained by the Yin and the Yang, the hot and the 
cold, the dry and the moist, the superior and inferior 
influences ! Almost every symptom is a disease, and 
every prescription (of which the books contain thou- 
sands) is for every imaginable symptom, indicating a 
miserably small amount of acquaintance with the nature 
and the causes of disease ; and so long as the Chinese 
are content to follow the old paths, there is little hope 
of improvement. 

" In this condition of things, it seemed very de- 
sirable to attempt to introduce the well-established 
principles and facts of western medical science to 
prepare the way for changes in the present system of 
China. Under this conviction a work was prepared in 


Canton, eight years ago, on the subject of anatomy and 
physiology, avoiding all theoretical opinions. Tins has 
been extensively read and very favourably received, 
and has proved a good foundation for what was to 

" The next treatise was on the properties of air, light, 
heat, and electricity, and the elements of astronomy 
and natural history, designed as an introduction to 
these varied branches of natural phenomena. 

" This has been succeeded by a work on the principles 
and practice of surgery ; by another on midwifery and 
the diseases of children ; and by a fifth, on the practice 
of medicine and materia medica, together with a medical 
vocabulary, in English and Chinese, to explain and fix 
the terms used. The illustrations show at once the 
subjects treated of, and I have spared no pains, by 
the aid of an intelligent native, to make these works 
accurate, perspicuous, and useful. 

" Although attended with difficulties, it is still quite 
practicable to make every subject with which we are 
ourselves acquainted as clear and as expressive in Chi- 
nese as in English. Both religious and scientific works 
should, however, only be made by persons who have 
been some time in the country, and conversant with 
Chinese authors. The great desideratum for a trans- 
lator is a good and fixed nomenclature on every branch 
of science. The language admits of a satisfactory and 
distinct explanation of most new terms ; where it does 
not, these must be transferred." 

In looking at the works above mentioned, I know 
not which most to admire, the beauty of the works 
themselves, and the successful manner in which they 


have been put forth, as to the letter-press and the 
illustrations, or the untiring labour of the writer, not 
only in such an excellent compilation from various 
English authors, but in rendering it into Chinese, in so 
admirable and intelligible a manner. The volumes thus 
published will be of incalculable benefit to the Chinese, 
and were this all that Dr. Hobson had accomplished it 
woidd be worth the labour of a lifetime. It must not 
be forgotten, however, that, whilst thus engaged, the 
important duties pertaining to a largely frequented 
Chinese hospital, first at Canton and afterwards at 
Shanghai, called for his active attention. 

With the exception of a brief treatise on anatomy 
by some of the Jesuit fathers, illustrated by a few 
plates, but containing scant information, and that not 
attractively presented, I am not aware of any other 
attempt of this kind previously. The appearance 
of the volumes before us excited general attention. 
They at once attracted the notice of the people, who 
readily appreciated their object, set forth with such 
clearness of description and finish of embellishment. 
The Chinese student of western science will find in 
them a store of valuable and necessary information set 
before him with clearness and precision, in his native 

The treatise on anatomy and physiology, the first 
of the series, after some general remarks on the im- 
portance of the study, commences with the bones, and 
a comparison of the skeleton of various animals, the 
ligaments and muscles, followed by a description of the 
brain, the spinal cord, and the nervous system, of which 
the Chinese are wholly ignorant. After a short account 


of optics and acoustics, the organs of sense are treated 
of, with their various adaptations in the case of the 
lower animals. The viscera, with their functions, are 
described and illustrated. The heart and its action, the 
blood-vessels and absorbents, the circulation of the 
blood, its purification in the lungs, occupy the most 
important chapter in the work, which is full of valu- 
able instruction. Eemarks on the urinary organs 
and those of reproduction complete the whole. The 
work closes with the devout recognition of the Creator 
of this wondrous frame, which demonstrates, in so 
clear a manner, the being, the wisdom, and benevo- 
lence of its mighty Maker. The concluding pages are 
devoted to a brief notice of psychological distinctions, 
suggested by a consideration of the material structure. 
The work is largely illustrated, and the details of the 
various parts beautifully shown. 

" Natural Philosophy and Natural History " formed 
the subjects of the next publication. The exposition of 
the former is orderly and concise, embracing the subjects 
usually treated of, and is of peculiar value, as unfolding 
to the learner the true principles of things with regard 
to which he was either utterly astray, or wholly igno- 
rant. The illustrations are clear and well adapted for 
their purpose. The chapters on astronomy are much 
sought for and eagerly read by the Chinese, who are 
very desirous of learning the laws of natural science. 
Those on natural history also are particularly interesting. 

The next work treats of the " Principles and Practice 
of Surgery," of which the natives are ignorant to an 
extraordinary degree. Their entire practice consists in 
the use of plasters and the application of a few medica- 


ments to ulcers, and it has often surprised surgeons 
from the West, that the Chinese who are an educated 
and an inquiring people, should have learned so little 
in the treatment of surgical diseases, if only from the 
experience of ages. This treatise, however, besides show- 
ing the benefits of surgical education, sets forth the entire 
subject of surgical practice, and is, like the former ones, 
well illustrated. Perhaps this work may be regarded 
as the best of the series, as it is certainly the most 
adapted for direct utility. Immediately upon its publica- 
tion people of all classes were eager to possess it, and, 
doubtless, its rules for the treatment of various affections 
will be followed by many. The book will be one of 
frequent and studious reference, and will have a power- 
ful influence in guiding many minds in their endeavours 
to aid those who hitherto in China have been left unat- 
tended to and neglected. 

The treatise on the " Practice of Medicine " commends 
itself to the Chinese physician in an especial degree. 
Observation has taught them much concerning the em- 
pirical treatment of certain diseases, and, in many cases, 
their rules and directions are commendable as being 
well adapted. This volume gives them information, 
not only interesting, and which they can readily under- 
stand, but also explains the use and preparations of 
many medicines, of which, formerly, they had no know- 
ledge. Appended to this volume is a list of medical 
terms in English and Chinese, necessary to the under- 
standing of the work itself, and very valuable as being 
designed to help to a fixed medical nomenclature 
amongst the Chinese. 

The last work which has been published is on " the 


Practice of Midwifery," and is an important contribu- 
tion. This practice is in China left entirely to women, 
who, in cases of difficulty, are utterly helpless. In this 
treatise, plain, simple, and concise directions are given 
for the proper treatment, and illustrations are added, 
both of natural and difficult labour. 

It may be said of these volumes that what the valu- 
able manuals published by Mr. Churchill have been, 
and are still, to the medical practitioner and student in 
Europe, they will be to the Chinese ; and may, as a 
whole, be regarded as one of the most interesting con- 
tributions that have been given to that people for their 
individual and social welfare. 

Shortly after the appearance of the first of the series, 
it was republished by the highest Chinese officer at 
Canton — the viceroy of the province. He had the 
illustrations recut, and printed separately, and made up 
into rolls, according to a favourite Chinese custom. 
Since then, the different volumes as they appeared have 
been republished by the natives. Government officers, 
native physicians, literary men of every rank, and per- 
sons from all parts of the kingdom, have eagerly sought 
for copies, and received them as a valuable boon. The 
last information of their acceptance is to the effect that 
the Japanese, to whom, soon after intercourse with that 
people commenced, the works were sent, have also re- 
published them, but leaving out all the reference they 
contain to the Christian religion, or their Western 

Before Dr. Hobson left Shanghai, the foreign mer- 
chants there expressed their approval of these valuable 
works by subscribing the sum of 2000 dollars, for the 


publication of a large edition of the series. A copy of 
this edition lies before me, and I am rejoiced to see the 
work of my honoured friend largely and deservedly 
appreciated. I do not know anything that will tend 
more to exert a good influence on the mind of the Chi- 
nese, and lead them to value foreign intercourse, than 
the production of the works thus briefly spoken of. 

From the year 1845, to which date we have reached 
in the history of the Medical Missionary Society, it will 
be necessary to notice the progress of the work as it has 
been carried forward at the different stations. We may, 
with propriety, briefly review the success of the several 
hospitals, beginning with that of Canton, and closing 
with that of Shanghai. As this latter has for a series 
of years been the scene of the writer's own missionary 
labours, he will be enabled to speak freely, and with ful- 
ness of the working of the medical mission in that city. 
To His name, who " in every place" where the mission 
has been established has graciously given to His ser- 
vants a large measure of success amongst the Chinese 
people — be all the praise ! 

The Eeport of the Medical Missionary Society for 
1844 states : " Since the commencement of Medical 
Missions in China, and the formation of this society in 
1838, for the purpose of assisting those missionaries 
who have availed themselves of the practice of medi- 
cine as a means towards the introduction of Chris- 
tianity, and spreading among the Chinese the benefits 
of rational medicine and surgery, upwards of 30,000 
persons have sought relief from the skill of the foreign 
physician ; submitting freely to whatever was recom- 
mended by those, whom before they looked upon as 



uncivilised, ignorant, and barbarous," — assuredly no 
small matter to have been accomplished in a country 
like China, with her people enclosed as it were in their 
own prejudices and peculiar idiosyncracies ! 

The labours of Dr. P. Parker, at Canton, have 
already been noticed up to the date of his return from 
the United States, at the end of 1843. His next 
report makes mention of several cases of lithotomy 
which had occurred in the hospital, and had been suc- 
cessfully treated, and which are rightly deemed deserv- 
ing of special remark, as forming " an era in the insti- 
tution, these being the first cases in which the operation 
for stone had been performed in China." No one will 
doubt the satisfaction with which this success was 
hailed — nor when the missionary aim of these labours 
is remembered, will any one, either in the profession or 
out of it, deem misplaced the moral treatment in con- 
nection with the physical blessings imparted. ISTo one 
can appreciate these blessings more than we do : the 
light of day again transmitted through the eye which 
had been long dark ; the aneurism that threatens with 
speedy death, successfully checked ; and the stone, 
which for years has caused pain, not less distressing 
than the rack, has been in as many minutes extracted, 
and in a few days followed by perfect recovery : yet 
these, after all, are subordinate to those spiritual bless- 
ings which run parallel, and are commensurate with 
man's immortal existence. And while rejoicing that 
these endeavours are approved by the most enlightened 
and devoted Christian communities, and by all classes 
amongst them, we are yet further animated by the 
humble hope of the approbation of that Saviour, whose 


kingdom we devoutly desire to see established in 

The feeling of confidence on the part of the patients 
just referred to, is worthy of notice. One of these was 
reminded shortly before the operation that with all the 
care that could be taken the result was sometimes 
fatal — he interrupted the remark by saying, " I have 
been too long acquainted with you, doctor, have seen 
too much in this hospital with my own eyes, to require 
anything now to inspire my confidence." The opera- 
tion was successful, and the man, soon restored to health, 
returned to his family. His father, who was a learned 
man, wrote a letter of thanks for the kind treatment of 
his son, in which occurs these sentiments : " This cer- 
tainly is a remarkable, difficult, and dangerous disease, 
at which other men fold then; arms in despair ; but the 
doctor, delighted and rejoiced at his ability for the task, 
seized the knife and cut, not causing many wounds : 
so that one may say, he is able to do what is of difficult 
performance to others— yea, can execute what is impos- 
sible for other men." Expressing his abundant thanks 
for favours which he could not recompense, he con- 
cludes : " therefore, I say, my constant hope is, that 
with a mind vast as the sea, he will generously excuse 
me for making no return. When I commenced this 
paper my heart skipped like the sparrow from delight 

In a case of removal of a tumour of very large size, 
which had caused the patient much distress and pain 
for many years, the report says, " The patient discovered 
great fortitude, coolly remarking on the commencement 
of the first incision, ' It hurts, doctor.' " It has fre- 


quently been observed when operating on the Chinese, 
that having made up their minds to it, they leave them- 
selves wholly in the hands of the surgeon, and usually 
seem to think little of the pain that is caused. Other 
instances of various operations for tumours, and three 
of amputation of the arm, occur in Dr. Parker's report 
for this year, which concludes thus : " Divine service 
has been conducted in the hospital for the last eight 
Sabbaths. The average attendance has been over one 
hundred, and none have been more respectful and 
cordial in their attention than those who have been 
patients. In these services the writer has been united 
with the Eevs. Dr. Bridgman and Ball, and the Chinese 
evangelist, Leang Afah. These services must have 
been witnessed fully to conceive of their interest. 
Deepest, tenderest emotions have been awakened when 
contrasting the restrictions of the first years of Protest- 
ant missions in China with the present freedom. Then, 
not permitted to avow our missionary character and 
object lest it might eject us from the country ; and the 
Chinese received the Christian book at the peril of his 
personal safety, and embraced the Christian religion 
at the hazard of his life. Now, by imperial sanction 
(alluding to the edict of toleration owing to the treaty), 
he may receive and practise the doctrines of Christ and 
transgress no law of the empire. 

" Our interest may be more easily conceived than 
expressed, as we have openly declared our object, and 
the truths of the gospel among the people ; or when 
we have looked upon the evangelist, Leang Afah, and 
thought of him fleeing before the executioner of the 
imperial mandate to decapitate him, and of his long 


banishment from his native land ; now returned from 
exile, earnestly and boldly declaring the truths of 
the gospel in the city from which he had fled. Well 
did he call on his audience to worship and give thanks 
to the God of heaven and earth for what He had done 
for them. With happy effect he dwelt upon the 
Saviour's life and example, and pointing to the paintings 
and illustrations of cures suspended around the hall of 
the hospital, informed his auditors that these were 
performed by His blessing, and in conformity to His 
precept and example ; at the same time declaring the 
great truths which concerned them still more, that their 
souls had maladies which none but Christ himself could 
cure. To all the hearers upon the Sabbath, and like- 
wise to all the patients during the week, irrespective of 
rank and condition, books, portions of the sacred 
Scriptures, and Christian tracts were given ; so that 
thousands of volumes, and myriads of pages of the 
Bible and Christian books have been sent forth from 
the hospital to scores of villages and hundreds of 
families, and to different and distant provinces. In view 
of the changes which have transpired in our time, we 
can but exclaim, ' What hath God wrought ! ' and rest 
with new and firmer faith in Him, that He will, in due 
time, fulfil all His promises of mercy and grace to this 

From July 1845, to December 1847, three more cases 
of lithotomy are reported ; one being that of a man 
much reduced by long-continued suffering, who sank 
and died three days after the operation; the others 
were successful. An instance is given of a patient, who 
had had both his feet cut off by highwaymen. He 

M 3 


was a grocer on his way to a city to make purchases, 
when he was overtaken and robbed. To be able to make 
their escape before he could reach the city and report 
them, the assailants first gagged him, and then most 
barbarously disarticulated both feet at the ankle-joint 
with a common knife. In this mutilated and helpless 
condition he was found by persons passing by, who 
conveyed him home. He was subsequently brought to 
the hospital. That he had not died from haemorrhage is 
remarkable. He remained some weeks at the hospital, 
where the stumps were daily dressed ; but before the 
wounds, which were in a healthy condition, were com- 
pletely healed, he preferred to take a supply of the 
necessary dressings, and to return to his friends. 

At this period, 1847, the use of sulphuric aether was 
first adopted in the hospital, to relieve the pain in 
operations, according to the method of Dr. C. Jackson 
of Boston. Dr. Parker expresses the delight with 
which he witnessed the effects of this anaesthetic agent 
hi causing the patients to feel no pain while being 
operated upon. It was tried in several cases ; some of 
the patients requested that they might have the adminis- 
tration of the aether repeated, on account of the pleasure 
they experienced during its action. 

At this period Dr. Parker writes : " With few excep- 
tions, when personal indisposition or political and 
popidar disturbances have prevented, the gospel has 
been proclaimed at the hospital every Sabbath. In 
addition to the services on the Sabbath, Leang Afah 
has attended every Monday, the day for admitting new 
patients, and addresses the assembled crowd of both 
sexes, and all classes, before they ascend to the hall 


above — explaining to them that the healing of their 
physical maladies, important as it is, holds but a 
secondary place ; that the paramount object is to 
convey to them a knowledge of the gospel and its 
infinite blessings. One of the gospels, or a Christian 
tract, is presented to each, and then they are admitted 
to the hall above, where they are registered and 
prescribed for." 

The mention of these religious services is followed 
by a short account of Leang Afah's life and labours. 
Besides the service at the hospital, he had public worship 
at his own house, in Hanan, and had baptized several of 
his countrymen. His preaching was characterised by 
great sincerity and affecting pathos. His prayers were 
most fervent, his Christian views strictly evangelical, his 
illustrations of the Scriptures lucid and clear, and his 
appeals frequently powerful in their impressions upon 
his auditors. It was once remarked by a Christian 
traveller, who attended one of the services, " that he 
did not understand a word of Chinese, but still he 
knew from the tones and gestures of the evangelist, that 
he was not only earnest, but even eloquent." 

In the report for 1848-9, Dr. Parker says, "It is 
perhaps too obvious to require remark, that the labour 
and responsibility involved in the care of so many, and 
such serious cases as present themselves constantly at 
the hospital, have not been small ; but it is a source of 
unfeigned gratitude that the continued Divine blessing 
has signally crowned these labours and responsibilities ; 
and the confidence and gratitude of Chinese of all 
grades, as reported in former years, has exhibited no 
abatement. The former imperial commissioner, Ke-ying, 

M 4 



since his return to Pekin, has sent to his old friend and 
physician for professional advice ; and his successor in 
office, Seu-kwang-tsin, with all his national prejudice, 
and policy hostile to foreigners, on a public occasion 
made honourable and complimentary allusion to the 
institution. Persons from the offices of high provincial 
dignitaries, the governor-general, the general of the 
Manchoos, and others, have availed themselves of the 
benefits of the hospital. Patients have been received 
from different and distant provinces of the empire, and 
in one instance a gentleman came a journey of two 
months from Cheh-kiano;, to obtain surgical aid. And 
that the Chinese are not ungrateful or unmindful of the 
benefits they receive, the scrolls and tablets presented 
by various patients sufficiently testify." 

Seven cases of lithotomy are reported during this 
period, which, with one exception, were successful. The 
subject of one of these operations afterwards presented 
two scrolls, having the following sentiments : — 

" Let the merits of Jesus, the Saviour of mankind, be 
promulgated throughout the world. 

" You deliver from all diseases, and by extraordinary 
means save myriads of people. 

" Liu-Lien-Mau presents his compliments." 

Another patient, on leaving the hospital, presented 
the following letter : — "Li the cyclical year Wu-shin 
(a.d. 1848), I had been afflicted with the stone disease 
for more than a year, and every (Chinese) physician 
having been unable to effect a cure, I repaired to Dr. 
Parker, the celebrated physician, and begged him to 
cut and extract the stone, and in some days I was well, 
and thus manifest the sentiments of my heart :— 


Not only according to true principles do you dissemi- 
nate your art : 
But, still more, in your emerald satchel you possess an 
assortment of wonderful prescriptions." 
Several gun-shot wounds are also reported, the result 
of attacks on passenger-boats and native vessels by pi- 
rates. Some of these injuries were very serious and 
required much attention. After the removal of a large 
tumour on the neck, in the operation on which the 
carotid artery required ligature, the patient was dis- 
charged well in a few weeks. 

A gentleman came from the interior, upwards of a 
thousand miles, seeking the removal of a large tumour 
on the cheek. He had heard of the hospital through 
friends who had visited Canton, and earnestly sought 
the relief which he knew had been afforded to others. 
The tumour was extirpated, and he soon recovered his 
health. Before returning home he wrote a letter in 
which, after expressing his gratitude, he said : — " I am 
about to return with my friends to Kwei-chau, and after 
returning home, I shall every day burn incense and 
light candles, and bowing my head to the ground, 
return thanks to the deified Jesus, and to God, the ma- 
jesty of heaven. I shall, moreover, write their names 
on cards, and will widely disseminate them among all 
the people, in order to make some return for their great 
favours." Before his departure he was shown that the 
religion of Christ was not one of mere outward observ- 
ance, and an effort was made to impart right views of 
the gospel, — that the heart alone is required in the wor- 
ship of the true God, and not the burning of incense 
and candles, as in the worship of idols. 


During this year, chloroform was first used in the 
hospital, with the full measure of relief from pain, under 
operations, and without any resulting ill effects. 

The religious services were regularly maintained, not 
without much impression upon several of the patients, 
from what they heard in the way of religious instruction. 
What they listened to in the hospital of this character, 
was all the more confirmed by what they saw done for 
the bodily relief of those who resorted thither. " It is 
a constant source of gratification to witness the living 
evidences of the divine blessing upon the medical mis- 
sionary cause, in the persons of those whose fives, 
through its agency, have been prolonged for years. From 
time to time, one and another calls, who, five or ten 
years since, by a surgical operation were delivered from 
evils fast hastening them to the grave ; then another 
who, fifteen years since, was on the border of disso- 
lution from an affection which, without foreign aid, had 
terminated speedily and fatally, is distinctly before the 

" After the experience of fifteen years, the cause of 
medical missions, whether as it respects its divine origin, 
or its peculiar adaptedness as a means to the introduc- 
tion of the gospel and its blessings in China, has not 
diminished my view of its importance. Confidence, 
friendship, and influence have thus been acquired, 
attainable in no other way so successfully." 

In 1850 — 51, the report mentions fifteen cases of 
lithotomy, in all of which the patients recovered. It 
is gratifying to know that in this particular branch of 
surgery much was effected for the relief of a painful 
and distressing malady, and the confidence shown by 


the patients in submitting to so painful an operation 
reflects the highest honour on Dr. Parker. The fact 
that the average of recoveries is decidedly above the 
number in similar operations in Europe shows not only 
the skill of the operator, but the excellence of the 
constitutions of the Chinese people, who do, hi fact, 
recover very readily after surgical operations. Several 
cases of tumour, some of them of a remarkably large 
size, are also reported. Such cases of tumour are not 
more prevalent in China than elsewhere, but in Europe 
they are removed at an early stage, while in the former 
country they are allowed to grow until they assume the 
enormous proportions that are seen at the various Mission 
hospitals, and frequently are so large as to be a most 
oppressive burden to the unfortunate patient. A Chinese 
artist, Larnqua, to show his appreciation of the value of 
the Canton hospital to his countrymen, took the portraits 
of many of Dr. Parker's more remarkable patients, first 
showing the malady from which they suffered, and then 
the appearance after the patient was cured. These 
paintings form an interesting series of characteristic 
maladies, and when Dr. Parker was in England, on one 
occasion, he presented a set of them to the Museum 
of Guy's Hospital, where they excite the surprise of 
students and visitors. 

One of the patients, the subject of lithotomy, on 
quitting the hospital, presented the following letter : — 
" I had been afflicted for several years with stone, 
which caused me no ordinary suffering ; subsequently 
I applied to Dr. Parker to cut me, and afford relief, and 
in less than one month this disease disappeared as a 
thing that is lost. Deep is the sincere gratitude I bear 


him, and I have composed this couplet as a record 
of my constant and lasting remembrance : 

By the stream, and by the steel, 
He can cure, and he can heal ; 
Life and health he can impart, 
Be he honoured, and his art. 

" Presented to the friendly inspection of the eminent 
physician, Dr. Parker. 

" Sie-Wan-Kwoh." 





Anothek patient, from whom a large tumour of the 
face had been removed, was a literary man of good 
talents and amiable disposition. During his stay in 
the hospital he had been a most attentive listener to 
the gospel, and seemed intellectually, at least, to be 
convinced of the truth and excellence of Christianity. 
On leaving he offered a scroll with the following in- 
scription : — " Sie-kien-hang, of the province of Kwang- 
si, presents his respects to the very benevolent Dr. 
Parker, and moved by his polite attention, addresses 
to him the following sentiments : — 

Oue look of healing wisdom he to regions far imparts, 

And thousand verdant orange-trees by the fountain-side he plants." 

Dr. Parker records his thanks to Dr. S. Majoribanks, 
who in most of the operations for stone, and in many 
other of the more serious surgical cases, cheerfully 
rendered his valuable aid ; also to Mr. H. Butter, to 
whose skill he was indebted for the delineations of the 
lithographic drawings of the series of calculi, which 
illustrate the reports. 

At its annual meeting, in 1850, the Canton branch 
of the society had the satisfaction of the presence of 


D. W. C. Olyphant Esq., one of the original founders and 
life-directors of the Medical Missionary Society in China. 
" To few in China, or out of it," says Dr. Parker, "does 
the society owe so much for its existence and pros- 
perity, under Providence, as to that distinguished mer- 
chant and Christian. His efforts to obtain a place for 
the hospital will not soon be forgotten ; an object ren- 
dered difficult of attainment by the jealousy of the 
Chinese, and their aversion to foreign innovation. After 
many, and long trials, he obtained the house that has 
been the theatre of its operations to this day. It afforded 
pleasure that he had the opportunity of revisiting this 
country, and witnessing the important changes since 
his last visit. Sanguine hopes were cherished that the 
recent occasion would not be without its beneficial re- 
sults to medical missions, and to all benevolent efforts 
for China, on Iris return to the United States. But an 
all-wise Providence ordered otherwise, and to the names 
of Abercrombie and Holford, distinguished advocates 
and promoters of medical missions, who are now no 
more, has been added that of Olyphant. His memory 
will be held in grateful and lasting remembrance." 

During this period the religious services at the hos- 
pital were maintained as heretofore, in as full efficiency 
as possible, and the written acknowledgments of pa- 
tients give pleasing evidence that the great principles 
inculcated had been correctly apprehended ; while ap- 
plications for aid from distant provinces, and expressions 
of most unbounded confidence showed to how wide an 
extent the operations of the hospital had become 
known and were appreciated. The amount of suffering 
alleviated, and the actual good effected can be more 


easily conceived than expressed. Salutary impressions 
had been produced on many minds, the extent and 
result of which another day will disclose ; and the en- 
couragement to persevere in the good work which had 
been .prosecuted for so many years, is ample and satis- 

The work at the hospital was continued with its 
usual efficiency in 1852 and 1853, although it devolved 
in great degree upon the native assistants. This was 
owing to the necessary absence from Canton of Dr. 
Parker, who was at this time appointed United States 
Minister in China. 

In 1855, the total number of patients entered in 
the hospital records, since its opening twenty years pre- 
viously, was reported as more than 53,000. During 
the previous year, 1854, the place had been closed for 
some time, owing to the disturbed state of the city, be- 
sieged by the army of the Triads. A large number of 
gun-shot, and other wounds were admitted at this 
period, but otherwise the character of the surgical and 
ophthalmic cases was similar to that of former years. 
A native assistant, who had been the chief dispenser 
for twelve years, died at this time. Dr. Parker thus 
concludes his report of the seventeenth anniversary of 
the society, and the twenty-first of his residence in 
China :— " Memory brings up the past. It recalls years 
of toil ; and all the responsibility of one who has been 
entrusted with the health and lives of thousands, and 
tens of thousands of fellow-men, embracing every con- 
dition of life, from the beggar to the member of the 
imperial house ; every grade of office from the street- 
constable to the imperial commissioner. 


" Wearisome days and sleepless nights have been 
spent ; the best of my days have been devoted to the 
labour of endeavouring, with the divine blessing, to 
arrest maladies that were hastening; their victims to the 
grave. To the deaf, hearing ; to the blind, sight ; to 
the dying, life, have been instrumentally restored. I 
have had the gratification of seeing some who have sur- 
vived severe operations, for five, ten, and even twenty 
years, who had diseases which woidd have long since 
terminated in death if they had not been arrested, and 
then after restoration to health have passed away. 

" To many thousands, truths before unknown, the 
sublime doctrines of revelation have been declared and 
expounded, and thousands of copies of the gospels and 
Christian tracts have been distributed. The influence 
of these efforts has already been apparent, but the final 
result cannot be known, till all who have come under 
their reception have passed away. Then, whatever 
may have been the aggregate blessings conferred by 
medical missions, if it shall appear that one Chinese 
has been induced to quit his idolatry, and is recognised 
as one blest for eternity, it will outweigh all the physi- 
cal and temporal good." 

The report of the meeting of the Canton society in 
1856, states that Dr. J. G. Kerr, of the American 
Presbyterian Mission, had consented to take charge of 
the Ophthalmic hospital, during the absence of Dr. 
Parker from China, and that the hospital had accor- 
dingly been transferred to the care of Dr. Kerr in May 
1855. The report for that year was destroyed with 
other papers by a fire on the premises of the Presby- 
terian mission, but the work of the hospital was fully 


maintained, and during the year five cases of lithotomy, 
and several other operations had been performed. 
Thanks were accorded to Dr. Parker for the gift of 
his stock of medicines on his departure for the United 
States ; to the Hong merchant, Howqua, for the con- 
tinued use of the hospital building free of rent ; and to 
Dr. W. G. Dickson, for his various operations for stone, 
and for his counsel and assistance on other occasions 
during the year. 

At the meeting in 1857, Dr. Kerr's report for 1856 
was read, he having been compelled, by failure of 
health, to leave China for the United States. Dr. Kerr 
says, " In the year 1855, Dr. Parker, who had charge 
of the Ophthalmic Hospital, proposed to me to take 
charge of it during his absence in the United States, 
whither he was about to go. Although I then had 
charge of a dispensary which fully occupied my time, it 
seemed very undesirable on all accounts to permit the 
hospital to be closed, and I consented to the proposed 
arrangement. After undergoing some necessary re- 
pairs, the building was opened for the reception of 
patients in June 1855, and the hospital and dispensary 
were to be used for the attendance of the sick, who 
have been very numerous." "The diseases treated 
have been mostly of a chronic character, many of them 
such as had for a Ions; time resisted the remedies of 
native physicians, and not a few were incurable. The 
majority of the patients have been from among the 
poor and labouring class of society ; but many persons 
in easy circumstances, and a few literary men and 
officers, have sought medical aid. Much suffering has 
been relieved, sight has been restored to the blind, 



deformities removed, and in many cases life lias been 
prolonged. The gratitude of the patients has been 
manifested by a profusion of thanks, and sometimes by 
small presents." Six cases of lithotomy were operated 
on by Dr. Dickson, who also performed several other 
operations with his accustomed kindness and skill, and 
the general work of the hospital was prosecuted under 
very encouraging circumstances. The religious ser- 
vices also were held regularly as heretofore, conducted 
by Dr. S. W. Williams and the Eev. J. B. French, and 
portions of the Scriptures and Christian tracts were 
freely given to all the patients and their friends whc 
accompanied them. 

On December 14th, 1856, the hospital building was 
destroyed by fire, when the foreign factories were 
burned by the Chinese, owing to the hostilities which 
had broken out between the Chinese and the English 
in that year. For twenty-one years had the operations 
of the medical mission been carried forward in the 
premises, which, since 1842, had been generously given 
free of rent by their owner Howqua, which favour was 
to be continued as long as the building should be used 
for hospital purposes. Most of the medicines were 
kept at the dispensary, which was destroyed by fire 
October 29th, 1856 ; the hospital furniture and the 
general apparatus were all lost in the conflagration of 
December. The building itself, in its arrangements 
and ventilation, was ill adapted to its purpose, and 
its locality was unfavourable, as being too far re- 
moved from the river. It is greatly to be desired, on 
behalf of the future efforts of medical missionaries 
in Canton, that a suitable building be obtained, in 


which the improvements of modern hospitals may 
be secured. 

Kejoicing, as we must, that so much has been done 
at this hospital during the many years in which its 
doors were open, we cannot but feel distressed that its 
usefulness should be brought to so sudden and abrupt a 
close. The work of the medical mission in Canton is, 
however, still maintained, and, as will be seen in another 
part of this history, many Chinese patients in that city 
are cared for by the devoted labour of a well-educated 
Chinese surgeon, Dr. Wang-fun, who proceeded to 
Canton immediately upon the cessation of hostilities. 

In April 1848, after considerable difficulty, Dr. 
Hobson obtained a house in the western suburbs of 
Canton, at Kum-le-fow, situate on the banks of the 
river* and in a populous neighbourhood. The inter- 
ference on the part of the government officers against 
a foreigner's renting a house was soon overcome, and a 
dispensary was at once opened on the premises. Many 
patients applying for relief, and the position of the 
house being favourable, various alterations were made 
to adapt it to the wants of a hospital. These being 
completed, the regular work was begun, the healing of 
the sick, distribution of books, and the preaching of the 
Gospel, were carried forward by Dr. Hobson and his 
native evangelists. Numerous patients presented them- 
selves, and large numbers of women unhesitatingly came 
for relief from various maladies. Amongst the cases of 
special interest there were several that were incurable, 
but to the majority immediate relief was afforded. 
Instances of attempted suicide by opium which were 
brought in were restored, and life was saved. 

N 2 


Dr. Hobson remarks on insanity : — " Considering the 
phlegmatic temperament, and temperate habits of the 
Chinese, it might be anticipated that this malady is not 
of frequent occurrence, and I think further inquiry will 
prove that insanity prevails to a much less extent in 
China than in Europe. It has been rarely mentioned 
in the list of diseases treated by medical missionaries ; 
and on referring to the ' Golden Mirror of Medical 
Practice,' a standard work in China, I find a very 
meagre description of the symptoms, cause, and treat- 
ment of this disease. Idiocy is properly distinguished 
from lunacy, and this latter is divided into two kinds. 
Kwang and Tien, the first (mania) belongs to the Yang 
principle, with an excess of fire or excitement ; the 
second (dementia) partakes of the Yin principle, with 
fluidity in excess, and a state of depression, and there 
may be a transition of one into the other.'" 

" Lunatic asylums are unknown in China. Several 
young and grown-up persons, idiotic from their birth, 
have been brought for treatment, some of them with 
remarkably formed heads, flattened on one side, smaller 
than natural, or conical ; but during eight years I have 
seen only two cases of insanity, both men of about forty 
years of age. One was violent and mischievous, and 
often furious when displeased. It appeared that his 
mind had been much depressed by losses in trade and 
the death of his children. His friends had chained 
one hand and foot to a large block of granite. He 
was under treatment for some time, but with no per- 
manent benefit. The second was a mild case of 
mania. He was occasionally violent, but could some- 
times answer questions rationally. After treatment in 


the hospital for some days he was quite restored to 
his usual health." 

On the apparent frequency of tumours amongst the 
Chinese, Dr. Hobson says : — " I doubt whether the 
opinion commonly expressed is a correct one, that 
Asiatics are peculiarly the subjects of unnatural enlarge- 
ments and large growths. In the West many tumours 
are removed by operation almost as soon as they ap- 
pear, and are never seen or heard of; still a large 
number come under the care of hospital surgeons. 
In the East, more especially in China, the excision of 
tumours by the knife of the native practitioner is 
scarcely, if ever, practised. I never heard of a single 
case. The consequence is, that the tumours go on 
increasing both in number and size from year to year, 
and thus excite attention, and produce the impression 
of their greater frequency among the people." Several 
operations for the removal of tumours are reported for 
the year. 

" Canton, considering its population, seems peculiarly 
free from severe, continued, and intermittent fevers. 
I have heard recently of several deaths from cholera, 
among the first of which was the father of a child who 
was under my care. He was seized with cramp and 
died in two hours. The malady is called in the dialect 
Chow-kan-ching, ' a drawing up of the tendons.' " 

" The mortality of children from small-pox is every 
year very great, and the amount of blindness, or leu- 
coma, resulting from it, is painful to refer to. The 
benefits of vaccination on any large scale appear chiefly 
confined to Canton, and yet here there are multitudes 
who have a prejudice against it. There is also reason 

N 3 


to fear that the virus has degenerated. Attempts are 
now making to renew the supply." 

The attendance of old and new patients at the hos- 
pital each day varies from 100 to 250, and the congre- 
gation at the religious sendees on the Sabbath was 
generally from 80 to 150, but at times as many as 
250 or 300 were present. Dr. Hobson concludes his 
report for 1848-49 : — " On looking back upon the past 
sixteen months there appears much to be grateful for. 
A missionary living with his family among a heathen 
population, and surrounded by so many that are 
viciously disposed, is much exposed to malevolent feel- 
ing. The preservation experienced of life and property, 
and the freedom from all molestation and harm, are 
surely to be attributed to the gracious protection of 
God. Thousands of the poor and wretched have been 
healed of their sicknesses ; many have received sight 
and hearing ; pain has been assuaged ; fears of a life of 
misery have been removed ; and much suffering has 
been prevented by a timely operation. The institution 
has proved a benevolent one, and is in some measure 
appreciated, we hope, by the multitudes who have re- 
ceived the gratuitous aid that it affords. To the 
afflicted poor it has been, and, it is hoped, will be, an 
unspeakable blessing. Many faithful discourses have 
been preached ; frequent religious conversations have 
been held ; and thousands of copies of Christian tracts 
been put into circulation. And some fruit has already 
appeared in the conversion and baptism of two of the 
patients, and the hopeful change that shows itself in the 
conduct of several others." 

The hospital thus auspiciously commenced in a part 


of the Canton suburbs where no foreigner had pre- 
viously resided, was continued with increasing success, 
and in 1854 Dr. Hobson reports : " The attendance of 
the sick increased rapidly, and the good effected at 
the hospital was so apparent that all opposition was 
hushed. The obtruder was regarded with some sus- 
picion at first, and even talked of as a spy, who was 
secretly working to gain the hearts of the people to rebel 
against the state, and that the doctrines taught were 
contrary to Confucius and unsuitable for China. These 
and many other foolish reports were put into circula- 
tion at first, but they were gradually seen not to be 
founded in truth ; nor during a period of six years was 
any disturbance or interruption experienced." 

Early in 1854, when it was found necessary to ob- 
tain larger premises, and an effort was made to rent a 
house in an eligible position near to the old one, great 
opposition was raised by the neighbours, and there was 
much difficulty in getting possession. The landlord 
was imprisoned and heavily fined, for presuming to 
rent his house to a foreigner. These difficulties were 
however removed by the intervention of the British 
Consul and Her Majesty's Plenipotentiary, and the new 
premises having been altered and repaired, Dr. Hobson 
and his family quietly moved into them. When the 
street-door was opened a few days after for the admis- 
sion of sick there was a large attendance of patients. 
These were prescribed for on four days in the week ; 
and on these occasions the hospital was like a market, 
so great was the Crowd who flocked to it, and a good 
opportunity was thus afforded for teaching the things 
concerning the kingdom of God, and of distributing 



freely many Christian books. The works on natural 
philosophy, on anatomy, and physiology (more fully 
noticed in another place), were at this time carried 
through the press. The Governor-General's father had 
the plates of the treatise on anatomy recut, and taste- 
fully arranged on eight scrolls, with commendatory re- 
marks of his own on the character of the work. The 
entire book was reprinted by the same individual. 
The edition issued by a native gentleman has an ex- 
tensive and profitable sale, thus proving the estima- 
tion in which the work was held by the people for 
whose benefit it was written. 

All the simple operations on the eye and ear, the 
removal of small tumours, the extraction of teeth, 
dressing wounds, &c, were performed by the assistant, 
Ho-king-mun, who also assisted in prescribing for the 
sick. He was able to use the stomach-pump, and 
other means for the recovery of attempted suicides by 
opium. Of these no fewer than 117 were brought to 
the hospital, or visited at their own houses, in fifteen 
months ; seventy-five of them recovered. About two- 
thirds of the number were young females. 

Of leprosy, Dr. Hobson remarks : " Mention has been 
often made of the prevalence and incurable nature of 
leprosy. It is gratifying to state that the seeds of the 
Chaid moogra are found to be of real service. Dr. 
Mount of Calcutta drew my attention to this fact, and 
sent me a quantity of the seeds. These were given in 
the form of coarse powder, in doses of sixty grains, 
twice a day, and the expressed oil rubbed on the erup- 
tion occasionally. I have seen two cases certainly 
cured, and several others much benefited. The remedy 


must be persevered in for not less than from four to 
six months ; under its action the diseased surface 
gradually assumes the appearance of healthy skin. The 
remedy is known to the Chinese under the name of 
Ta-fung-tsze for the seeds, and Ta-fung-yew for the 
oil ; but those who have any experience of its value 
keep it a secret for their own profit. The Chinese 
account says that it is imported from the south (pro- 
bably the Straits). It produces a change in the blood ; 
hence useful in the diseased blood of leprosy ; it is 
also useful to apply the expressed oil to ulcers, itch, 
and psoriasis, and it kills worms. The seeds should be 
given in the form of pills." * 

In his report, Dr. Hobson warmly expresses his 
thanks to his friend Dr. Walter Dickson, who was in 
practice in Canton, for his very valuable assistance in 
the hospital ; not only in the performance of operations, 
but by the numerous and beautiful drawings for the 
illustrations of the works alluded to above. 

The advantage of the more commodious premises 
was fully realised during the years 1854 and 1855, 
when, owing to the fighting before Canton between the 
Imperialists and the members of the Triad society, who 
sought to take the city, many wounded were brought 
to the hospital. The number of those admitted was 
more than 500. At one period a great sensation was 
caused in Canton, and its vicinity, by the stir of convey- 

* From Dr. Hobson's Hospital Report for 1854. He has since 
written an excellent paper on leprosy, which appeared in the 
Medical Times and Gazette for 2nd of June, 1860. It is too long 
for insertion here, but is well worthy the perusal of all who are 
interested in the subject of the diseases of the East. 


ing wounded soldiers through the streets, and large 
boats bringing wounded militia by water. The hospital 
was thronged with visitors, and friends and companions 
of the wounded. The largest number occupying the 
wards at any one time was 135, of whom about forty 
were attendants on the patients. The anxiety occa- 
sioned by so severe a demand upon his labour brought 
on exhaustion and fever, and Dr. Hobson was compelled 
to take a voyage to Shanghai in December 1854, to 
recruit his health, while Dr. Dickson kindly undertook 
the care of the wounded in the hospital wards. On 
his return, after a month's absence, Dr. Hobson found 
that all had gone on well ; the native assistant and the 
hospital servants had, however, suffered much from the 
hard work required of them. The greater number of 
wounds were from gunshot, chiefly gingall balls *, caus- 
ing fearful mischief, with much laceration and contusion 
of the flesh. 

Native physicians were provided by the government 
for the sick and wounded, and the militia (village 
braves) also had native surgeons, who were paid accord- 
ing to the number of cures they effected. As none of 
them, especially at first, had courage or ability to ex- 
tract balls or attend to dangerous cases, these were 
mostly brought to the hospitals by their friends, or sent 
by their superior officers or the managing village com- 
mittees with a card of introduction. In this way large 
numbers were brought in day after day. 

Kelioious instruction was carried on both on the 


weekday and on the Sabbath for some time by Leang- 
Afah, the " old disciple" and preacher, who for several 

* Vide page 20. 


j^ears had been associated with Dr. Parker and Dr. 
Hobson in their respective hospitals, in making known 
to the Chinese the great truths of Christianity. This 
good old man, full of years and faith, was suddenly 
taken to his rest in April 1855. He was ordained by 
the late Dr. Morrison in 1823, and had faithfully ful- 
filled the work given him to do. 

At this period the ordinary work of the hospital was 
very great, as may be seen from a record of the new 
patients for one day : — 

" October 14, 1854. Eeceived ten gunshot wounds 
from the country : 

1. Gunshot wound of the shoulder ; ball passing 
through the head of the bone, and grazing the ribs. 

2. Gunshot wound of the hand. Cured. 

3. Gunshot wound of the fore-arm. Cured. 

4. Gunshot wound of thigh. Died from trismus. 

5. Gunshot wound of chest. Cured. 

6 to 9. Superficial gunshot wounds. Cured. 
10. Gunshot wound of the head ; brain protruding. 

A similar list might be given for many successive days. 
Sometimes when it was thought the day's work was 
finished, a large boatfull of wounded men would arrive, 
requiring of course immediate attention. The number 
of old and new patients prescribed for during the 
year was nearly 30,000, of whom about 10,000 were 
separate cases who appeared for the first time. Con- 
cluding his report for 1855, Dr. Hobson says : — " It must 
not be supposed that in conducting hospitals in China 


we have the same appliances and means at command 
as exist in Christian countries. There, ample means are 
provided, and there is a staff of officers who are able to 
do much of the work. Here, it is very different ; one 
individual has to do the work of many ; his assistants 
are natives, who are not always trustworthy and require 
constant superintendence. The pecuniary assistance is 
inadequate to do more than meet the incidental ex- 
penses, on a small scale, and provide medicine. The 
patient, while residing in the hospital, has to provide 
his own personal expenses. In performing operations 
regard must be had to the wishes of the patient's friends. 
One unsuccessful case, without the full consent of the 
patient and his relatives, would endanger the reputation 
of the hospital, and give ground for the unjust and in- 
jurious remark, ' the doctor killed the patient.' Using 
the knife among a people so suspicious and fault-finding 
requires unusual caution ; and hence it is found neces- 
sary to divide the responsibility in undertaking opera- 
tions that involve danger to life, and it is wise only to 
perforin those that hold out a very favourable hope of 
recovery. It has often been matter of surprise that the 
people should have such confidence in a foreigner's ad- 
vice, and take so readily the medicines he prescribes. 
The question is often put, 'Are they thankful?' Some 
are very grateful ; the greater number are unthankful or 
indifferent, and a few make the obligation to appear to 
be on our side. The long-cherished hope and desire of 
the Christian, is, not to receive thanks for the few favours 
he can bestow, but to see this people willing to receive 
the richer blessings of the soul, towards which there 
is such chilling indifference." 


The report for the following year (1856) speaks of 
the unabated confidence of the people in the hospital 
and its managers, while regretting that bodily relief ex- 
clusively is sought rather than spiritual advantage. Dr. 
Hobson remarks : " In hundreds of cases health has 
been restored. Many persons who were led into the 
house blind, from cataract and other causes, have re- 
turned home with good sight ; others whose life was 
rendered miserable by the weight and pain of cumber- 
some tumours, or offensive cancerous growths, have 
have had their health and lives preserved perhaps for 
years to come. A few cases of calculus have found 
effectual relief by an operation ; a variety of accidents 
from falls, bursting of guns, explosions of gunpowder, 
and gunshot wounds, together with numerous cases 
of poisoning by opium, have also found here an asylum 
where such casualties are wont to be relieved." 

The patients, when assembled from time to time to 
receive religious instruction, are often asked, "What 
means this care and gratuitous aid to the sick?" "Why 
is this hospital conducted by a foreign surgeon, and as- 
sisted by donations from foreign residents ? What poli- 
tical intrigues influence us ? We have nothing to do 
with government business. We simply desire your 
good ; show you the benevolent nature of Christianity, 
and urge you to turn from idols to serve the living 
God." The argument is one that none can gainsay ; all 
must admit its truth. But while it produces impressions 
favourable to religion, and removes some prejudices, 
yet, in most instances, it stops there ; and we still 
look for that softening and subduing influence upon 
their feelings and character, which a long course 


of kind treatment might naturally be expected to 

There were quite as many patients during this as in 
the previous year ; and were the cases all of serious 
character it had not been possible to attend to the ap- 
plicants in a single day, the number of whom was 
seldom under 100 ; and during eight months of the 
year, more than twice, and occasionally more than 
three times that number. The religious services were 
well maintained. During the latter part of the year 
several persons were brought under religious impres- 
sion, and gave marked attention to the Christian doc- 
trines. Out of twenty persons who requested baptism, 
ten were considered to give satisfactory evidence of 
being true converts, and were accordingly baptized in 
January 1856, by the Eev. Dr. Legge. 

Not a week passed at this time without some sur- 
gical operation being necessary. The smaller ones, as 
those on the eye and ear, the removal of small tumours, 
tapping for hydrocele, have been performed as usual 
by the native assistant. " Eeferring to him," says Dr. 
Hobson, " I may state that a few months ago the 
Chinese government, wishing to show some token of 
acknowledgment for sendees rendered to their wounded 
soldiers in the hospital, sent him, through an official, the 
following communication : — 

" ' Quickly announce to Ho-king-mun, of such an 
honourable house, that the Governor-General of the 
two provinces, and the Lieut. -Governor have re- 
ceived the Imperial will, that the individual recom- 
mended above be rewarded with a white crystal button, 
corresponding to the sixth rank of an officer of the 


government. Made known by the high officers.' This 
title of honour, while it confers no emolument nor 
office, gives a certain status in society, allows the indi- 
vidual to wear an official costume on certain occasions, 
and exempts him from being seized by the police. 
Surprise may be felt that the pupil should receive 
honour, and the foreign surgeon none. The explana- 
tion may be this, that while indirectly it was designed 
for the latter, the high officials, especially in Canton, try 
to ignore foreigners altogether, and cannot condescend 
to acknowledge then' obligations, even though they may 
appreciate the benefits received." 

" The painful operations, as cutting for stone, re- 
moving large tumours and cancerous growths from the 
breast, neck, and other parts, were performed by Dr. 
Dickson, who, to relieve me from anxiety, and afford 
me some time for other duties, has very kindly taken 
the operating department off my hands." 

" There are three young men practising medicine in 
Canton, who received some instruction in the hospital. 
If they had been more steady, and had ob tamed more 
knowledge of medicine and surgery, they would by 
this time have been experienced practitioners. One 
of them is gaining some celebrity for his successful 
couching of cataract. He, with, another, were well 
remunerated for opening a small hospital in the country 
to receive wounded militia during the disturbances of 
last year. Occasionally we hear of persons, for the 
purpose of gaining money, affirming that they have 
learned the art of curing diseases of the eye in the 
hospital. Not many months since an individual in a 
country town was deceived in this manner, and paid a 


few dollars in advance for an operation for cataract. 
He came here afterwards with one eye ruined, but 
fortunately the other had been untouched, winch saved 
him from total blindness." 

" It was stated in a former report, that fifty patients 
were usually in the house at one time, but the number 
has often been suddenly increased to seventy or eighty, 
for whom, especially in hot weather, there was not 
sufficient accommodation. To remedy this want, two 
more rooms on the ground floor were erected. The 
expense of these new wards, and of several other im- 
provements which the premises required, was met by 
funds contributed for the purpose by various friends." 

Such was the condition of the hospital in July 
1856, from which time to the following October, when 
its operations were suddenly and completely suspended 
by the unexpected hostilities which arose, the institution 
had never been in a more prosperous state. The 
premises being in the vicinity of some large batteries 
in the western suburbs, it was thought desirable by Her 
Majesty's Consul that they should be early vacated, as 
firing from these forts was expected from the com- 
mencement. Not supposing that the affairs then pending 
would be of long or difficult adjustment, scarcely any- 
thing belonging to the establishment was removed. 
A short time prior the repairs of the hospital had been 
completed, comfortable accommodation was provided 
for one hundred in-patients, who were increasing in 
number every year, and with few exceptions entirely 
maintained themselves. The out-patients, who were 
prescribed for four times a week, averaged on each 
occasion from two to three hundred. Attending to 


these with due care, performing numerous operations, 
publishing books, and exercising a general superin- 
tendence over a native Christian church, and several 
native assistants engaged in the hospital, or the country 
around, in tract and Bible distribution, occupied all the 
time and strength of one individual. Within the pre- 
mises, besides the numerous wards, were a chapel, a 
dispensary, book stores, rooms for the assistants, and 
accommodation for the medical missionary and his 
family. The poor, the maimed, the blind, and the 
lame were found there daily ; the place was to them a 
refuse constant and unfailing. And in the review of 
all that was done in that hospital, and by its instrumen- 
tality, it is satisfactory to be assured that so much was 
effected, both in the relief of human suffering, and the 
preaching and distribution of God's holy word. It 
may be interesting to insert here the following account 
of the proceedings at the Canton hospital on the Sab- 
bath clay, published by an eye-witness in one of the 
London journals for October 1854 : — 

"We recently spent a Sabbath there, and the scenes 
of that day — and they were the scenes of every 
Sabbath there — were such as would enlist the interest 
and prayerful hope of every friend to Christian mis- 
sions. At eight o'clock a.m. we joined a company 
assembled in an upper room. Three native members 
of the Christian church were there, and seated round 
were upwards of a score of Chinese, most of whom 
were patients, or their attendants from the wards. A 
copy of the Testament was handed to each man, and 
for many of them the place was found, for some of 
them had not seen the Book of Life before. A young 



Christian Chinese gave a simple, clear, and earnest ex- 
position of the appointed verses, which was followed 
by a further statement, or more fervent application, 
from Dr. Hobson. Then came a final prayer, and this 
morning service terminated. 

" The patients were mustering early in the chapel 
seats, which by the hour of eleven were wellnigh 
filled, and the places appropriated to those connected 
with the hospital were occupied. At that hour the 
aged evangelist, Leang-Afah, walked to the preacher's 
seat. The order of conducting service was similar to 
that of Congregational churches at home, but the aged 
man follows the custom of his country's sages, and sits 
to teach. On the occasion we refer to, he expounded 
closely and vigorously the Apostle Paul's address to the 
Athenians, and his hearers were attentive. As he 
concluded his address, the foreign teacher stepped for- 
ward to the table. With the earnest affection and 
effort of an acknowledged friend are they urged to lay 
hold on eternal life. 

" After the preaching of God's word, we entered the 
consulting room, and saw ability to relieve the suffer- 
ing mixed with the charity which careth for the soul. 
Like a market was the place outside, for the patients 
were numerous ; but two tract distributors were busy 
among them, and now and then a knot of listeners 
would gather round them to receive some explanation. 
Seated at a table was Leang-Afah, explaining to a 
goodly circle of those waiting to be healed, the book 
of God, or answering their objections to his preaching. 
Surely it was a goodly sight, and the Lord of the 
harvest will bless such labours, if His servants ask it of 


" The afternoon was no less profitably employed by 
the indefatigable missionary. He was seen leading on 
the two native Christians from ward to ward, and in 
each ward they read, conversed, and prayed, until all 
in the hospital heard of that Saviour, ' whom to know 
is life eternal.' 

" On three week days the hospital is again opened 
for preaching and healing the diseased. At the time 
we write the attendance is greater than has ever been 
known, although in the month of June it amounted to 
3,400. From ten a.m. to three p.m. is the morning en- 
gaged, in addition to the attention called for by in-door 
patients. The wards are filled with wounded soldiers, 
and three large boats are lying close to the hospital, 
which have brought men from the country ports where 
there is now fighting. Including attendants on the 
sick, there are a hundred people residing in the hos- 

As before stated, Dr. Hobson had to leave the hos- 
pital in October 1856. For some time after the pre- 
mises were vacated, the people in the neighbourhood, 
who, a few years before, had been adverse to the renting 
of a house in that district to a foreigner, voluntarily 
took charge of the hospital buildings and all that they 
contained. They preserved them from an excited 
populace, punished two or three persons who were 
detected pilfering, and intended to hand the premises 
over uninjured to the original occupier on his return. 
They had no expectation of the distress that would be en- 
tailed on all classes by the obstinate conduct of their Go- 
vernor, nor any idea of the severe pressure of continued 
hostilities, with the increase of destitute persons in the 

o 2 


city. Their protection of the hospital was gradually 
and of necessity withdrawn, and soon after nothing- 
remained but the bare walls. Such was the report 
current at the time, and it is now referred to, to show 
the good-will which such an institution wins for itself, 
even from those who were formerly inimical. 

Disappointment and regret at such an unexpected 
termination of cherished hopes and years of toil could 
not but be deeply felt. But the labour has not been 
lost ; information was brought from Macao in 1857 of 
several persons who attribute their religious impres- 
sions to the Christian instruction imparted in the 
hospital at Kum-le-fow. 

It had long been Dr. Hobson's intention to follow up 
the "Treatise on Physiology," published in 1850, with 
a practical work on surgery ; but numerous engage- 
ments in the management of the hospital at Canton 
prevented. Hostilities in that city rendering a removal 
to Shanghai desirable, the opportunity was afforded 
for completing the work. 

Dr. Hobson removed to Shanghai in February 
1857, and carried through the press his work on sur- 
gery, which is spoken of hi another place ; and when, in 
the latter part of that year, the writer was compelled 
by domestic circumstances to return for a time to 
England, Dr. Hobson took charge of the Chinese hos- 
pital at Shanghai, and carried on all the work for 
more than a year, until failing health made it necessary 
that he should seek a renewal of strength by a return 
to his native land. 

In 1857, Dr. Wang-fun a Chinese, after the comple- 
tion of his medical course in Edinburgh, was sent out 


by the London Missionary Society as medical mis- 
sionary to Canton. Upon the occupation of that city 
by British troops in 1858, he proceeded thither, and 
after a little time regained possession of the hospital at 
Kum-le-fow. He repaired the premises which had been 
much injured, and recommenced the work of the hos- 
pital, which is still actively and successfully prosecuted. 

Dr. Hobson gives in one of his reports the following 
information on Chinese medicines : — 

" The following order and list of medicines is taken 
from a popular and standard work, called an Abridg- 
ment or Selection of the Chinese Native Medicines. In 
this work there are 442 medicinal agents described : 
first, their name is given ; then the part or organ into 
which they enter or affect ; next their properties, whe- 
ther hot or cold, their taste, smell, and colour ; and, 
lastly, their uses and doses. 

I. Tonic Medicines. 

" 1. Those medicines which warm and strengthen 
the viscera : such as ginseng, dried dates, fruit of the 
lung-gan and li-che, flesh of fowls, and beef, honey, 

" 2. Mild and tranquillising tonics : liquorice root, 
parasite of mulberry tree, fruit of the cypress, old rice, 
broad beans, yam, asses' glue, birds' nests, mutton, duck, 

" 3. Medicines which increase the natural fire, or 
stimulating tonics : cassia, cinnamon, aloes wood, sul- 
phur, asbestos, stalactite, tops of hartshorn, dried red 
spotted lizard, silkworm moth, &c. 

" 4. Medicines which nourish the secretions, espe- 

o 3 


cially of the kidneys : linseed, elm bark, medlar, minium, 
black and white lead, tortoise shell, human milk, and 

" 5. Medicines Avhich strengthen the kidneys and 
testes : glue from stag's horn and bones, stag's flesh, 
dog's flesh, dried placenta, ferns, walnuts, &c. 

II. Astringents. 

" 1. Warm and tonic astringents : nutmeg, gall nuts, 
lotus seeds, poppy seeds, &c. 

"2. Cooling astringents : pomegranate's skin, char- 
coal, burnt straw, bones and tusk* of dragon, oyster 
shell, &c. 

" 3. General pure astringents : seeds of date (a kind 
of sisiphus), Armenian bole, quince, and sour plum. 

" 4. Eepressing weakness, or tonic astringents : iron 
filings, haematite, loadstone, talc, litharges, gold and 
silver leaf. 

III. Resolvents. 

"1. Cold diaphoretics: fragrant basil, ginseng, ginger, 
orange-stalks, onions and leeks. 

" 2. Medicines which disperse wind : mint, species 
of bivalve shell, cassia, mimosa pods and seeds, seeds 
of acacia, tigers' bones, spotted and black snake, musk, 
dried scorpion, cicada, centipede, shed snake skins, cam- 

" 3. Medicines which disperse moisture (not recog- 

* In reality fossil tusk of the Megatherium and other extinct 
animals found in Sze-chuen, which are generally called dragon's 



" 4. Medicines which disperse morbid heat : yarn, 
black pulse-curd, and soy made from pulse. 

" 5. Emetics : white hellebore, seeds and root of 
turnip, skins of marsh-melon, sulphate of copper. 

" 6. Warm resolvents : nutmeg, long, white, and 
black pepper, cardamoms, putchuck, mugwort, ani- 
seed, ginger, galangal, corn flag, tobacco, cloves, sandal 
wood, gum benzoin, camphor, barley, resin, caraway, 
and mustard seeds. 

" 7. Mild, equalising resolvents : chamomile, rush, 
seeds of burdock, putchuck, duckweed, betel root, 
pumelo or shaddock peel or skin, orange peel, mint, 
dried silkworm chrysalis and ordure. 

IV. Purgatives. 

" 1. Absorbents of moisture : rice-paper plant (a 
kind of flag), sliced China root. 

" 2. Laxatives : plantago seeds, soap-stone or stea- 
tite, fossil pecten, sage, amber, red beans, &c. 

" 3. Diuretics : ferns (several not recognisable). 

" 4. Expectorants, or suppressing phlegm : alum, be- 
zoar, borax, pistachio nuts, mica, concretions hi the 

" 5. Purgative or cooling : rhubarb, bamboo shav- 
ings, persimmon tops, water-melon, pears, verdigris, sea- 
shells, gypsum, common salt, sulphate of soda, warm 
water, calcareous spar, catechu, pearls, bear's gall, 
preparations from human ordure. 

" 6. Eefrigerants purging away fire: red and yellow 
gentian, sliced peony, mulberry root and leaves, harts- 
horn shavings, loquat leaves, rhinoceros horn shavings. 

" 7. Eepressing humours : almonds, buckwheat, &c. 

o 4 


"8. Mild digestive aperients : lily roots, wormwood, 
coarse rice, turtle shell, &c. 

V. Medicines which affect the blood. 

" 1. Those which warm and nourish it : germander, 
brown sugar, ohbanum, cassia wood, wine, scalhons, 
rabbit dung, cuttle-fish bone. 

" 2. Medicines which cool the blood : saffron, cy- 
press tops, elm-tree root, cinnabar, rabbit's flesh. 

" 3. Astringents of the blood : madder, turmeric, 
myrrh, dried varnish, plums, dragon's blood, peach 
seeds, arrow root, old copper cash, dried leeches, red 
marble, goat's ordure, cantharides. 

VI. Miscellaneous. 

" 1. Medicines which destroy worms : assafcetida, 
betel root, quicksilver, chloride of mercury (native ca- 
lomel), vermilion. 

" 2. Medicines which disperse poisons : seeds of cas- 
tor oil plant, resin, ivory shavings, elephant's skin, pre- 
parations from toads. 

" 3. Expelling poisons or alteratives : burdock 
seeds, honeysuckle flowers, green peas, dried earth 

" 4. Poisonous substances : croton oil seeds, arsenic, 

Summary. — " The native medicine is divided into 
vegetable, mineral, and animal kingdoms. 

" From the vegetable kingdom there are 314 articles: 
from herbs, trees, fruits, seeds, and vegetables. 

" From the mineral fifty articles : from metals, mine- 
rals, fossils, crystals, and earths. 


" From the animal kingdom seventy-eight articles : 
parts of animals, reptiles, fishes, shell-fish, insects, &c. 
Altogether 442 ; of the several articles used in medicine 
many of them are native, others come from Europe, 
Japan, Siam, and the straits." 






The hospital at Hongkong, built on one of the hills 
to the eastward of the town of Victoria, was opened 
by Dr. Hobson on June 1st, 1843. We read in the 
report for 1844 : " The large number of in-patients 
that Dr. Hobson has been able to treat in its wards, is 
worthy of notice, as giving more full and lengthened 
opportunities of conversing with them on religious sub- 
jects ; and it is with much satisfaction that we direct 
attention to the residence in the Institution, of Agong, 
a native Christian of age and experience (one of Dr. 
Morrison's converts), and to Dr. Hobson's account of 
the religious services that are held with the patients. 
Agong devotes himself to the propagation of Chris- 
tianity among his countrymen, spending a portion of 
each week in instructing the patients in the word of 
God, and with the assistance of Dr. Hobson, is enabled 
largely to use those means, which he hopes, through 
the Divine blessing, will lead to the spiritual improve- 
ment of his people. This is carrying out fully the, 
objects of Medical Missions, and it affords us much 
pleasure to record the attention that is now paid here, 


and at other places where hospitals have been opened, 
to combine the labours of the spiritual teacher with 
the medical practice of the physician. The relief 
afforded at the hospital has been eagerly sought by 
the Chinese, the number of patients who have resorted 
to it being much greater than had been anticipated." 

Such was the demand upon the hospital and the 
dispensary, that in the following year, 1845, addi- 
tional rooms had to be built for the accommodation of 
the patients. Dr. Hobson reports : " I am happy to 
state that there has been no intermission, for a single 
day of the regular ministration to the sick. This duty 
has commenced punctually at nine o'clock, and it 
usually requires four hours to complete the inspection. 
The number of new patients registered from June 
1844 to July 1845, amounts to 3,307, making the 
total for the two years the hospital has been opened in 
Hongkong, 7,221 patients. Of this number, about 
fifty each month, or upwards of 1200, have been ad- 
mitted as in-patients, so that this class forms one sixth 
of all applicants for relief, which, when the following 
circumstances are taken into consideration, presents a 
fact of much interest. 

" For here is a hospital on a large scale, in a locality 
far removed at present from the Chinese settlement, 
situated on a high hill, conducted by a foreigner, known 
as a religious institution, and offering, only to the most 
destitute, any pecuniary support, and therefore possess- 
ing no attractions to the Chinese, beyond that of gra- 
tuitous surgical and medical aid, and yet the hospital is 
filled with patients, men, women, and children, of 
varied diseases, age, and dialect, who come with the 


greatest confidence, from a circuit of at least fifty miles, 
bringing with them their bedding, cooking utensils, 
rice and fuel, to be simply healed of their maladies. 
Several times small junks have anchored at the base of 
the hill, coming from the north-east part of this pro- 
vince of Canton, at a distance of from five to seven 
days' sail, with a number of patients on board. The 
same confidence is daily exhibited in the Institution, by 
persons from the districts of Heang-shan, Poon-yu, 
Shun-tak, Sun-oan, Hai-fung, Chen-chow, and other 
places. I have mentioned the above, not for the pur- 
pose of display, but to afford you some proof that this 
charity is appreciated, and that the liberality of the 
committee is rewarded by evident tokens of good." 

" The diseases have been of a mixed character : 
neuralgia, and rheumatic affections of the joints have 
been frequent ; next to these were cutaneous diseases, 
of which itch, psoriasis, lichen, eczema, and leprosy, 
were the chief varieties. Diseases of the internal 
organs, particularly the inflammatory, have been com- 
paratively rare. Of these the most common, bronchitis, 
chronic cough, dyspepsia, and diarrhoea. Dysentery, 
both acute and chronic, which proves so fatal to Eu- 
ropeans in the East, is among the Chinese an unfrequent 
disease. This may be accounted for by their temperate 
habits, and unstimulating food, combined with a tem- 
perament congenial to the climate and their habits of 
life : whereas the European partakes more of the 
phlogistic character, and when unduly stimulated by 
too full a diet, and alcoholic drinks, and in the case of 
sailors, from the use of the native spirit, sam-shoo, it is 
not surprising, when also there is often great careless- 


ness iii not avoiding exposure to the sun, that there 
should be such destruction of life amongst this class, 
from this form of disease. 

" The malady most fatal amongst the Chinese, ex- 
cluding occasional epidemics of small-pox, is continued 
fever. From what I have been able to observe of its 
effects in Hongkong, it principally attacks those lately 
arrived hi the colony. This year many of the Chen- 
chow people have come hither for employment on the 
roads, and public works, and they have suffered more 
than any other class of natives this season. In May 
and June there was much sickness ; and in the hospital 
ten deaths occurred out of twenty-six patients admitted, 
of whom, however, many were in a hopeless state when 
they came in. 

" But diseases affecting the organ of vision greatly 
preponderate over every other malady incident to the 
Chinese. The statistics of all the hospitals now open 
at the northern ports, go to prove that this is not pe- 
culiar to the south, but prevails in all parts of China. 
The cause of this undue susceptibility to the ophthal- 
mia?, and their sequelae, is not to my mind very satis- 
factorily explained. No doubt much may be accounted 
for by the practice of scooping and cleaning the eyelids 
by the barbers, the want of skill in the native practitioner, 
and that each year adds to the increased chronic forms 
of the disease. Persons with vision almost extinct, 
from long unsubdued irritation of ten to thirty years, 
often apply for relief, and even in these severe cases, 
considerable improvement to vision often results. But 
unfortunately, many apply who are past all recovery, 
and the many cases both of adults and children, pre- 


senting themselves with entire loss of vision, are quite 
distressing, the more so when a few hours' earlier appli- 
cation might have saved the eyes from destruction. 

" With respect to the conduct of the patients, I have 
nothing to complain of beyond a frequent want of 
ready intelligibility of their various dialects, and their 
disregard to cleanly habits, neither of which is peculiar 
to these parts. There is no quarrelling, and no vice, to 
my knowledge, practised in the hospital. 

" The doors are open night and day, and yet it is a 
rare exception for a patient to leave the hospital with- 
out first asking permission and returning thanks. This 
is a mark of confidence and good behaviour which will 
be appreciated when I mention that there is no com- 
pulsion exercised, or doorkeeper to watch their move- 
ments. They are made to feel at home, are treated 
with kindness, and as much is done for their benefit as 
their cases will admit of ; and being inoffensive, quiet, 
and of temperate habits, little management is required. 
Their diet is simple, their constitution good, and united 
to a rare susceptibility to medicinal agents, with no 
prejudice from caste, a better class of patients probably 
does not exist. 

" According to the objects for which I was sent hither 
by the London Missionary Society, I have endeavoured 
to make the hospital an effective auxiliary in spreading 
a knowledge of Christianity amongst the patients. This 
is not forced upon them, for it is a voluntary act for 
them to attend the religious services, held in the lecture 
room, morning and evening. These consist of singing 
a short psalm, reading and expounding the Scriptures, 
with prayer, and visitors have often expressed their 


surprise at the good order and marked attention of the 
hearers. If the patients have not given satisfactory 
evidence that they feel or are influenced by the moral 
truths inculcated, the fault has not arisen from want of 
opportunity to learn them, or of persuasion to practise 
what they hear, the fault lies rather hi their own innate 
apathy and indifference to religion generally. Much 
knowledge, however, has been diffused, and it may 
bring forth ' fruit after many years.' " 

In consequence of the failure of Mrs. Hobson's health, 
it was necessary for Dr. Hobson to leave the colony in 
the autumn of 1845, and return to England, where he 
spent a short time before returning to China in 1847. 
Mrs. Hobson had sunk under the disease from which 
she had suffered, just prior to • reaching the shore of 
England. Upon his return he immediately resumed his 
labours at the hospital, which had been kept open in 
the interval by the kind attention of Alfred Tucker, 
Esq., surgeon of the Naval Hospital Ship, and Francis 
Dill, Esq., colonial surgeon. After the early decease 
of these gentlemen, an event which was deplored by the 
community at large, Dr. A. Balfour cheerfully gave his 
disinterested services, and from a pure and benevolent 
regard to suffering humanity, regularly attended at the 
hospital, to afford his advice to the applicants for 

In this way the Institution was kept in full operation 
during the period of Dr. Hobson's absence, the Eev. 
V. Stanton, living on the premises, kindly superintend- 
ing the general arrangements, and disbursing the re- 
quisite payments. 

At the end of 1847 the directors of the London 


Missionary Society being desirous of renewing their mis- 
sion in Canton (where there had been no resident English 
missionary since the death of the Eev. Dr. Morrison), 
wished Dr. Hobson to proceed thither, and to seek in a 
quiet and unobtrusive manner, by friendly intercourse, 
and the exercise of his medical skill, to obtain a per- 
manent footing in the midst of the Chinese population. 
He accordingly resigned the charge of the hospital at 
Hongkong, and proceeded to Canton, where, through 
the kindness of a friend, he succeeded meantime in ob- 
taining part of a house until more suitable premises for 
a hospital could be secured. 

At the beginning of 1848 Dr. Hirschberg, Medical 
Missionary of the London Missionary Society, succeeded 
to the charge of the Institution at Hongkong. Dr. 
Balfour had again given it his services, as far as was 
possible, for which constant and disinterested attention 
the committee expressed to him their warm apprecia- 
tion. Upon the arrival of a resident medical mission- 
ary, whose exclusive regard was given to the hospital, 
the number of applicants increased, and the fact that 
many of them came from a great distance showed 
that its name and reputation were widely known. Dr. 
Hirschberg also established a dispensary on the penin- 
sula of Kow-loon, in Chinese territory, at the other 
side of the harbour, opposite to Hongkong. One of 
the converts of the London Missionary Society had 
been stationed there a short time before to teach the 
young, and the patients were seen in the schoolroom.- 

Dr. Hirschberg says : " I began to visit Kow-loon, 
without asking permission from the Chinese officers of 
the place, and till now I have never been hindered by 


them, nor molested by the people. Some of the higher 
officers have looked in, and some of the lower ones 
have at times paid a visit and asked for advice, but 
not one of them has said anything against my coming. 
At first they were suspicions, but now all suspicion is 
banished, and they are very friendly to me in every 

At this station not only were the sick attended to, 
but the distribution of tracts and the preaching of the 
gospel were carried on at every visit. A service was 
also begun in one of the tea halls of the town, an 
officer who had been relieved at the dispensary of an 
ophthalmic affection permitting this to be done. 

A second dispensary was opened at the Bazaar chapel 
of the London Missionary Society, to which a large 
number of patients, including many of the respectable 
classes, resorted, and where, on the return of the weekly 
visit, numbers of patients were in waiting. These 
efforts were of great service, especially to all those 
who could not attend at the hospital. Dr. Hirschberg 
was greatly encouraged in the prosecution of his 
labours, which occupied all his thoughts, and in seeing 
that the religious instruction of his patients was not 
without effect upon some amongst them. 

In closing their report for 1848, "the committee are 
glad to state on undoubted authority, that the working 
of the society has had, and is still having, the effect of 
removing the feelings of hostility towards foreigners 
from the minds of the natives of the adjoining empire. 
Lately one of the German missionaries met with a 
most hospitable reception from the natives of a large 
village in the Fo-kien district, which he soon traced to 



the fact that several of the inhabitants had been patients 
of Dr. Hobson in this hospital, of whom they spoke 
with feelings of gratitude and esteem. This circum- 
stance alone is cause of much gratitude to Him who 
has so far blessed our exertions, and to Him let us 
pray that this friendly feeling may extend far and wide 
over the length and breadth of the empire." 

In 1844, Dr. Devan, from the American Baptist 
Missionary Union, came to China, and established a 
dispensary at Hongkong. His health failing, he was 
compelled to return home in 1847. 

Dr. Hirschberg continued his labours at the hospital at 
Hongkong until the middle of 1853, when he removed 
to Amoy. His labours there are spoken of in another 

The old port of Amoy, where formerly the Spanish 
trade was carried on for many years, was opened to 
general foreign intercourse in 1843. It had been for 
some time occupied by our troops as a military station, 
and Mr. Abeel and Dr. Boone had resided there as mis- 
sionaries since the beginning of 1842. In November 
1843, Dr. Hepburn of the Presbyterian Church of 
America, being accepted by the Medical Missionary 
Society, proceeded thither, and began his labours in con- 
nection with Dr. W. H. Cununing, who had arrived in 
the middle of 1842. The law of the Medical Missionary 
Society requiring that its recognised agents should be 
those who had been sent out by some missionary 
society, Dr. Cummmg, who was unconnected with 
any missionary society, could not, at first, be received as 
one of their medical officers. He, however, supporting 
himself from his own resources, laboured zealously, and 


had a large measure of success amongst the Chinese. 
His health failing in 1847, he was obliged to dis- 
continue his work and return to America. 

The committee, however, had assisted him with 
funds for his hospital, and in 1843, in company with 
Dr. Hepburn, he carried on the work of the hospital in 
the city of Amoy with great success. Large numbers 
of patients resorted to them, and they were gratified in 
seeing the wide field of usefulness which was opening. 
" Mr. Abeel," says the committee, " devotes a portion 
of every day among those who come to the institution, 
in conversing with them on religious subjects, and 
directing then- minds to Him who healeth both soul 
and body. We would hope the lovingkindness that 
animates his earnest appeals to turn from the worship 
of idols to the living God, combined with the disin- 
terested exertions for the cure of their physical ma- 
ladies, may prove the means of leading many to the 
way of life. May He who giveth the increase prosper 
their work." 

In the report of the Amoy Dispensary for 1844-45, 
Dr. Hepburn thus states its progress : — " Medical 
labours were first commenced among the people of this 
place by Dr. W. H. Cumming in 1842, a year after the 
taking of Amoy. He opened a dispensary at Ko- 
lang-su, in the house of the Eev. D. Abeel, where 
it continued till January 1844. Not long after its 
establishment it became well known, and great num- 
bers of people from most of the neighbouring cities 
and villages came to it for relief from their maladies. 
On several accounts, Ko-lang-su was "not considered 
a suitable place for the dispensary, as well as other 

p 2 


missionary labours, chiefly because it was too much 
out of the way, and sometimes difficult of access, being 
an island forming one side of the harbour. It was 
therefore thought desirable to remove to the town 
of Amoy itself, where, after some difficulty, because of 
the timorous spirit of the Chinese, and their unwilling- 
ness to rent premises, a suitable residence was obtained 
in the year 1844, where, after the necessary alterations 
and repairs, the dispensary was opened. Since that 
time the number of applicants for relief has been 
much greater than before, and the dispensary in every 
way more useful. The religious services have also 
been better attended. Besides daily conversations with 
the patients, a regular service on Sabbath mornings 
was kept up with but few interruptions. At this 
meeting there was generally an attendance of from 60 
to 100 persons, most of them patients. It has always 
been the aim to make the dispensing of medicines to 
the sick go hand in hand with religious instruction, as 
the great object of the medical missionary." 

At the time when Dr. Gumming was joined in his 
medical labours by Dr. Hepburn, the in-patients were 
but few, on account of the small accommodation on the 
premises. As these had for the most part undergone 
surgical operations, and required particular attention 
and care, a separate building near the dispensary was 
rented for their use. It was the rule to supply lodging 
and bedding, the patients providing their own food 
and the required attendance of servants. To tins they 
willingly consented ; the exception to the rule being 
in the case of patients in deep distress, or without 
friends to help them. 


Failing health requiring Dr. Hepburn to leave Amoy 
for a time, he returned to the United States in 1845, 
and the dispensary was again left in the sole charge of 
Dr. Cunmiing, who reports in the following year the 
continuance of his labours, and laments the carelessness 
of many of the patients in following out his directions, 
and, consequently, his not being able to do all he had 
wished for them. In many other instances, however, 
former patients returned for aid in new disorders, fre- 
quently bringing with them relatives and friends on the 
same errand. 

It is not necessary to specify the diseases treated 
at this hospital, further than to mention the treatment 
of quartan fever, on which Dr. Cumming remarks : 
— " The quartan fevers have been treated with great 
success this year. No paroxysm has occurred after 
the fifth day of treatment, and in most cases, none 
after the second day. Fowler's solution of arsenic 
has been invariably used, usually in doses of from 
seven to ten minims, three times daily. In a few 
cases the dose has been increased to fifteen minims, 
and in no case has any untoward accident occurred. 
In some of the cases an equal quantity of laudanum 
was added to the dose, where the arsenic produced 
irritation of the bowels, and thus the medicine could 
be continued without interruption till the patient was 
reheved from the liability to a recurrence of the fever." 

Owing to a failure of health, and much to the 
sorrow of his friends, Dr. Cumming was compelled 
to return to America. His course of self-denying 
labour, in which from the beginning he had been self- 
sustained, had won for him the warm regard of all 

p 3 


who knew him. His ability as a well-educated man 
and a hard-working missionary was highly appre- 
ciated, and the cause of medical missions suffered 
much from his departure from the scene of his useful- 
ness, to which continued indisposition prevented his 

Dr. James Young, who had been practising his pro- 
fession for some time in Hongkong with much success, 
offered his services as a medical missionary to the 
English Presbyterian Mission. He proceeded to Amoy 
in 1850, and prosecuted his work with much earnest- 
ness. The decease of his wife was followed by his 
own failing health, owing to disease of the brain, 
which obliged him to leave his position at Amoy in 
1854. He died soon afterwards, under very melan- 
choly circumstances. 

In the year 1853, Dr. Hirschberg, after labouring 
several years at Hongkong, removed to Amoy, and 
arranged for opening a hospital, which was soon in full 
operation, with a large number of patients in atten- 
dance. The Eev. J. Stronach periodically visited the 
patients, for the purpose of instructing them in the 

The city of Amoy, at tins time in the possession of a 
body of insurgents belonging to the Triad Society, was 
besieged by the imperial troops. During the progress 
of the siege many of the wounded on both sides were 
brought to the hospital, where they received all needful 
attention, irrespective of their position as Imperialist or 

Dr. Hirschberg writes in 1855, that " several hun- 
dreds, during the last two years, by being in-patients, 


or by attending for a longer or a shorter period, have 
returned to then homes with a good knowledge of 
Christianity, and all of them have taken Christian 
books on their departure. Twenty of the patients, 
who for the first time had heard the gospel, in the 
hospital chapel, had been baptized, and appeared to be 
sincere converts." During the following year others of 
the patients were baptized, which much encouraged 
the heart of the missionary. 

As long as the city was in the hands of the insur- 
gents, and especiaUy at the end of the siege, when 
they were driven out of the place, the wounded, in 
large numbers, were attended to at the hospital, and 
Dr. Hirschberg found incessant occupation in minister- 
ing to them. The effect of such devotedness was 
proved as in other places. The Chinese, beholding the 
skill of the foreign surgeon in relieving suffering where 
their own means utterly failed, confidently entrusted 
themselves to his care, showing thus, that the Chinese 
hospital is a most effective agency in winning the good 
feeling of the people. 

After several years of devoted labour, Dr. Hirschberg 
found his strength beginning to fail, and sought restora- 
tion to health by resorting to England. It is not likely 
that he will be able to resume his labours in China, or 
to return to a hot climate. After diligent and earnest 
devotedness to the work of medical missions, he left 
Amoy about the end of the year 1858. 

The following year, Dr. Carnegie, of the English 
Presbyterian Missionary Society, arrived at Amoy, 
where he has since been labouring at the hospital com- 
menced by Dr. Hirschberg, and has succeeded in keep- 

P 4 


ing alive the confidence of the people in its operations, 
since they are caused to feel how sedulously they are 
cared for and kindly treated. Should life and health 
be granted, Dr. Carnegie, who is well fitted for the 
work to which he has given himself, will prove an in- 
valuable auxiliary to medical missions in that city. 

The station at Amoy is one of unusual interest, 
on account of the large number of consistent converts 
to Christianity that have followed on the teaching of 
the missionaries there — a lamer number than are to 
be found at any other stations on the coast of the 

Fu-chau, situate in lat. 28° 5' N., long. 119° 20' K, 
is the provincial capital of Fu-kien province, and is 
beautifully placed on the river Min. The scenery on 
the river and around the city is bold and magnificent, 
and its site may compare advantageously with that of 
our most picturesque European cities. Some of the 
hills around the city are 3000 feet high. Here is the 
celebrated stone bridge which connects the suburbs 
stretching from the city to the river side, with the 
suburbs of Nan-tai on the opposite bank. The bridge, 
which is lined with shops, is 420 paces long, and 
formed of long slabs of granite, resting on forty solid 
stone piers on the northern side of the small island 
which lies in the course of the stream, and on nine 
smaller ones on the southern side. Fu-chau was first 
opened to foreign trade in 1844, but it was not till two 
years afterwards that a missionary was settled there. 

In 1850, Mr. Welton, of the Church Missionary 
Society, proceeded thither as their medical missionary. 
A portion of a temple, at the foot of one of the hills 


within the city, was at length obtained for a residence 
and dispensary. On this hill the British Consul had 
his house and offices ; and the hill was usually called 
by foreigners the Consulate hill. The literati, who 
had colleges and schools in the same locality, objected 
to this arrangement, and resolved on the ejection of the 

In the mean time Mr. Welton gave medical aid to 
all who came to him : two successful surgical opera- 
tions for tumour were performed, and many cases were 
relieved. The people, so far from sympathising in the 
feeling of the literary class, were well disposed, and, 
instead of offering rudeness or insult, were obliging 
in their manners, and very grateful for what was done 
for them. Day after day crowds of sufferers thronged 
the rooms and verandah of the temple seeking relief, 
and a feeling very different from what the students 
were anxious to excite, began to pervade the city. 
Individuals of the higher class, and well-bred Chinese 
gentlemen, learning from the testimony of returned 
patients of the benefit they had derived from the med- 
ical treatment of the missionary, came to visit him, 
often from several miles' distance in the country. 

Efforts were made, even at this early stage, when 
the mission was struggling to obtain a position in the 
heart of the city population, that the medical element 
should be made subservient to the great object in view 
— the communication of gospel truth. A Chinese tract, 
directing the reader to " The True Physician," was 
placed in the hands of those who were relieved. At 
length the authorities began to discourage the hostility 
of the literary men. The point in dispute had been 


referred to the English governor of Hongkong, whose . 
answer vindicated the missionaries in the line of con- 
duct they had pursued. After some further trouble 
the difficulty was finally arranged, the authorities con- 
ceding to the missionaries the right of residence within 
the city, and the missionaries vacating the temple they 
first occupied and withdrawing to another temple in 
the vicinity, their occupation of which would be un- 
objectionable to the literary class. Thus, with some 
anxiety and danger, a point of great importance was 
secured, and the missionaries resident in the midst of 
this populous heathen city, had presented to them a 
prospect of great usefulness. 

Mr. Welton forthwith opened a new dispensary, 
which was frequented by great numbers of the natives 
of all ranks. He much conciliated the people by freely 
imparting to them the benefit of his medical skill. It 
was in the early part of 1853, that two of Mr. Welton's 
Chinese teachers were, after being seized, imprisoned 
and cruelly punished for no other crime than their 
connection with foreigners. They were eventually 
banished the place. The emperor Hien-fung, who 
had recently succeeded to the throne, seemed deter- 
mined to abridge the privileges granted to foreigners 
by the late emperor, his father, and to adopt a hostile 
and an exclusive policy. But the reb ellion which was 
spreading through the empire, and threatening the 
reigning dynasty, crippled the power of the govern- 
ment, and ensured to the missionaries at this, as at 
other stations, a liberty of action beyond the intention 
of the rulers. Though Mr. Welton had not the op- 
portunity of publicly addressing the people, numerous 
patients came to him daily for relief, to whom he gave 


tracts and portions of. the Scriptures, and he had many- 
evidences that such works were read and valued. 

He reported in 1854, that the discouragement hitherto 
experienced from the opposition of the literary class and 
the authorities, with the little apparent effect of mission- 
ary labour at this port, would appear to be giving place 
to a better state of things, in the increasing confidence 
of the people towards him and his fellow-labourers. 
Trust was reposed in their words and promises, and 
the missionaries might travel from place to place in the 
suburbs and country without any molestation. Books 
were coveted, and received readily ; religious tracts and 
copies of the Scriptures were circulated extensively by 
invalids, who, after receiving - rehef at the hospital, 
returned to their homes. 

In 1855 the trade at Fu-chau increased greatly. 
This was owing in part to the disturbances at Shanghai, 
and not less to the great facilities at the former place 
for internal communication with the tea districts, the 
entrance to the river also being very advantageous 
for foreign ships. Fu-chau will doubtless continue to 
be the chief place of export for black tea. 

At this time Mr. Welton's aid was extensively 
sought : the number of Chinese patients amounted to 
about 3000. Many of the most respectable officers in- 
vited him to visit them at their houses, and every such 
occasion was used to communicate religious instruc- 
tion and distribute Christian books. He adds : " As 
the people become better acquainted with the labours 
of the missionary, so their prejudices and distant bear- 
ing subside ; a nearer access and a more ready hearing 
are thus obtained, and there seems to be a growing 
desire on their part to know and see more of their 


foreign visitors." Thus Mr. Welton continued his 


work with increasing satisfaction ; the many calls on 
his medical aid gave him opportunity of beneficially 
influencing the minds of the people, not only to the 
removing much of the opposition which at first en- 
countered him, but to the instruction of all classes in 
Scriptural truth. 

In 1856 his health became so much debilitated, that 
lie had to visit Shanghai for change of climate and for 
an opportunity of rest. Though at first the change 
was beneficial, it was found that a return to Fu-chau, 
with any prospect of continued labour, was not possible ; 
and ultimately it was deemed necessary for him to go 
to England, whither he proceeded after a residence of 
nine years in China. 

His medical ability had gained for him a residence 
within the walls of the city : a concession which up 
to that time had been yielded to no other missionary. 
His mild but firm behaviour amidst many most trying 
circumstances, secured for the mission a character and 
position before the people, of which his coadjutors 
largely reaped the benefit. They were allowed to 
reside in the Mission-house, and also after Mr. Welton's 
departure. After a residence in England with variable 
health, a sudden return of indisposition terminated his 
life and labours in 1858. His heart was set on his great 
work, in which he earnestly and prayerfully desired to 
be once more engaged : but his share of the work was 
done, and he was taken to his rest in heaven. 

Our next station is Ningpo, situate in lat. 29° 55', 
N., long. 121° 22' E., which was opened as a port for 
foreign trade in 1843. 


In 1843, Dr. D. J. Macgowan, medical missionary of 
the Baptist Church, of America, arrived in China, and 
after some months' stay at Hongkong proceeded to 
Chusan and Mngpo, in which place he went to reside 
at the end of the same year. 

In 1844, Dr. D. B. McCartee, of the Presbyterian 
Church of America, was also accepted as an officer 
of the Medical Missionary Society, and proceeded to 
Ningpo. In the absence of published reports of his 
labours, it may be said that with diligence and skill 
these labours were prosecuted, and were followed 
with success. Besides a dispensary at his own house, 
Dr. McCartee devoted himself to the visitation of the 
sick at their own homes. The influence for pood 
which was thus acquired over the hearts of the people 
was very great. The earnestness and success with 
which he prosecuted his peculiar work, for which his 
professional attainments well fitted him, were shown 
no less in educational efforts. He taught, and preached 
whenever he had opportunity ; his accurate know- 
ledge of the language giving him great power in this 
department of missionary labour. 

A brief visit to the United States was followed by 
the active resumption of his work at Ningpo, where 
he has the great delight of knowing that God has 
blessed his efforts, not only in the relief of physical 
malady, but to the enlightenment of the souls of men. 
Not a few of the Chinese have been led to cast away 
their idols and become devoted and earnest disciples 
of the Lord Jesus. Surely it may again be confidently 
affirmed, that no grander work can occupy the talents 
of the Christian surgeon than this, — bringing the 


heathen under the transforming influence of the truth 
displayed in the gospel of Christ. 

Dr. Macgowan reports in 1845, that the hospital at 
Ningpo was permanently opened in April of that year. 
Engaged for a time in the acquirement of the lan- 
guage, his labours were carried on hi a private dwelling, 
and afterwards in a large temple in the city. He soon 
obtained premises suitable for a hospital, capable of 
accommodating eighteen in-patients, and where great 
numbers of out-patients also attended. The numerous 
apphcations for relief testified to the success with which 
the work had been begun. 

The city of Ningpo is at the confluence of two 
rivers, about the centre of an extensive alluvial plain, 
from ten to fifteen miles broad, and twenty to twenty- 
five in length, and enclosed on all sides by lofty hills. 
This plain is intersected in every direction by canals, 
which serve the purposes of irrigation and carriage. 
The population of the city may be estimated at 250,000, 
that of the plain at as many more. Contrary to what 
might be expected, the filthy habits of the people, to- 
gether with the insufficient interment of the dead, 
both hi town and country, do not seem to be produc- 
tive of much disease ; the climate, as it affects both 
natives and foreigners, is generally salubrious and agree- 
able. The extremes of temperature, remarked on the 
eastern side of the continent of North America, pre- 
vail on this coast, but to a far greater degree. The 
winters at Ningpo may be compared to the winters in 
Paris, and the summers for a short season, to those of 

The diseases which chiefly prevail are intermittent 


fever, diarrhoea, rheumatism, ophthalmia, and various 
cutaneous disorders. It is probable that Ningpo enjoys 
to a great degree, the exemption from pulmonary 
affections, common to marshy districts generally, as no 
case of the disease has hitherto presented itself at the 
dispensary. Instances of opium-smoking and of sui- 
cide, or attempted suicide, by drowning or opium, were 
brought to the hospital. Dr. Macgowan appeals to 
the benevolence of Christians to support the work that 
has been begun in this city, and records the generosity 
of the foreign community of Bengal, which furnished 
the hospital with instruments, anatomical models, plates 
and books, ordered by their means. 

Dr. Macgowan (report 1846) states that in the pre- 
vious October the inhabitants of a neighbouring city, 
Fung-hwa, rebelled against their rulers and expelled 
them. The insurrection sprung out of dissatisfaction 
with the land-tax, and was ultimately quelled, but not 
before the imperial troops, which had been marched 
against the insurgents, had suffered defeat before the 
walls of the city, with a loss of 18 killed and 150 
wounded. The Ti-tuh, or general, sent his chair for 
the foreign surgeon to see the wounded, who had been 
removed to one of the temples. The injuries were 
chiefly incised wounds from spears, arrows, and clubs, 
and were soon healed. Among the wounded was the 
Che-hien, a magistrate of Fung-hwa, who was under 
treatment for more than two months. In the retreat 
he was overtaken by an arrow, which entering the 
lumbar region, pierced him to the spine. His secretary 
was killed at his side. He was evidently a courageous 
officer, in the thickest of the fmht the whole time, and 


received no fewer than six wounds. On his recovery 
he expressed his gratitude in the strongest terms, for 
the surgical aid which he had received from the 

On one occasion some medicines were stolen from 
the dispensary. The thief, supposing that a quantity 
of arsenic, about a pound and a half, was foreign flour, 
mixed it with native flour, and made some cakes. Ten 
persons partook of them, but the quantity of arsenic 
was so great as in every case but one to act as an 
emetic. An old woman who ate but sparingly of the 
compound died. . The parties took all the blame to 
themselves, and the matter soon dropped. 

An earthquake was felt here, as at Shanghai, on 
August 4, 1846, and was very severe, but the motion 
was slow and uniform. Some natives of Ningpo say 
that on September 28, 1828, in the Fung-hwa district, 
fire issued from a mountain called Ki-Kea (pencil 
frame). This mountain is very steep, and quite in- 
accessible, with a crater on one side, near the summit. 
On the day named great thunder was heard, as if in 
the mountain, when fire issued from the crater, and 
continued to blaze for more than two days, ashes being 
thrown in all directions. 

Dr. Macgowan also regrets that unavoidable delays 
prevented the carrying out of one of the objects he had 
in view, viz., the communication of anatomical and phy- 
siological instruction, by means of lectures to native prac- 
titioners and students, which were to be dehvered as soon 
as possible. The chief design of professional labours in 
this place has been the dissemination of gospel truth, and 
the conversion of idolaters to the Saviour of the world. 


He also accords thanks as richly due to Dr. McCartee 
for taking charge of the hospital during the period of 
his own sickness; and in the report for IS 4 8 pays 
a tribute of respect to the memory of Eobert Thorn, 
Esq., British Consul, for many years the active friend of 
medical missions. During the two years since the last 
report 4,751 patients had been treated, exclusive of 
those patients for whom Dr. McCartee prescribed at 
his own residence, in addition to his personal visitations. 

In consequence of wet seasons there had been a great 
prevalence of quartan fever and rheumatism of a severe 
character ; but, as stated in a former report, little was 
seen of pectoral affections, which are rare in districts 
where the various forms of ague prevail. 

Throughout this period the coast of the province of 
Cheh-kiang, in which Ning-po is situated, had suffered 
much from the depredations of pirates. Even the 
fishing-boats from Ning-po dare not venture out to 
sea, and thus many persons suffered. Foreign vessels 
were hired to convoy trading junks and protect the 
fishermen. This mitigated the evil to some extent. 
At one time a fleet of 200 junks was blockaded by the 
pirates in the harbour of Chusan, although there was 
present a Chinese admiral, with several war junks. 
The natives became very impatient at the cowardice 
of their naval officers; and one morning some poor 
wretches, charred almost to cinders, the remnant of the 
crews of junks taken by the pirates, were brought 
into Tinghai the port of Chusan. The natives, bearing 
the dead and dying on their shoulders, carried them 
about the suburb, until an indignant crowd was collected, 
when an attack was made on the admiral's house : 



nothing was spared ; the house, furniture, and garden 
were destroyed, and finally the admiral himself was 
killed. The officials were but too glad to let the matter 
pass, as an investigation of the case at Pekin would 
have proved fatal to themselves. 

The punishment of pirates who are captured is sum- 
mary, but has no effect on survivors. Those who are 
taken are generally decapitated the same day ; their 
heads are then suspended by their queues from poles, 
or enclosed in a basket and hung up by the seaside, or 
on the islands. At one place 120 heads were counted 
— scores are often to be seen. 

During the conflicts with pirates several gunshot 
wounds, more or less severe, were brought to the hos- 
pital. The worst cases of this kind were fire-ball, or 
what are commonly called stink-pot, burns, which are 
often fatal. Among the wounded was a man who had 
amputated his own hand at the wrist. Another ampu- 
tation was necessary to procure a flap ; to this the 
patient would not consent, but by dissecting out the 
remaining carpal bones, a tolerable stump was pro- 
cured. This man, a cooper by trade, had been re- 
quired by the authorities to perform some work for 
them without compensation. He chose rather to involve 
himself and them in trouble, which he effectually ac- 
complished in the manner described, according to 
Chinese law they being responsible. 

Many opium-smokers, desirous of giving up the use 
of the drug, sought relief from the suffering consequent 
upon abstinence. When unable to procure the drug, 
those who have been addicted to the use of it complain 
of extreme debility, wakefulness, loss of appetite, 


diarrhoea, excessive perspirations, pain in the abdomen, 
" soreness in the bones," and other such-like troubles. 
The patients who are wishful to refrain are required to 
practise total abstinence from the opium-pipe, and en- 
couraged to cherish hope and confidence in the prospect 
of cure ; ammonia, wine, and various tonic stimulants, 
combined with opium, are given according to circum- 
stances, the opium being gradually reduced in quantity 
till it is wholly discontinued. 

An attempt had been made with the models from 
Paris, a skeleton and plates, to lecture on anatomy 
before the practitioners and students of the city. Much 
interest was excited amongst this important class, 
and if the instruction they received was superficial, 
subsequent courses may extend their knowledge, and 
make it available. This display of the mechanism of 
the human body removed, if their assertions are to be 
relied upon, the materialism of several of them. The 
demonstrations will, it is hoped, be resumed on other 
occasions. One of those who attended these demon- 
strations was of considerable service to Dr. McGowan 
in his dispensary. After being instructed he prescribed 
for many of the apphcants, with much success. 

Among the patients of the foreign surgeon was his 
Excellency Lin, the Taou-tai, or intendant of circuit of 
his department. He had fallen from his horse, by sun- 
stroke, whilst waiting the arrival of the Viceroy, and 
doubtless owed his life to the remedies that were em- 
ployed on his behalf. 

The work of the hospital was as usual connected with 
the teaching and preaching of the gospel. The medical 
missionary labours in connection with the preaching 

q 2 


missionary for the enlightenment and temporal good of 
this people, in order to the yet more important and 
primary object of their conversion to the truth as it is 
in Jesus. 

In 1852, Dr. Macgowan reports that the number of 
patients since the last report (1848) reached to 7,956. 
In the autumn of 1848, measles prevailed epidemi- 
cally in Mng-po, from which, though not of a malig- 
nant type, several fatal cases occurred. This epidemic 
prevailed in the maritime districts of the east coast of 
Cliina and throughout the Pacific coast, till it reached 
the Samoyeds, among whom it proved very fatal. 
A Eussian captain reported that the measles had spread 
throughout many of the Eussian colonies in Northern 
Asia, and carried off numbers of the inhabitants. The 
islands of the Pacific suffered severely from the same 
disease, and in the Sandwich Islands it was very fatal 
amongst the aborigines. Fevers also, of varied form, 
affected the region around Mng-po very extensively, in 
1849. Cholera made its appearance in 1851. In its 
eastern progress this disease reached China through the 
Straits in 1820. During the summer of that and the 
following year, Mng-po, like other portions of the em- 
pire, suffered severely. Since that time, the disease 
has not prevailed epidemically, though few years pass 
without the occurrence of sporadic cases. 

One gratifying circumstance connected with the pre- 
valence of cholera, was, that great pains were taken by 
benevolent persons to make public those remedies that 
were considered best adapted to arrest the disease. 
Placards were posted in every quarter, giving directions 
for the treatment of the various forms of the malady. 


All recommended, substantially, the same mode of 
treatment, which seems to have been taken from a 
small work on cholera by a physician of Kia-hing, Sn- 
tsze-mi. He states that on the first appearance of the 
disease, medical men took it for ordinary cholera, and 
treating it accordingly, signally failed : but observing 
that the disease arose from derangement of the three 
things — stomach, lungs, and kidneys, he reversed the 
practice, and employed remedies for warming and sti- 
mulating; the vessels. He regarded the disease as arising 
from " morbific cold," disturbing the harmony of the 
powers of the system. Others contended that " accu- 
mulated heat " destroyed the equilibrium subsisting 
between those powers, and while he relied on stimu- 
lants, they resorted to cooling remedies. His plan was, 
however, the more successful. To impart vital energy 
and warmth to the body, the juice of fresh ginger was 
given, to which various aromatics and bitters were 

By way of preliminary, sternutatories were employed, 
and if the patient could be made to sneeze, he was 
thought to be in a more favourable condition than if 
insensible to such stimulants. Counter-irritants also 
were resorted to, composed of salt and garlic, which 
with moxa were applied over the abdomen ; and for the 
same purpose, foot-stoves were used for the extremities, 
the feet and legs being rubbed and shampooed. Thus, 
despite their fanciful theories, the Chinese pursued the 
same therapeutic course, which in the West has been 
found most efficacious. By such means native practi- 
tioners afforded relief to many, but were powerless 
when treating the consecutive fever, and hence the 

Q 3 


mortality was very great. This epidemic did not ex- 
tend largely over the empire. It prevailed at Hang- 
chau several weeks before it reached Ning-po. The 
villages of the plain of Ning-po suffered most, affording 
another evidence to the correctness of the opinion that 
in this part of China the cities are the most healthy. 

The fevers prevalent here are far more frequently 
met with in the rural districts than in the city. The 
filthy condition of Ning-po, its stagnant canals and other 
nuisances, would seem to fit it, like other Chinese towns, 
to be the focus of malaria. Yet, however unfavourable 
to longevity, this condition does not seem to create any 
peculiar liability to epidemic disease. The drainage of 
the cities is superior to that in rural districts, and the 
means of subsistence and of domestic comforts much 
greater. The most salubrious sites are generally found 
immediately adjacent to the cities, at a sufficient dis- 
tance from the fields, more especially from the rice 

The sufferers from the use of opium were still at- 
tended to in the hospital, and by the means already 
alluded to many individuals were enabled to discard 
the evil habit, and were delivered from the thraldom of 
the drug. 

Repeated attempts were made for leave to attend the 
inmates of the Ning-po prison, but as the authorities 
were uniformly unfavourable to the design, access to 
the prisoners could be obtained only under special 
circumstances. Enough was seen, however, of the 
place and its discipline, to show that it wanted nothing 
of the misery and wretchedness common to all Chinese 
prisons. No pen can adequately describe their hor- 


rors ; a prison in China is a centre of wretchedness 
and woe. 

The case of a wealthy Chinese is mentioned who was 
visited at his own house under the following circurn- 
stances. He had bought a fowling-piece, and, showing 
it to his household, let fall some of the gunpowder. 
One of his wives, who was smoking at the time, stooped 
to gather it up, and ignited it with a spark from her 
pipe. The flash caught the whole stock of powder, 
causing a fearful explosion. The man and his wife 
died ; the other females survived, but were blinded and 
much disfigured.* 

The instruction of native practitioners, by means of 
illustrated lectures on anatomy, was continued from time 
to time. These lectures commanded large audiences, 
and, doubtless, the object had in view by this branch of 
effort at Ning-po has been to some extent gained. 

Dr. Macgowan continued his labours at Ning-po, 
though suffering at times from attacks of fever which 
completely prostrated him, and from domestic trial 
occasioned by the ill health of members of his family, 
until the year 1859, when his state of health obliged 
him to leave China for a time, in the hope of returning 
to his work with renewed energy. 

* A somewhat similar case occurred at Chusan, where, instead of 
the morning and evening gun, a rocket is fired from a perpendicular 
iron tube. On one occasion it failed, and a poor cripple, dragged 
himself near to see the cause. As he was looking into the tube, the 
rocket suddenly exploded, destroying both his eyes, carrying away a 
portion of the frontal bone and of the brain. From this great 
injury, he eventually recovered, but remained a pitiable object to 
look upon. The matchlocks of the military are a fruitful source of 
accidents of this kind. 



A monthly magazine in Chinese, with information on 
scientific and religious subjects, which was very popular 
and much sought after, was edited by Dr. Macgowan, 
who also wrote in 1851 a small work, illustrated by 
several plates, on electricity, galvanism, and the electric 
telegraph. The chief facts on these subjects were elu- 
cidated and put before the Chinese mind in such forms 
that the people might appreciate the benefits of western 
science ; its superiority over their own philosophy was 
demonstrated, and some of the elementary truths of 
Christianity made evident. The aim of such treatises 
has been to win the attention of Chinese scholars to 
the study of natural theology, who perhaps might not 
care to peruse, much less study, Christian tracts or trans- 
lations of the Scriptures. 

In 1853 Dr. Macgowan published a pamphlet called 
" The Navigator's Golden Needle," taken from the 
chapter on the typhoons in the China Seas, in Colonel 
Keid's work. This essay was published in the hope 
that its simple axioms would be acquired with facility. 
These are of such manifest utility in enabling seamen 
to escape the fury of these storms, so frequent and 
destructive on the coast of China, that it is probable 
Chinese navigators will gradually avail themselves of 
the information here supphed. They may also be in- 
duced to make further observations toAvards perfecting 
our acquaintance with the tracks of revolving storms 
in the regions they navigate. 

At the end of 1854, Dr. W. Parker, of the Chinese 
Evangelisation Society of London, arrived in Shanghai. 
After spending some time at that place in studying the 
language and occasional attendance on the sick Chinese, 


lie removed to Ning-po, where he prosecuted his work 
as a medical missionary. The liberal support of friends 
in the foreign communities at Shanghai and Mng-po, 
enabled him to build a commodious hospital, at which 
great numbers of Chinese were daily relieved, and he 
was able to labour with most gratifying results. His 
aid was frequently sought for the wounded in the local 
riots which prevailed at Ning-po for some time ; many 
Chinese fishermen who had been attacked by pirates 
were also brought to the hospital. Dr. Parker was 
thus fully and devotedly engaged when, in consequence 
of the sudden decease of Mrs. Parker, from an attack 
of cholera, he had to leave his station in 1859, to bring 
his children to England. One great cause of his success 
as a medical missionary is found in the circumstance 
that he went out to China with the matured judgment 
of a man who had practised his profession for some 
time in his native land before engaging in the field of 
foreign labour. 









Shanghai is a district town of the department of Sung- 
kiang-fn, in the province of Kiang-su, which, with 
that of Ngan-hwui, is included under the name of 
Kiang-nan, having Nanking as the provincial city. 
Kiang-nan, with the province of Kiang-si, commonly 
called the Liang-kiang, or the two-river provinces, are 
under the government of one Tsung-tuh, or Governor- 
general. Shanghai is situated in lat. 31° 24' N. ; long. 
121° 32' E., on the right bank of the Wusung river, at 
the point of its junction with the Hwang-pu river, 
and distant from the Yang-tze-kiang twelve miles. 
The provincial city of Suchau is about eighty miles 
distant, and is situated on the grand canal. 

The country around the city is a perfect flat, no 
hills being visible on the horizon. The nearest hills 
are at a distance of twenty-four miles, in a westerly 
direction, near the city of Sung-kiang-fu. The ground 
is dry, and consists of rich alluvial soil, which is very 
fertile, yielding wheat, cotton, and vegetables, in great 


abundance. Eice is also grown in some parts of the 
plain. The country is intersected in all directions by 
rivulets and streams, which run in deep channels, into 
which for the most part the tide flows. The fields are 
raised so much above the water level, that the ground 
is well drained and free from swamps. The people 
seem to be healthy and strong, and as robust and well- 
fed a race as is usually seen in Chinese cities. The 
part of the suburbs called Li-kia-chang, which is allotted 
for the residence of foreigners, is a quarter of a mile 
outside the north gate of the city, with a river frontage 
of nearly a mile, and extending inwards as far as may 
be required for the building of houses. The plot of 
ground thus selected is tolerably dry and free from any 
local circumstances that are supposed to generate ma- 
laria. It was found necessary, however, to raise the 
ground before the houses were commenced, on account 
of the high sprmg tides in autumn. 

In July 1843, the Medical Missionary Society's sta- 
tion at Chusan, which had been relinquished on the 
departure of foreigners from the island in February 
1841, was re-occupied, and the hospital which I opened 
at the time was carried on with partial interruptions 
until January 1844. At this period the port of Shang- 
hai being opened for foreign trade, and affording un- 
usual facilities for the successful working of the design 
of the society, it was resolved to remove the hospital to 
that city. Whilst at Chusan, the natives were as eager 
as they had been during the former occupation of the 
station in 1840, in seeking relief, many of the old pa- 
tients coming again for themselves, or on behalf of their 
friends. Dining a short visit to Ning-po in July 1843, 


it was made known that sufferers from bodily ailments 
would be attended to on application. Within a few 
days' residence there, about two hundred persons came 
for relief, and many were materially benefited. Among 
these was a boy who had extensive caries of the thigh- 
bone. He had been employed as a workman in a 
varnish manufactory. This varnish itself is of a most 
irritating nature, and especially when brought into 
contact with any part of the body where there is 
abrasion of the skin. It causes inveterate abscesses in 
those who handle it constantly, if they neglect to wash 
their hands in tung-yu, an oil expressed from the seeds 
of the wu-tung tree, and which is used for the same 
purposes as our linseed oil. The workmen are par- 
ticularly liable to be thus poisoned on their first entrance 
to the manufactory, and the disease in this boy resulted 
apparently from this poison acting on an unhealthy 
system. A case of cataract also presented itself, and 
both eyes were successfully operated on. 

Two visits were paid to Shanghai towards the end of 
1843, when efforts were made to obtain a house. In 
January 1844, the hospital at Chusan was closed, and 
the operations of the Society were begun at Shanghai 
in the following month. As soon as the hospital was 
opened, and its purpose known, crowds of people came 
daily to the house, urgently, often boisterously, re- 
questing to be attended to. The applicants were not 
only residents in Shanghai, but many came from Su- 
chau, Sung-kiang, and other cities in the vicinity, 
and also from the island of Tsung-ming. The confi- 
dence displayed by these people, even at this early 
stage of our intercourse, was very encouraging. 


The work of the hospital was carried on in the 
Chinese house which had been rented by the Society 
until, in 1846, it was necessary to provide larger and 
better accommodation for the large number of patients. 
A building suited to the wants of a Chinese hospital 
was accordingly erected by the liberality of friends in 
Shanghai and England. The property was vested in the 
hands of British residents at Shanghai, conditionally 
that it be always used for the purposes of a hospital 
and dispensary for the Chinese. This plan for obtain- 
ing the requisite accommodation was judged the best 
that could be devised, and it was thought that by 
securing a local control over the affairs of the hospital, 
more interest would be felt in its welfare, and the 
prospect of its continued usefulness be more sure. 
The work which was done in the Chinese house, im- 
perfect as were its accommodations, had doubtless a 
salutary effect. It was most pleasant to witness the 
trustfulness of the people, the eagerness with which 
they nocked to the dispensary, and to have in this way 
free intercourse in a place where but a short time 
previously foreigners were unknown. 

It is stated in the report for 1845, that " since the 
establishment of the hospital at Shanghai, endeavours 
have been made to introduce vaccination anions the 
people. Eepeated trials have been made with lymph 
sent from the hospital at Hongkong, and with supplies 
furnished by the kindness of Mr. A. Anderson, of 
Macao, and Dr. Maxwell, in charge of the Madras 
troops at Chusan : this latter had been sent to China 
from Madras. These all, however, failed. A fresh 
supply received from Macao last April has happily been 


successful. At this time the Colonel of the Chinese 
garrison of this city, How Ta-jin, requested that one of 
his daughters might be vaccinated, which was done, 
and finally another of his children, and thirty of the 
soldiers' and neighbours' children were vaccinated at 


his residence. Twenty more children were vaccinated 
at the hospital. 

It is to be hoped that in a few months, as this 
expedient becomes known, its practice will be exten- 
sively adopted. Inoculation is much practised by the 
native physicians, the greater number of Chinese chil- 
dren undergoing this treatment. The modus operandi 
is by introducing into the nostrils a piece of cotton wool 
impregnated with variolous lymph, or dressing the 
child in the clothes that have been worn by another 
who has had the small-pox ; in a few days the disease 
shows itself. The superior advantages of vaccination, 
however, will, it is hoped, secure for it as much favour 
here as in Canton, where it was introduced by the 
late Mr. Pearson, and an establishment for vaccinating 
all applicants has for many years been maintained by 
the Hong merchants.* The pamphlet drawn up by 
that gentleman, and translated into Chinese by Sir G. 
Staunton, has been republished with corrections and 
some slight additions, and distributed largely in various 
parts of the surrounding country. At Nanking there is 
said to be an establishment for vaccination, but hitherto 
no definite intelligence has been obtained respecting it. 
" The Preservation of Infants by Inoculation " is the 
title of a short treatise published by a Chinese physi- 

* Vide p. 120. 


cian. He supposes that small-pox arises from poison 
introduced into the system from the mother's womb, 
which is said to be proved by the occurrence of this 
disease but once during life. This poison is, in the 
Chinese system, associated with the principle of heat, 
and remains concealed till it is developed through the 
agency of some external exciting cause. There being 
thus a constant liability to this disease, it is very ad- 
visable that means be adopted for modifying its viru- 
lence. The means is found in inoculation at such times 
and seasons as appear most advantageous, and when the 
system of the patient is in a healthy condition. The 
ancients possessed the knowledge of inoculating for (or 
planting) the small-pox ; it has been handed down from 
the time of Chin-tsung of the Sung dynasty (1014 a.d.), 
and was invented by a philosopher of Go-mei-shan, 
in the province of Sze-chuen. The disease, when it 
breaks out spontaneously, is very severe, and often fatal, 
whereas, when introduced by inoculation, it is generally 
mild, and casualties do not occur oftener than once in 
ten thousand cases. The author concludes his intro- 
ductory remarks by saying, " to discard this excellent 
plan, and sit waiting for the calamity, is much to be 
deprecated ; it ought to be pressed upon the attention 
of all as a most beneficial thing for their adoption ; and 
all persons that have children ought to confide in it, so 
that the lives of then children may be preserved." The 
ten rules which are to be attended to then follow : — 

1. Regarding Variolous Lymph. — This is the fluid 
that comes from the small-pox pustules, and must be 
taken from a child who has the mild form of the 
disease ; whether arising spontaneously or from inocu- 


lation, the pustules ought to be round or pointed, and of 
a clear red colour, the fluid abundant, and the crust 
which comes away clear and consistent like wax. The 
lymph, or the crust rubbed down with a little water, 
can be introduced into the nose, as above mentioned. 
Another mode of inoculation is drying the crusts, re- 
ducing them to powder, and then blowing this powder 
up the nose. This is called dry inoculation. After 
seven days fever appears, and in three days more the 
spots show themselves. In another three days the spots 
become pustular, and in three days more the crusts 
form, when the whole is completed. If the inoculation 
does not take effect it may be repeated in fourteen days. 

2. Seasons. — The spring and autumn are the most 
favourable seasons for inoculation, or any time when 
the weather is moderate. In the very hot or the very 
cold months it ought not to be done. 

3. Choice of Lucky Days. — A lucky day should 
always be chosen. The 11th and 15th days of the 
moon must be avoided. 

4. Management of the Patients. — During the process 
of inoculation it is of great importance that strict 
rules of management be adopted in regard to heat and 
cold ; with attention also to diet, and the avoidance of 
any cause of alarm or fright. 

5. At the time of inoculation. The child must be ex- 
amined, and the state of health ascertained ; strict 
attention must also be paid to the state of the family, 
and if the child be sick the operation must not be per- 
formed. Ah the children ought to be inoculated when 
they are one year old ; if the health be good this ought 
by no means to be neglected. 


6. Restrictions. — The room of the inoculated child 
ought to be clean, airy, and well lighted ; all excite- 
ment must be avoided, and the child kept quiet and 

7. Promise of the Eruption. — After the inoculation, 
and before the fever appears, there suddenly arise on 
the child's face several pustules like small-pox ; these 
are called the " Sin-miau," promise or belief eruption ; it 
is the forerunner of the disease, and the evidence of the 
poison having taken effect. 

8. Repetition of the Inoculation. — If, after waiting 
fourteen days, the fever does not appear, should the sea- 
son still be favourable the inoculation may be repeated. 

9. Mode of Action. — The inoculation must affect the 
viscera, and then fever commences. The nose is the 
external orifice of the lungs ; when the variolous 
lymph is placed in the nose its influence is first com- 
municated to the lungs ; the lungs govern the hair and 
skin ; the lungs transfer the poison to the heart ; the 
heart governs the pulse, and transfers the poison to the 
spleen ; the spleen governs the flesh, and transfers the 
poison to the liver ; the fiver governs the tendons, and 
transfers the poison to the kidneys ; the kidneys govern 
the bones ; the poison of the small-pox lies hid originally 
in the marrow of the bones ; but when it receives the 
impression from the inoculation it manifests itself and 
breaks out externally. 

10. General Rules. — Inoculation is to be performed 
when there is no disease present in the system ; good 
lymph must be selected ; a proper time chosen ; good 
management ; and then all will go well. 

The retired Lew-Ian, respectfully assenting to the 



imperial decree, compiled the above very important 
regulations regarding inoculation, and placed them in 
" The Golden Mirror of Medical Practice." They have 
been discoursed upon, and revised with much care and 
attention by celebrated physicians of later times. 

Soon after vaccination was introduced at Shanghai, a 
Chinese physician of some intelligence, from Su-chau, 
desired instruction, and was taught. After witnessing 
the mode of its performance and the characters of the 
vesicle, he was supplied with lymph, and some copies 
of the work on vaccination. He reported after his 
return to Su-chau that many children had been 
brought to him, and it is hoped that he has been able 
to go on with his good work, conferring benefit on the 
people around him. 

The work of the hospital was transferred to the new 
building in July, 1846, to which the Chinese, readily 
appreciating the improved accommodation, nocked in 
large numbers. Patients came from all quarters ; and 
during this year many were received into the wards of 
the new hospital who were suffering from severe burns 
and gun-shot wounds received in engagements with 
pirates. On one occasion seven men were brought in, 
severely burnt by an explosion of gunpowder on board 
a Shan-tung junk. One of them, it appeared, for the 
purpose of a trick, or to frighten his companions, had 
foolishly placed a lighted paper match over the jar of 
gunpowder. The fire fell, however, into the magazine, 
and all were suffering from the explosion. Six of them 
soon recovered ; one poor fellow, whose clothes had 
caught fire, was so much burnt in the abdomen, back, 
and legs, that his recovery was improbable. He de- 


termined, however, to go with his friends, as the junk 
was returning to his native place ; but, probably, did 
not long survive his removal. A large number of acci- 
dents, fractures of the limbs, concussion of the brain, 
severe contusions and wounds, received at the Euro- 
pean buildings, from the giving way of scaffolding and 
the falling of the workmen from the tops of the houses, 
were also admitted to the hospital during this year. 
Some of the more severely hurt of these patients died : 
the great majority recovered, and were enabled to 
return to their work. 

The work of the hospital was carried on with much 
success dining the two following years. The building 
had cost, including the price of the land, $3200. To 
make up this sum $1000 had been borrowed from 
Messrs. Turner and Son, who, through one of their 
partners, T. W. L. Mackean, Esq., had kindly advanced 
the needed amount. This was gradually paid off, and 
the whole establishment cleared of debt ; allowing thus 
the entire amount of the subscriptions to be used for 
the special objects of the hospital. 

The early part of the year, and also the summer of 
1849, were periods of much rain, which flooded the 
country, and destroyed the crops. The effect on the 
health of the inhabitants was also very injurious. 
They suffered much from sickness, chiefly from bilious 
remittent fever and dysentery, from which large 
numbers died. Many of the European residents suffered 
from these diseases, and some deaths occurred in Sep- 
tember and October. The setting in of dry weather 
early in the autumn, tended to destroy the seeds of 
disease, and when the frost commenced both Chinese 

R 2 


and Europeans rapidly regained their health. The 
Chinese say, and experience corroborates the assertion, 
that diarrhoea and dysentery prevail chiefly inside 
the cities, while ague is the prevalent form of disease 
in the open fields and in agricultural districts. 

Although the year 1849 was an unhealthy season, 
Shanghai is not to be regarded as an insalubrious city. 
Sickness, to an unusual extent, sometimes prevails in 
cities of the western world, and during that same 
year, typhus and scarlet fever made fearful ravages 
in some places in Europe ; and whilst cholera caused 
a great mortality in other parts of the world, China 
was mercifully preserved from its visitation. It is 
true that during certain periods the Chinese suffer 
much from ague, diarrhoea, and dysentery, but when 
their habits are remembered, the wonder is that they 
do not suffer more. Their cities being undrained, 
are always in a most filthy state ; the canals into 
which the tide does not rise, are filled with putrid 
matter of every kind, and are seldom, if ever cleansed. 
The surprise is that the inhabitants can five at all 
among so much filth in the canals, streets, and in their 
own houses. Several Europeans had to leave Shanghai 
on account of failing health, and return to their own 
country. This is not to be wondered at ; they were un- 
used to the chmate, and all cannot remain with impu- 
nity ; sometimes even those who seem to be the 
strongest are the first to fail. During the six years the 
port had then been open, the mortality among the 
foreign residents had been small, especially considering 
that this was a newly occupied locality, where many 
things combine — imperfect and unfinished dwellings, 


extensive excavations of new ground, and filling up 
with earth, or mud taken from the river bank — against 
the enjoyment of undiminished health. 

To enlarge the benefits afforded by the hospital, a 
dispensary was opened at this time at the London 
Missionary Society's chapel inside the city, at the back 
of the public tea gardens. This place was kept in ope- 
ration for several successive years, many patients, in- 
cluding shopkeepers^ and others who could not go so 
far as the hospital, resorting to it for relief on the two 
days in the week, when it was open. 

A friend at this time drew attention to the cir- 
cumstance of a constant bubbling hi a well hi a village 
about three miles from the hospital, called Tsing-ngan- 
sze. On investigation, the well, which was in front of 
a temple, was found to be about eight feet square, 
and about ten or twelve feet deep, faced with blocks of 
limestone, and enclosed by a substantial wooden paling. 
About three feet of water were in the well, and from 
the bottom bubbled up a large quantity of gas, as if 
a body of water were being constantly thrown up. 
The people call it Hai-gan, or 'eye of the sea,' and 
say, that the water neither diminishes nor increases, 
nor ever runs dry ; the fact is, that the water in the 
well is merely drainage, and the gas rises through it. 
On holding a fight over the agitated surface the 
bubbles exploded with a pale blue flame, which lasts 
as long as the fight is applied. The water has a 
slightly brackish taste, but small fish were swimming 
about in it. The gas is probably carburetted hydrogen, 
and perhaps emanates from a layer of peat or coal 
at some depth below the surface. The villagers do 

B 3 


not use the water for any purpose, regarding the well 
as sacred. They were much surprised when the gas 
was ignited, and did not seem to be aware of its in- 
flammable nature. 

The effects of the wet season of 1849, upon the 
people were very serious. They suffered much from 
the scarcity and clearness of food, and in some parts 
of the country there was actual famine. Many of the 
rich natives subscribed largely for the distribution of 
rice, and kitchens were established in the city and 
surrounding villages, where the rice was cooked and 
given to the destitute, but sold at half the usual cost 
to those who could afford the purchase. Great relief 
followed upon this plan, and to facilitate the benevolent 
design the foreign residents subscribed liberally for 
the purchase of tickets on these kitchens, which were 
duly distributed in various parts of the city. There 
was also a large distribution every morning at the 
hospital, and during the pressure of the distress many 
poor starving creatures were materially assisted. On 
the return of spring there was plenty of work in the 
fields, and though the cost of rice was high, the poor 
were able to provide food for their families. During 
the winter great numbers had flocked into the city 
from the surrounding country seeking food, but when 
the chance of work returned, they left the city and 
went home again. The distress was felt over a very 
large district of country — throughout all that part 
of the province south of the Yang-tze-kiang — -the 
villagers proceeding to the large cities, as those from 
the neighbourhood did to Shanghai, similar means 
for then relief being employed, and large sums of 


money expended by the wealthy inhabitants on their 

In addition to this beneficence a large establishment 
was opened near one of the city gates, where children 
under ten years of age were received, fed, clothed, and 
taken care of. At one time as many as 1500 children 
were lodged at this refuge, where they were kept till 
the end of the spring, and then sent to their homes. 
The establishment was then broken up. 

During the year (1850) the hospital was in full 
operation, with large numbers of patients in attendance. 
The members of the London Mission, Messrs. Medhurst, 
Muirhead, and Edkins, were assiduous in their endea- 
vours to impart Christian instruction, preaching to the 
patients waiting in the hall, reading and speaking to 
those who occupied the wards. The distribution of 
Christian books and portions of the Scriptures went on 
as usual. The patients when returning home were 
well supplied with these works, and in this way Christian 
knowledge was often carried to distant regions, other- 
wise beyond our reach, by patients who had travelled 
thence to avail themselves of the benefits afforded by 
the hospital. 

Though the summer was very hot there had been 
little disease which could be attributed to the climate. 
The effect of climate on the health both of European 
and native is deserving of notice. Generally speak- 
ing, the ill effects are not experienced in the hottest 
period of the summer. When the scorching heat of 
the day in autumn is succeeded by cold heavy dews at 
night, those who are exposed to these atmospheric 
changes are peculiarly liable to fever and other diseases. 

E 4 


In autumn the nights begin to be cold, when fre- 
quently the dew runs off the tiles in such quantities 
as to resemble the falling of rain. Through the hot 
summer the liver is in a state of great activity, pouring 
forth its bile profusely, the skin at the same time per- 
spiring at every pore. When the cool autumn weather 
begins, this activity on the surface is suddenly checked, 
and the blood probably congested in the liver and 
abdominal organs : torpor of the liver frequently ensues. 
In addition, the malaria from the vegetation in its 
season of decay is powerful, and Chinese as well as 
foreigners are more exposed to sickness at this than at 
any other period of the year. Continued fever occa- 
sionally supervenes ; but the more common effects are, 
in some instances, attacks of ague, in others of dysentery 
and diarrhoea. 

There is a form of ague in Shanghai, observed in a 
few cases, from the peculiarities of which the patients 
suffered severely. Every day, sometimes on alternate 
days, there is a slight cold stage of ague, hardly per- 
ceptible, which is quickly followed by the hot stage. 
Then the hands and feet alone begin to perspire most 
profusely, the water standing in beads on the skin, and 
even running off the hands, while the rest of the body 
is quite dry. This variety of ague, with its confined 
or local perspiration, is accompanied by intense head- 
ache and more general suffering than is usual in 
common ague. The Chinese look upon this as a very 
troublesome form of the disease. Quinine and arsenic 
are, however, as efficacious in removing it as other 
forms of intermittent. 

The hospital report for 1851, gives a case of severe 


injury to the perineum, with rupture of the urethra, ac- 
companied by much suffering and also great danger 
to life, but from which the patient eventually recovered. 
The full report is not necessary, but the following ob- 
servations, made at the time, have an interest of their 
own : — " Independently of the case and its treatment, 
the most interesting circumstance about it was the un- 
remitting watchful care shown for the patient's comfort 
by his father and an elder brother. They kept constant 
watch over him by day and night ; no care or trouble 
seemed too much on his account, and the tender, 
assiduous attention manifested was very pleasing to 
witness ; no mother watching over her child could 
have displayed more affectionate kindness than did 
these men, rough and ragged as they were, though 
mere common labourers." The report for the follow- 
ing year, 1852, narrates a similar case of good nursing. 
The pilot of a junk, who had been wounded in an 
attack by pirates, was brought to the hospital in a very 
dangerous state. The captain and owners of the junk, 
with some of the sailors, were constantly with this 
man, two or three of them watching by him day and 
night with most untiring attention. It was most plea- 
sant to see men of this class so anxious for the comfort 
of a sick comrade. Other similar instances occurred of 
genuine kindness, showing that, however grasping and 
selfish the Chinese frequently show themselves, true 
human feeling will find ways of expressing itself 
Instances have, indeed, been known where persons, 
finding a sick relative an incumbrance, have brought 
him to the hospital and left him there without any 
attendant, merely for the purpose of getting rid of him. 


Such are very exceptional cases however. The friends 
of the patients, on the whole, make kind nurses, doing 
all that is needful for their comfort. 

The question is often asked why the Chinese suffer 
so much from diseases of the eye ? It may be replied 
that probably the ordinary amount of ophthalmia is 
not much greater among them than among the people 
of other countries. When, however, the eyes are se- 
verely affected with inflammation, unless there be im- 
mediate relief, the organ being so delicate, a speedy 
change in its structure follows, and the eyes become 
permanently marked, and to a certain extent dete- 
riorated. Thus it happens that the native surgeons 
being unable to arrest disease, many persons are met 
with, in whose cases the results of inflammation have 
seriously affected the state of the organ. 

An accumulation of such cases of chronic ophthal- 
mia naturally ensues from neglect at an early stage of 
the disease. The sudden changes of the weather in the 
north of China, account for much of the inflammation 
of the eyes which is observed. The thermometer in 
the spring and autumn months, will sometimes fall 30° 
or 40° in the twenty-four hours ; or after one or two 
days, with southerly wind, there will be a sudden 
change to northerly wind with much rain, followed 
after the rain by sharp cold. There is always a large 
increase of acute disease of the eye after these changes. 

Early in this year there was established in the hos- 
pital ground a kitchen for the cooking and distributing 
of rice to the poor. It was kept open for nine weeks, 
and 34,000 bowls of rice were supplied to the destitute 
applicants. In November the kitchen was opened 


again, and kept open till the following spring. The 
funds Avere supplied by special contributions, several 
of the foreign residents having wished that steps should 
be taken for the relief of those who were almost 
starving around them. The Chinese beggars that 
prowl about the streets are perhaps the most degraded 
specimens of the mendicant race to be met with any- 
where. No kind of provision is made for them, but 
they are allowed to go about asking for alms, and 
almost demand relief from all residents and shop- 
keepers. They seem to think they are entitled to stand 
at the doors of the latter, where they will annoy them 
in a variety of ways, until a copper cash is be- 
stowed, when they will move on to the next house. 
The giving of cooked food was found to be less liable 
to objection than other plans of relief, as it could not 
be exchanged for money, which would certainly have 
been spent in vicious indulgences. Indeed, the beggars 
ate the rice greedily and at once, and would ask for 
more than the one large bowl full which was the 
allowance for each person. 

A beggar presented himself one day among the out- 
patients, with violent inflammation of both eyes, having 
the lids enormously swollen. He stated that he had 
been helping a plasterer working at a new house, and 
while raising a bucket of newly-mixed lime on to the 
scaffolding, some of the hme had fallen into his eyes. 
On examination, the eyelids were found stuffed full of 
mortar which was lying between the lids and the ball 
of the eye in a solid mass, very difficult to break away 
in small portions, and impossible to remove altogether. 
The man being told that the hme could not have been 


introduced in such large quantities between the lids 
by merely falling into the eyes, he said that the ac- 
cident nevertheless happened exactly as he had de- 
scribed it, and that while looking up the lime had filled 
his eyes. Further inquiry, however, showed that the 
man had intentionally filled both eyelids with hme for 
the purpose of destroying his sight, that so he might 
attract sympathy in his forlorn condition, and obtain 
money from the benevolently disposed. His state was 
very lamentable ; violent pain in his eyes, both corneas 
in a sloughy state ; excessive suppuration flowing from 
the conjunctivas, and the eyes totally destroyed. This 
plan is only one of several resorted to by the beggars 
to deaden the eyesight, and make themselves objects 
of pity. They also sometimes blind their children 
in early life by means of hme, and by puncturing their 
eyes with a coarse needle to destroy them. 

A similar case to the above was afterwards seen, of 
a man who had effectually ruined his sight, but who 
denied having put hme into his eyes, some of which, 
however, was found under the lids, though the greater 
part had been removed after the mischief was done. 
This man had started as an ordinary beggar, urging 
his complaint of poverty, and begging for money. Not 
finding this plan sufficiently lucrative, he had, tried the 
effect of changing his profession into that of a blind 
beggar. He was eloquent in his bitter complaints of 
the agony he suffered from the state of his eyes, and 
of the great loss he had sustained from his becoming 
blind, but this was rather with the view of getting 
some copper cash than effectual relief for his eyes. 
Finding that he was accused of purposely destroying 


his sight he came to the hospital only twice, and not 
receiving any money, probably thought he was wasting 
his time, for he did not return. 

The daily routine of the hospital at this time was as 
follows : — " At half-past seven in the morning the bell 
rings, and shortly, such of the in-patients as are able, 
with the servants and others on the premises, assemble 
in the hall, when a portion of Scripture is read and 
prayer offered in Chinese. At nine whatever may be 
wanted early in the day by the in-patients is provided 
for. At half-past eleven the bell rings for half an hour, 
to notify that it is the time for the general work of the 
hospital to commence. So soon as the out-patients are 
assembled, a religious service in Chinese is held for the 
instruction of all present, one of the missionary brethren 
kindly undertaking this duty. This ended, the female 
out-patients are admitted into the dispensary, their 
ailments inquired into and suitable medicines supplied ; 
then the male patients are dealt with in like manner. 
Bamboo tickets are given at the close of the Chinese 
service by the door-keeper, and the patients are sum- 
moned to the dispensary by twos, according to the 
number of their tickets. They are then examined 
separately, and the medicine given ; any case requiring 
special attention or any operation, is reserved until the 
others are disposed of. As the patients leave, paper 
tickets are given to them stating when they are to return. 
From 50 to 100 or 150 out-patients are attended to 
four days in the week. On the other two days the 
dispensary in the city, formerly alluded to, is opened, 
where the same general plan is adopted. After the 
out-patients have all been seen the in-patients are 


farther attended to, and the money for food given to 
such as are poor and unable to provide for themselves. 
The premises are then looked over; the medicines to 
be used the next day given out in bulk to be made 
up ; and all the other details of the establishment 
arranged. In the evening the in-patients are again 
visited ; and at all times accidents and cases of sudden 
sickness are received. There may be much that is 
imperfect in carrying out all these arrangements, but 
it is the endeavour to do each day's work as efficiently 
as circumstances will admit, and it is hoped not without 
benefit to those who seek relief." 

In winter and spring, when the weather is wet, 
the people of Shanghai suffer much from catarrh, 
cough, and rheumatism ; in summer and autumn should 
there be a continuance of wet weather, diarrhoea and 
dysentery are the prevailing disorders. Intermittent 
fever also exists to a large extent, but it is remarkable 
that this latter affection is not more general. The city 
and the surrounding country present an extensive flat 
of alluvial soil, which, when dug into the depth of four 
feet, yields water in abundance. Were the surface irri- 
gated for the purpose of rice cultivation, intermittent 
fever would prevail here as at Chusan. The cultiva- 
tion of cotton, wheat, and many kinds of edible vege- 
tables, however, is carried on in the district, and as 
this does not require irrigation the surface is for the 
most part dry, except during the season of heavy 
rains. It is worthy of note, that catarrh, dysentery, 
diarrhoea, and such diseases appear to take an inter- 
mittent or periodical character among the natives and 
also among Europeans. The latter are also more sub- 


ject to intermittent fever in all its forms than the 
natives, who are, of course, thoroughly acclimated. 
European children are especially subject to this aguish 
influence, and almost all the disorders of children 
assume a periodic character. Notwithstanding the 
rapid changes of temperature in this part of the coun- 
try, the heat in summer being at times 100°, and the 
cold in winter as low as 14° or 15°, and the changes 
hi spring and autumn frequently so sudden as that the 
thermometer will fall 30° or 40° in twenty-four hours, 
— it is gratifying to know that Europeans have on the 
whole enjoyed so large a measure of good health. 

On the 4th of August, 1846, at a quarter to four a.m., 
a severe shock of earthquake was felt at Shanghai, which 
lasted about sixty seconds. The vibration of the earth 
appeared to be in a direction from east to west, in- 
cluding one severe shock, followed by a second slighter 
shock, and the continuance of the vibration or oscilla- 
tion for the above space of time. The motion of the 
earth was great, but slow. Had an equal motion taken 
place in a shorter time much damage to the city must 
have ensued. As it was, few accidents occurred, but 
the Chinese were much alarmed. This earthquake was 
perceived over the whole of the southern province of 
Keang-nan, and the northern part of Cheh-keang, but 
its action must have extended over a wider space. The 
centre of the earthquake was probably in Japan, and 
may be supposed to have resulted from a violent 
eruption of one of the large volcanoes in that country. 
On the night of the same day another slight shock was 
felt. These slight shocks of earthquake are not un- 
common in Shanghai, but the natives generally allow 


that the one above noticed was much more severe than 

At about eleven o'clock one night a man was noticed 
standing at a door in one of the public streets. He 
held a lantern in his hand, which he occasionally waved 
above his head, calling in a most plaintive voice upon 
some absent person. He was answered from within the 
house in the same tones. It was found upon inquiry 
that a child in the family was suffering from fever, with 
delirium, or, in the native phrase, " his soul had gone 
away — was rambling abroad." In such a case the 
father hangs up on the side of the house a paper 
figure of Buddha, which he burns. Then, lighting a 
candle in a lantern, he holds it at the door, and calls 
in a mournful and beseeching tone for his child's soul, 
" A-sze, hwui lae," " A-sze, come home," to which the 
person who is watching the child replies, " A-sze lae 
tsae," " A-sze has come back." This continues till the 
delirium subsides, or some change has taken place. 
The wandering spirit is supposed to see the light, and 
hearing the call, returns to its usual abode. 

The recklessness of Chinese patients is seen in the 
instance which follows. A man came to the hospital 
very anxious to have removed a large tumour, which, 
situated on the forehead and pendulous, prevented the 
use of the right eye. He was told the tumour could 
be removed, but he would have to stay a few days in 
the hospital. This he said he could not do, and went 
away. In a few days he returned, having, he said, 
made arrangements with a friend to take his place on 
board his junk, and now he would stay as long as was 
required. The tumour was removed, under the in- 


fluence of chloroform ; the day after there was con- 
siderable swelling of the face, which subsided by the 
third day, when the patient said he could not stay in 
the hospital, as his junk was going away. Being re- 
monstrated with for his deception, he said he had only 
promised to stay until the operation was performed, as 
that was all he wanted. He was told that he would 
not be hindered if he insisted on going, but he would 
go at serious risk to his health, and also to his eyesight, 
and that he must not think that because the operation 
was easily performed, he could at once go about as 
usual. After awhile he promised to stay, and was left 
in the ward in bed. A few hours afterwards, however, 
it was found he had opened the window and decamped, 
carrying off the bedding with him, and was not after- 
wards heard of. 

Similar carelessness is manifested frequently by 
patients with diseases of the eye. They have applied 
when suffering from severe purulent ophthalmia, ex- 
tensive ulceration of the cornea, &c. They are attended 
to, and warned that unless they come regularly every 
day they will lose one or both eyes. They will come 
for a day or two, but finding the disease somewhat 
relieved they do not return for five or six days. In con- 
sequence of such neglect, the disease having returned, 
to the permanent injury of the eye, they are asked why 
they did not come every day ? to which they reply 
" they had not leisure ; it was inconvenient to come so 
often." On being told that their eyes are now seriously 
injured, perhaps one or both destroyed, they say, "they 
are sorry they did not do as they were told ; but that 
they had not time to take care of their eyes." This 



folly was remarkably shown by a young man who held 
a good situation. He had severe purulent ophthalmia, 
and was told to attend at the hospital every day. He 
came for a few days, and the virulence of the disease 
was checked. He then absented himself for a week, 
during which time the cornea of both eyes had 
sloughed, and the eyesight was entirely gone. He said 
that he knew he had been told to attend regularly, but 
when his eyes began to improve, having some business 
at a distance from Shanghai, he went to attend to it. 
Meanwhile the disease had returned, and he now bitterly 
lamented his own folly and inattention. 

The usefulness of the hospital was proved one day, 
by an old woman and her son, who were found sitting 
on the steps, the pictures of distress. The man was in 
much pain, from fractures of his arm and forearm ; 
since the accident, not being able to pay their rent, 
they had been turned out of doors, and were now 
utterly destitute. They were taken into the hospital, 
placed in one of the wards, and supplied with food. 
The man's fractures were attended to, but being an 
opium-smoker, he was much emaciated, which, with 
the intense pain he had suffered in his arm, for several 
days made him as pitiable an object as could be ima- 
gined. Medicine was given to remove the craving for 
opium, and the pain in the fractured arm was soon re- 
lieved. The old woman and her son were made com- 
fortable by good food and proper attention, and by the 
time the broken bones were united, the patient was 
cured of his opium-smoking, and they left the hos- 
pital, very thankful for all the attention they had re- 
ceived. . 


A juggler was on one occasion exhibiting before a 
crowd, and performed a needle-trick as follows : — He 
first pretended to swallow twenty needles, singly, and 
then a piece of string, to which they were to be 
threaded, and afterwards drawn out by a hooked 
wire. On passing down the hook this time, however, 
the needles had slipped too low, and both hook and 
needles became fixed in his throat. After several at- 
tempts, he extracted eight or ten of the needles, and 
was then brought to the hospital. On passing the 
finger into the throat, the needles were distinctly felt, 
and the hook found to be firmly fixed at the back of 
the pharynx. It was finally detached, and drawn out ; 
and with some difficulty four more of the needles, with 
a portion of the string, were removed. The rest of 
the needles could not by any possibility be reached, 
either by the finger or by forceps, and the worst fea- 
ture of the case was that the needles, which were all 
attached to the string, pierced the oesophagus in differ- 
ent directions. The patient suffered much from dys- 
pnoea, with great agony, from a sense of suffocation in 
the throat ; an emetic was given, in the hope that some 
of the needles might be loosened by the vomiting, but 
only one came away. A probang was passed during 
the evening without difficulty, but without benefit ; 
leeches were applied, with considerable relief for a 
time, and hot fomentations to the neck, but great 
tumefaction both external and internal took place, 
and finally the man died, five days after the accident. 
He was a poor feeble fellow, the victim of opium- 
smoking, and other vicious habits. The state of his 
health, along with the great uncertainty of any bene- 

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ficial result, precluded the idea of performing any 

In September 1844, a man applied at the hospital 
with a tumour on the scalp, to which an escharotic 
application had been made ten days previously by a 
native practitioner. This had the effect of destroying 
a large portion of the tumour, and much of the sur- 
rounding skin, which were now in process of separation. 
In a few days the tumour sloughed off, but with it came 
away a portion of the pericranium of the parietal bone, 
of the size of a dollar, leaving the bone bare. The 
man was in good health, and though he had had severe 
pain hi the tumour, he had none in his head. In the 
middle of the month he had to return home ; by this 
time the bone was dry, but the granulations round it 
were healthy ; he was supplied with dressings, and 
told to keep the parts clean. In November he re- 
turned, being a sailor on board a bean junk, from 
Kwan-tung (Moukden). The wound had been kept 
clean, and the bone, which was now loose, was re- 
moved. The surface beneath was healthy, and in 
good condition, and soon healed, much to the man's 

The following plan adopted by the beggars is the 
most extraordinary one that has been met with. Four 
men were seen one day crawling on their hands and 
knees one after another on the ground, and calling on 
the passers-by to give them money. They had lost 
their legs a few mches below the knee. The stumps 
were thoroughly cicatrised, but were pyramidal and 
very tender, the cicatrix of the skin being drawn 
tightly over the bone. On inquiring into the cause of 


this surprising loss of the limbs, the men said it arose 
from an accident which occurred at a fire, where their 
legs had been burned off. It was ascertained, however, 
that beggars, hi the southern province of Shan-tung, 
were in the habit of removing their limbs for the 
purpose of excitmg sympathy, and that the operation 
was performed by a beggar who made it his profession. 
He ties a piece of thin string as tightly as possible 
round the middle of the calf, drawing it closer from 
time to time until mortification ensues. When the 
soft parts are separated the bone is sawn through, and 
in time the stump is covered with skin. This operation 
causes great suffering, and many die in the process ; but 
those who survive the amputation are congratulated 
by their friends, as having gained the loss of their 
limbs and an increase of fortune, from the contributions 
of the benevolent. 

The report for 1853 enumerates many cases of se- 
vere injury, some of which had been accidental, but 
the larger proportion consisting of gunshot wounds. A 
large number of the patients came from great distances, 
which was a pleasing feature of the year's labour, as 
showing that the hospital was known and appreciated 
in the country around as well as in the immediate lo- 
cality. The year was one of much vicissitude. In 
February, during the panic caused by the supposed ad- 
vance of the Tai-ping army upon Shanghai, the views 
of its commanders being; regarded as inimical to 
foreigners, the hospital was almost deserted. On the 
restoration of confidence the patients returned ; but 
when the city was taken by the Triads the attendance 
again declined. In the autumn and winter, however, 

s 3 


not only was the number of out-patients very large, but 
the in-patients were so many, that the wards and the 
large hall were crowded with the sick and their atten- 

The particulars of the capture of the city in the 
autumn of this year (1853), are spoken of in another 
chapter. Individual cases at the hospital, in connection 
with the siege, are here remarked upon. 

The dispensary in the city, which had been kept open 
till July, was then closed for the summer on account of 
the great heat. After this the troubles in the city pre- 
vented regular attendance there, but many patients 
were seen at various times at their own homes. A case 
of fracture of the arches of the dorsal vertebrae was 
brought to the hospital. The man was on board his 
boat, passing down the Yang-king-pang, or city creek, 
when, during a thunder storm, a large willow tree was 
uprooted, and fell on him, breaking some of his ribs, 
and causing the above injury. He lived for several 
weeks, and died at length, worn out and exhausted, from 
the paralysis and its consequences. Notwithstanding 
the greatest care, the formation of frightful bed-sores 
could not be prevented, and before his death the 
spinous processes of several vertebra were laid bare. 
He was regularly visited by one of the missionaries, 
giving much attention to the exhortations he received, 
and leaving the impression on the missionary's mind 
that his visits had not been in vain. 

A woman was admitted with compound fracture of 
the os calcis. She had been attacked by an Imperial 
soldier, and was trying to escape, when she fell through 
the floor of an upper room of her house, and came to 


the ground on the point of the foot. The foot bent 
on the leg so suddenly, and with such violence, that 
owing to the artificial constriction of the feet in Chinese 
women, the skin above the heel was rent across for two 
inches, and the tendon Achilles tore off a portion of the 
upper and back part of the os calcis, which protruded 
at the wound. The piece of bone was replaced by 
tilting the skin over it, and the lips of the wound 
brought together by adhesive plaister. A splint was 
applied, and the case did well. 

After the various attacks on the city, many wounded 
were brought to the hospital. Frequent amputations 
and other operations were performed, of which the 
majority progressed favourably. Many of the Chinese 
bear operations and lingering complaints resulting from 
injuries, which take long to repair, very well. They 
escape many of the effects of inflammatory processes, as 
their constitutions do not readily assume inflammatory 
action. They do not, however, as a class, sustain well 
the drain on the strength caused by excessive suppura- 
tion, the frequent consequent of severe injuries. 

The value of European surgery, and the utility of the 
hospital, in a country like China, may be seen in many 
instances. Application was made on behalf of a boy 
who was bleeding copiously, and his friends, unable to 
check the haemorrhage, were in great alarm. Playing 
with another boy, he was wounded by a sharp knife, 
which was accidentally drawn across the bend of his 
arm. All the large veins were divided, and he would 
probably have bled to death. Pressure carefully ap- 
plied stopped the bleeding, and the boy did well. 

The same evening, a workman, who had a cup thrown 

S 4 


at him, one of the broken pieces of which had opened 
the temporal artery, was brought to the hospital, 
covered with blood. The artery was at once tied, but 
several weeks elapsed before the man recovered from 
the excessive hemorrhage. 

A Chinese boy was firing a pistol, when it burst, and 
lacerated the palm of the hand ; a piece of the barrel 
passing through the hand opened the deep palmar 
artery. The bleeding was very great, and it was some 
time before the artery could be secured. Inflammation 
and suppuration followed the wound, but the hand was 
eventually saved. 

The rice-kitchen was not opened during this year 
(1853). While the city was in a state of siege, little 
employment could be found by the poorer classes, who 
were suffering more than the same class outside. It 
was thought desirable to aid the former, and a quantity 
of rice having been provided by funds specially sub- 
scribed for that purpose, it was taken into the city, as 
opportunity allowed, and distributed amongst the desti- 
tute people. A large quantity of provisions which had 
been slightly damaged was sent to the hospital by the 
kindness of a friend. This also was taken into the city, 
and was most gladly received by many, to whom it 
proved a seasonable aid in their state of destitution. 

Several friends of the hospital, wishing to enlarge the 
accommodation for patients, proposed to build more 
wards. The work was begun, but had to be discon- 
tinued, the flight of cannon balls over the ground mak- 
ing the site unsafe. The money was spent in adding 
verandahs to the present wards, rendering them much 
more useful and commodious. Other arrangements 


also were carried out for the benefit of the patients, 
and to the great improvement of the hospital. 

The religious services were maintained as usual by 
the missionaries of the London Missionary Society. 
These were attended by large numbers of the soldiers 
and other patients. The former of these, more especially, 
coming from different and distant parts of the empire, 
have heard the truths and facts of the Christian religion, 
of which they were before ignorant. As they returned 
to their own provinces, they would carry with them 
some recollection of what they had heard and seen, 
as well as portions of the Holy Scriptures and tracts, 
which were placed in their hands. In this way the 
benevolent character of the institution combines with 
the Christian object of the missionary, and both co- 
operate in the promotion of " Glory to God in the 
highest, and of good will among men." 

The siege of the city continued in 1854, and the 
number of gunshot wounds brought to the hospital 
was still large. The number of patients during the 
year was greater than ever before ; more than 12,000 
individuals, in-patients and out-patients, having been 
under treatment. During the previous year there had 
been much fighting near the hospital, and several per- 
sons were struck by cannon shot close to the premises, 
into which also shot fell at different times. This year the 
fighting had been more to the westward, at places fur- 
ther removed from the hospital, though, during one or 
two of the attacks on the city, many bullets fell in the 
hospital compound, and also in the hall and dispensary, 
but happily without striking any one. Owing to the 
uncertainty of access to the city on certain occasions, it 


was not possible to keep up the dispensary within the 
walls with any regularity. Many wounded people were 
attended to in different parts of the city, and occasion- 
ally patients were seen at the London Mission Chapels. 

One morning, at daybreak, a shot from the city fell 
in one of the imperial camps, and struck three men 
who were in bed. One of them was killed on the spot, 
the others were brought to the hospital, one with his 
leg shattered, and a large wound in the thigh ; he had 
bled so much that he died hi an hour. The third had 
his right arm destroyed, but when he was laid on the 
table to be operated on, he could not he down from 
severe pain in the chest. On examination it was found 
that the sternum was fractured, and that three or four 
ribs were separated from it, though the skin was not 
broken. It was supposed that Iris arm must have been 
outside the bed clothes, and the ball, after carrying it 
away, struck him in the chest through the thick cover- 
let. The operation was, of course, not performed, and 
after lingering in much agony for a few hours, the man 

A young man in charge of a shop in a village was 
attacked by a soldier, who, with others, was plundering. 
The soldier struck him on the loins with his sword, 
inflicting a large and very deep wound, from which 
there was copious haemorrhage. The friends of the 
young man passed & long girdle tightly round him, and 
brought him to the hospital. On removing the girdle 
the blood poured forth in a large stream, evidently 
from one of the large lumbar branches of the aorta. 
After repeated trials this vessel could not be secured ; 
thick sutures were passed through the skin and the 


bottom of the wound, which fortunately included the 
artery. A large pad was placed over all, and kept in 
its place by a bandage. There was no more hcenior- 
rhage, and the wound healed. 

Another young man, in the pawnbroker's shop at 
Kung-wan, was also attacked by a soldier, who struck 
him with his sword on the head and other parts of the 
body, causing compound fracture of the frontal-bone, 
destruction of one side of the orbit, and of one eye ; 
compound fracture of the ulna, and of one finger, 
besides other slight wounds. The patient was confined 
to bed for a long time, but eventually recovered, 
though the remains of the eye continued for some time 
to give him pain. 

A man was brought in one morning; whom a Triad 
had caught and tried to behead, taking him for an 
imperial soldier. Unable to effect his purpose, owing 
to the man's struggles, he yet inflicted most severe 
injuries upon him. The man had a wound on the 
forehead, which passed through the frontal bone, and 
raised up a portion of it ; a wound on the face, through 
the molar bone and part of the upper jaw ; another 
wound on the lower part of the face, which cut through 
the lower jaw ; two deep wounds in the neck ; one on 
each shoulder, one of which penetrated the shoulder- 
joint ; a wound at the back of the neck, exposing the 
vertebras of the spine ; and one on the fore-arm, caus- 
ing compound fracture of the ulna ; besides numerous 
severe flesh wounds on the body and limbs. The man 
had literally to be sewn together again. After much 
suffering for more than three months he finally re- 


A beggar was brought in, who had been struck on 
the leg, with a cannon ball, causing compound fracture 
of the tibia and fibula ; the limb had also been roughly- 
used afterwards, and, in fact, was dangling about, so 
that the ends of the bone had inflicted much injury on 
the soft parts. The man was in such a miserable state of 
health, owing to bad food, that amputation of the lhnb, 
which seemed to be the only thing to be done, was out 
of the question. The limb was dressed, and splints ap- 
plied ; for a long time the man's life was in great dan- 
ger, bed-sores formed on his back, and sinuses ran up 
the leg ; but having better food than he had previously 
been able to obtain, he rallied out of his weak state ; 
the bed sores healed, the bones united, some portions of 
dead bone were thrown off, and the man got well, with 
a sound limb. 

An imperial soldier was brought to the hospital on 
another occasion. He had received a gun shot wound 
in the thorax. The ball passed through the sternum 
and traversed the chest, without making a wound in 
the back, and lodged between two ribs, under the skin 
on the left side. There was a great bleeding from the 
wound for some hours, and it was thought he would 
bleed to death ; he also coughed up a quantity of blood. 
Opium was freely given, to relieve the excessive pain, 
and he was made as comfortable as possible, although 
the case was regarded as almost hopeless. In a few 
days, however, the expectoration ceased to be bloody, 
and after much inflammation of the lungs, the man 
gradually began to recover. The wound healed, and 
before he left the hospital, the ball in his back was re- 
moved, lest it should cause future mischief. 


These cases have been selected from a large number 
of a similar kind, to show the general character of the 
work done at the hospital. In the midst of so much 
disorder and confusion in the country, it was well thai 
Christian foreigners, had the power of quietly carrying 
on an institution of this kind ; affording; relief to many 
diseased and wounded persons, who would otherwise 
have dragged on a miserable existence. 

At certain times, there were in the wards imperialists 
wounded by rebels, rebels wounded by imperialists, 
and rustics who had suffered from both parties ; but 
there they all lived together in peace, receiving help 
themselves, and often, and cheerfully, helping each 

Early in 1855, the Triads evacuated Shanghai, under 
circumstances narrated in another chapter. Two days 
after the termination of the siege, some enormously 
large Chinese guns, thirty-pounders, were removed from 
the battery. One of these had been charged, and laid 
for the north gate of the city, and the officer of the gun 
thought proper, before removing, to discharge it. The 
ball fell amongst a crowd of people, who were going 
in at the gate, three of whom were instantly killed ; 
another was so much injured, that he died shortly after- 
wards, while a fifth, lost his arm and leg. This one was 
brought to the hospital, bleeding profusely, and though 
with little hope of saving life, the ( arm and leg were 
amputated immediately. By this means, no more 
blood was lost, but the man had been already so much 
weakened, that he died the same afternoon. The 
officer who had caused this loss of life was condemned 
to decapitation, but the matter was arranged by the 


payment of a sum of money to the friends of the 

Early one morning, a six-pound ball, from the city 
wall, entered a house near the hospital, and wounded a 
woman lying in bed on the shoulder. Her baby, 
which was asleep on her arm, was killed. The woman 
was brought in, having compound fracture of the head 
of the humerus, with much injury to the soft parts of 
the arm and neck. She remained a long time under 
treatment, and eventually recovered, though the arm 
continued very weak, and she could do but little with 

Owing to the prevalence of northerly and easterly 
wmds, the summer and autumn months were especially 
unhealthy. The Chinese suffered severely, and many 
of the foreign residents were also affected. The forms 
of disease most frequent were dysentery and diarrhoea, 
of unusual intensity, and intermittent and remittent 
fevers. The intermittent fever was frequently accom- 
panied with diarrhoea, which is a combination very dif- 
ficult to relieve, showing that the liver and spleen are 
much affected. The common fever and ague epidemic 
at this place was, during this year, very obstinate, and 
less amenable to quinine and arsenic than usual. The 
attacks of this disease recurred again and again at 
intervals of a week or ten days, so that many patients 
had for a long time to take weekly doses of quinine. 
The usual interval of recurrence of these attacks is 
three weeks, but this autumn it was from seven to ten 
days. Cases of inflammation of the liver, and jaundice, 
followed by ascites and diarrhoea, presented themselves 
in unusual numbers. There was also a great fatality 


among the natives in the agricultural districts around 
Shanghai, from a species of typhus with petechias. 
Owing in a great measure to the number of sick, it 
was with great difficulty that the harvest was gathered 
in ; the cotton remained long on the plants before it 
was picked, so that much of it was lost. The cotton 
crop was a large one ; and there is a proverb among 
the people, that when the season suits the cotton it 
kills the peasants. This certainly was the case 
this year, for the growers were said to die like 
flies. In addition to the above diseases, cholera 
carried off large numbers, and in no year since the 
opening of the port has this fearful malady been so 
severe. In July and August there were many cases, 
and it seemed as though the visitation of this scourge 
would be heavy, but after August had passed it dis- 

A case of hydrophobia was received, the only one 
which had presented itself at the hospital. A strong, 
powerful Shan-tung man, from the junks, had been 
bitten in the finger by a dog some weeks previously, 
and the wound had healed long before any symptoms 
of disease had shown themselves. When brought in 
he was suffering frightful agony; chloroform and 
other remedies were tried, but without effect. After 
remaining some time, he requested his friends to take 
him back to his ship, where he in a little while died. 
It was hard to see the poor man enduring such torture 
without the possibility of affording him any relief. 
Again and again he begged that he might be killed at 
once, even going on his knees to beseech that his 
throat might be cut, to put an end to his sufferings. 


Two instances of trismus, or lock-jaw, occurred dur- 
ing the year. A soldier, while in action, had had his hand 
lacerated by a splinter of wood. The hand was much 
torn, and a piece of wood had been lodged between 
the metacarpal bones for several days before he sought 
relief; his jaw was then becoming stiff, and he had 
pain in the back of the neck, and difficulty in swallow- 
ing. The piece of wood was removed, and the wound 
dressed, whilst large quantities of opium were given to 
him ; but he gradually grew worse, and died in much 
suffering. The other case was that of a man employed 
in a lighter, or cargo-boat. A heavy beam of wood 
had fallen on his leg, producing compound fracture of 
the ancle, and much laceration of the foot. Imme- 
diate amputation was recommended, but he would not 
consent. The ancle was replaced, and the wounds 
dressed, but extensive sloughing came on, followed 
speedily by lock-jaw, under which he soon sank and 

The larger proportion of contusions and wounds 
during the year have been in the case of labourers and 
workmen at the foreign buildings ; in the former while 
engaged in carrying goods to and from the cargo-boats, 
in the latter from the falling of building material, more 
especially of scaffolding, which, from the careless man- 
ner in which generally it is fastened, frequently gives 
way when loaded with bricks and mortar. Ten or a 
dozen men were repeatedly brought in at the same 
time, all more or less severely injured by such acci- 
dents, and several such patients died during the year. 

It was stated in the report for 1856, that during the 
previous ten years, the work of the hospital had been 

DROUGHT IN 1856. 273 

uninterruptedly prosecuted. The premises had been 
built and paid for, current expenses had been fully 
met, there was no debt on the establishment, and a small 
balance in the hands of the treasurer. The funds thus 
used were derived chiefly from the liberal contribu- 
tions of the foreign residents, to whom all thanks are 
due. The actual work of the hospital was commenced 
in 1844, and for two and a half years was carried on 
in the eastern and southern suburbs until 1846, when 
the present building was erected. Patients, not only 
from the immediate neighbourhood, but from many 
towns and cities in distant parts of this and the sur- 
rounding provinces, and great numbers of sailors from 
the Shan-tung and Fuh-kien junks, have constantly 
resorted hither for relief. 

The weather during this year (1856) was unusually 
dry. Only thirty inches of rain fell, while in the pre- 
vious year the amount was fifty-four inches. A very 
little feU in spring, and hardly any in July and August, 
the amount for the two months being only one inch, 
whereas the usual quantity is from twelve to twenty- 
two inches. Not only was the want of rain severely 
felt in the immediate neighbourhood, but all the 
region north of Shanghai suffered much from the same 
cause. The country to the south, at Fu-chau, Amoy, 
and Canton, was deluged with rain, as if all the 
moisture brought up by the southerly monsoon had 
been deposited on the south-coast line, to the loss of 
the interior and north of the empire. 

The effect of the drought on the" crops was serious. 
The cotton suffered severely, and the rice fields to a yet 
greater extent. The price of this latter commodity was 



doubled ; and it was feared the people would experience 
a great scarcity of food. The fear was to a large ex- 
tent verified, and, as on former occasions of scarcity, a 
large quantity of rice was distributed at the hospital, 
twice or thrice a week, to the poor. 

The year, on the whole, was healthy. There was 
little of any violent kind of fever among Europeans or 
Chinese. The natives suffered somewhat from typhus 
and cholera, but the latter appeared only in occasional 
cases, and did not assume an epidemic form. 

A man was brought to the hospital who had received 
a severe laceration of the leg from a fall through the 
broken hd of a coffin, while he was stealing wood in a 
Chinese cemetery. A thick, solid splinter was with 
considerable difficulty withdrawn from the wound ; it 
had penetrated deep behind the knee, close to the head 
of the fibula. Great inflammation ensued, followed by 
j)rofuse suppuration. The patient was beginning to 
improve, but trismus set in, and caused Iris death. 

Another day a man came who had fracture of the 
bones of the fore- arm. These were put into position, 
and splints applied. The next day he returned, but 
without the splints, and wanting his arm to be again 
dressed. Being asked what had become of the splints, 
he confessed that he had used them as firewood to cook 
Iris rice with. He repeated this trick, when he was told 
if he did not take care of the splints he should not be 
admitted to the hospital. 

Another, suffering from an inguinal hernia, had a truss 
fitted to it, which gave him relief, and he was able to 
resume Iris occupation. The truss was given to him. 
In a few days he returned, saying that the truss was 


very comfortable, but lie wished to know how much 
would be paid him for wearing the instrument every 

One morning a man was carried in, bleeding profusely 
from a deep stab in the back, so that his clothes were 
saturated with blood. With some difficulty the haemor- 
rhage was stopped and the wound dressed. After the 
blood was washed from his body dry clothes were 
given him, he was put to bed, and fed and nursed care- 
fully for some days. He soon recovered, and the first 
use he made of his returning strength was in stealing; 
the clothes of the hospital servants while they were en- 
gaged in their work, and offering them for sale in the 
road. The clothes were recovered, and the man dis- 
missed, with a deserved reproof for his ingratitude. 

These instances are mentioned to show, that while as 
the rule the Chinese are grateful for the benefits they 
receive, there are a few who do not appreciate the 
attention paid to them. This good work is carried on, 
however, not so much for the sake of the gratitude of 
the objects of it, as to show them that we wish to do 
them good for Christ's sake. In labouring for their 
benefit we seek not theirs, but them. We wish to 
prove to them, in a maimer which admits not of dis- 
pute, that the Gospel is not merely a form of words, 
but that it moves its disciples to seek the welfare of 
others. Amidst discouragements and various trials we 
remember that our heavenly Father is ever kind, even 
to the unthankful and to the evil. 

"the people of all classes, wealthy and poor alike, 
have evinced a proper sense of gratitude for the relief 
which the hospital has afforded them. Their conduct, 


in this respect, is in striking and somewhat amusing 
contrast with that of some of the Government officials. 
Several of these who have been under medical treat- 
ment at the hands of the foreign surgeon — the Taou- 
tae, or governor of the city and the surrounding 
districts, was for some time a patient, and was cured of 
his malady — have shown that they were really grate- 
ful. Most commonly, however, they would have their 
condescension seen on applying to the hospital on any 
occasion, and that the foreigner was greatly flattered 
when they requested his services. One day a messenger 
from the office of the Taou-tae brought the governor's 
card to the hospital, asking for a visit. On being asked 
who was sick, the messenger said he did not know ; he 
had been told to take the card to the hospital, and 
desire that the visit might be paid as soon as possible. 
This mode of application was not in accordance with 
the politeness common in such a case, and a trick was 
suspected on the part of a subordinate in the office of 
the Taou-tae. To prevent mistake the request was 
complied with, and on arriving at the place the door- 
keeper said he did not know who was sick, and referred 
the inquirer to the office of the secretary. There, one 
of the subordinate clerks came forward, and in a con- 
sequential manner said he " wished to consult the 
foreign surgeon, as he had heard of his name and repu- 
tation. He therefore desired his services." On being 
asked if it was he who had sent the card of the Taou- 
tae, he said it was. " But was it polite of you to use 
your master's name for your own purposes?" This 
question was put pointedly, as several of his colleagues 
had come into the office to see what was going on, be- 


fore whom he evidently wished to appear important in 
causing the foreigner to wait upon him. To be sup- 
posed wanting in politeness, when he had wished to 
show off his condescension to the barbarian, evidently 
made his " greatness " uncomfortable. " Why did you 
send so hurriedly, seeing there was so little cause for 
it ? " " I had suffered from a want of appetite and 
other sjmiptoms of indigestion, and wished for some 
medicine." He was told that if he wanted medicine he 
knew where the hospital was, and by applying there he 
could have his wants supplied. " You have been guilty 
of a breach of good manners in sending; under false 
pretences to bring the surgeon to wait Upon you, 
instead of applying to him yourself." He still wanted 
to be prescribed for, and wished the visitor to take 
some tea. The twofold favour was quietly declined, 
and he was told to come to the hospital, where he 
should be relieved of his indigestion, and also cured of 
his opium-smoking, of which habit he was the victim, 
as the sickness he complained of proved. At first he 
denied this, but finally acknowledged it, when he said 
he would go to the hospital, and apply properly for 
what he wanted. This man was only a subordinate, 
but in this conduct he was imitating his superiors, and 
acting- in the usual manner of Chinese officials. To 
yield to such pretentiousness would only excite ridicule ; 
to be provoked to lose your own temper would give 
such folly an advantage, and the Chinese themselves 
would despise the " hot-tempered barbarian." To ap- 
peal to their politeness and their doctrines of propriety, 
on which they pride themselves, never fails, when 
quietly done, to make them ashamed of themselves, and 

T 3 


offer an apology. They will respect the foreigner all 
the more, who, seeing through their pretences, with 
good feeling, and by a stroke of happy temper, will 
turn the rudeness they have shown upon themselves. 
A pretty long acquaintance with officers and people of 
all ranks, and on all occasions, has shown this to be the 
best plan of dealing with them in then- supercilious 
moods. It has seldom, if ever, failed to secure their 

. The year 1857, unlike its predecessor, when from 
want of rain the cotton crop had failed, was a wet 
season. The cotton was much injured by rain and 
wind in the autumn ; in many places it was almost de- 
stroyed. The rice crop, owing to the same cause, was 
much below the average. In September there occurred 
a severe typhoon at the time of spring-tide, when the 
accumulation of water in the river was so great as to 
flood all the flat country to the depth of two feet. 
This with the continuous rain made the autumn sea- 
son unhealthy ; fever and ague, and a form of low 
nervous fever prevailed ; diarrhoea and dysentery were 
also common, and many Europeans as well as natives 

Throughout the spring and autumn an epidemic of 
purulent ophthalmia prevailed over a large district 
of country around Shanghai. This was a severe 
affliction on the people, great numbers losing one or 
both of their eyes. Numbers of the afflicted came to 
the hospital, and were relieved ; but it was sad to see 
day by day one after another coming from distant parts 
of the country, but too late for relief, with one or both 
eyes entirely injured or destroyed. Such an epidemic 


of this disease had not visited this place since the port 
was opened. 

A man came one day who had an enormous falling 
tumour on the back, pendent from the nape of the 
neck. It must have weighed at least half a hundred 
weight, and was the largest tumour ever seen at the 
hospital. Frequently vast tumours of the rectum, 
hanging even below the knees, are met with ; but this 
was like a lame bag of rice on the man's back, and 
he complained much of the great weight he had to 
carry about with him. He did not wish to be oper- 
ated on, even if the tumour could have been removed 
with safety, which was doubtful ; he applied for me- 
dicine for some other disease. It has been already 
stated that the frequency of these diseased growths 
amongst the Chinese, is to be accounted for by the 
fact, that they are neglected when at an early stage ; 
besides, that Chinese surgeons do not know how to 
remove them by operation. 

Two valued friends of the hospital were this year 
removed by death. They were amongst the original 
trustees, and had always been warmly interested in its 
welfare. The Eev. Dr. Medhurst died immediately 
after landing in England, in January ; and T. C. Beale, 
Esq., hi November. The latter gentleman had been on 
the committee since the commencement, and had mate- 
rially assisted hi the establishment of the hospital. 

The religious services amongst the patients were 
steadily maintained throughout the year as usual. The 
character and number of persons present at these 
services, which were conducted by members of the 
London Missionary Society, supplied an excellent op- 

T 4 


portimity day by day of making known the Gospel of 
Christ. Those who have been educated in a Christian 
land, and have lived amid the light and privileges of 
religious truth, cannot fully estimate the high moral 
and spiritual advantage which, they have thence derived. 
It becomes their solemn duty, however, to communicate 
the blessing to others around them, that they also may 
realise the elevating and sanctifying effects of Christian 
truth. This will be hilly attained in China when her 
people, enlightened and influenced by true religion, 
shall imbibe the spirit and obey the precepts of the 
Divine Eedeemer of men. 

The most pleasing circumstance in connection with 
the hospital has been, that while its direct object has 
been the relief of physical sufferings, it has furnished 
such ample opportunity for extending the knowledge 
and exhibiting the highest and noblest charity of our 
common Christianity. Many have there listened to the 
truths of our holy religion, and it may be reasonably 
hoped that while favourably impressed with the kind- 
ness, unbought and disinterested, which has been dis- 
played to them, their souls have been touched by the 
" better things " of the Gospel of Christ. In the 
evangelisation of China, as the hospital and its associa- 
tions become more extensively known, and the advan- 
tages it brings more widely diffused, it will doubtless 
be seen how largely this Christian auxiliary of the 
medical mission has aided the spiritual as well as the 
temporal welfare of this numerous people. 

At the end of the year 1857, the writer of these 
pages left the scene of his labours in Shanghai and 
proceeded to England. Dr. Hobson, for many years 


resident at Canton, being driven away from that place 
at the commencement of the troubles there, kindly 
consented to remove to Shanghai and assume the 
charge of the hospital. This he now did, and with 
much efficiency. The account of his work there in 
1858 is given as the sequel to the remarks upon the 
Canton hospital in a previous page. 

Upon Dr. Hobson's departure to England, on account 
of his health failing, Mr. Collins, of the Church Mis- 
sionary Society, kindly undertook the superintendence 
of the institution. The details of the work were car- 
ried out by a Chinese pupil, Chun-fu, who is spoken of 
in the account of the education of Chinese youths. In 
this way the hospital has been kept open, and its effi- 
ciency maintained for the last two years. 

Dr. James Henderson, of the London Missionary 
Society, arrived at Shanghai early in the present year 
(1860), and has taken the hospital under his charge. 
Admirably fitted for his work, he will doubtless be 
able to devote himself heartily to every department of 
work to be carried on there. He is a well-educated 
surgeon, and bears with him the good wishes of those 
who had the pleasure of knowing liim and appre- 
ciating his attainments. 

Such is the history up to the present time of the 
hospital at Shanghai. It may be stated that, during 
the writer's engagement as a medical missionary, for 
the last twenty years of his stay in the East, he has 
attended to more than 200,000 individual patients, in 
Java, Macao, Hongkong, Chusan, and Shanghai. By 
far the larger proportion of these were in Shanghai, 
where he was located for fourteen years. It is a cause 


of great thankfulness to have been able to do so much 
amongst the people ; nor can it be doubted that the 
labour thus spent has helped to show the utility and 
value of medical missions to the heathen. 

At various times patients when .quitting the hospital 
have spontaneously desired to leave behind some per- 
manent record of their gratitude for the benefits they 
had received, and have asked permission to place a 
tablet in the hall expressive of this feeling. These 
tablets are made of wood, beautifully varnished, of a 
white colour, the inscriptions carved into the wood 
and varnished black. The name of the writer and the 
account of his disease are written at one end in small 
characters, and painted black or red according to the 
taste of the writer. They are very ornamental to the 
hall, and interesting to those who see them, and are 
pleasing memorials of the patients themselves. 

One of these, placed on the inside of the sloping 
roof against the beams, runs thus : — 

Taou-tsung-ke-tuh — " Following the doctrines of 
Christ " : — thus recognising the principle on which the 
hospital is established. The writer states that for 
several years he had been afflicted, but, coming to the 
hospital, he was relieved and able to resume his occu- 
pation. Another — 

Shin-e-miau-shau — " The skilful surgeon with won- 
der-working hand." This was written by a man to 
whose great delight his tumour had been removed. 

Another recorded the gratitude of a patient who for 
many years had suffered much from fever and ague, 
from which he could obtain no relief. 

Tih-tseh-wan-chau — " The power or knowledge that 


fertilises or enriches ten thousand islands : " that is, the 
whole empire. 

Chun-nwan-kiang-ching — " Like spring reviving the 
cities of the great river." And another declares, — 

Hang-lin-chuii-nican — " As spring revives the forests 
of plums, or plum orchards." 

On my departure from Shanghai at the end of 1857, 
several Chinese who had at different times been under 
my care, desired to send a letter of thanks, which was 
forwarded some months afterwards. It is written on 
fourteen large rolls, hi gilt characters, on a crimson 
ground, and is beautifully executed. Though the letter 
contains much of fulsome compliment, it may not, per- 
haps, on account of its oriental character, be without 
interest, and a translation follows : — 

" Translation of a souvenir presented to Mr. Lock- 
liart by some native merchants and gentlemen in 
Shanghai on occasion of his return to England in 


" Memento of the meritorious excellences of the 
English surgeon, Mr. Lockhart, with a parting record 
on occasion of his return to his native land. 

" Some people are met with in the world, of whom a 
good action was never told, and who are parsimonious 
to the last farthing ; such deserve not to be ranked 
among men. Among those whom we esteem there are 
those who are naturally tender and compassionate, who 
are ready to assist those in straits, and with a laudable 
generosity of disposition apply themselves to succour 
the poor and destitute ; but the benevolent efforts of 
such do not extend beyond a single village or town, and 


their reputation is confined within given limits. But 
seek we for those whose skill can reanimate decay, 
whose benevolence is typified by the summer shower, 
who consecrate their talents to the benefit of foreign 
lands, and practise their art in distant regions ; such are 
truly difficult to be found, — rarely have they been seen. 

" Mr. Lockhart's intelligence is the gift of Heaven, 
while his talents are worthy of his country ; his stature 
is of portly bulk, his nose of graceful prominence ; in 
front he is a very Buddha *, and his fist is of spherical 
outline. Like Lew-Ching-tsze f , of ancient times, he 
maybe termed the nation's gem; or like Jin-Yew-nienJ, 
in the days of yore, who was looked up to as the 
juvenile sage. Freedom from avarice he accounts his 
treasure ; his habitual feelings are those of indulgence 
towards others ; unwearied in doing good, a benign in- 
fluence attends his every action. On the alert, lest he 
should err in his personal conduct, he reflects the 
watchful virtues of the worthies of old. His words 
are no empty sounds, but are always to the point, and 
every applicant meets with a ready response. In the 
transaction of business he is guided by benevolence and 
justice, and his easy deportment surpasses the models of 
antiquity ; he guards his inner man as he were ap- 
proaching water, or standing by an abyss, and with 
amiable condescension he stoops to the humblest con- 
dition. By such praiseworthy bearing he was soon 
able to gain over the hearts of the multitude. 

" Formerly, when he thought of visiting our poor 

* Literally, "Golden Grain," one of the names of Buddha. 

f A minister during the Tang dynasty. 

\ A famous scholar during the six dynasties. 


country, undaunted by the long and weary voyage, and 
the raging of the snow-white waves, he bade adieu to 
his sovereign, and warbled the ' Bright blossom ' * 
ode. Exerting his efforts to expedite his journey, he 
ploughed the Jasper Ocean, and while the sails whistled 
in the breeze, he faced the trials and dangers un- 
daunted. His large and liberal mind was well qualified 
to justify the favours of his sovereign, while he appre- 
ciated the onus of his commission ; of youthful age, he 
was unanimously selected for the service of his country, 
and his office was the counterpart of the monthly 
ministers of state. Truly he was the genius of his 
country, and he came to China to benefit the people. 

" Thus we see this surgeon is skilled in the arts of 
Ke-pih f , and Hwang-te ; in disposition he is tender to 
the helpless ; he stands on a par with the philosopher 
Ko J, and follows hi the footsteps of the renowned 
Tung. § He divides his medicine into classes superior, 
medium, and inferior ; and nicely discriminates every 
variety of vapour, sound, and colour. Cutaneous 
complaints yield to his treatment ; his instrument is un- 
failing in result ; internal distempers are under his con- 
trol, nor does he need a long deliberation. With the 
receipt-book up his sleeve || , and the thrice broken arm, 

* The 3rd ode of the 1st division of the 2nd part of the She-king; 
an ode on the despatch of an envoy. 

f A minister of the ancient Emperor Hwang-te ; both minister 
and emperor are said to have been profoundly skilled in medicine. 

| A well-known Buddhist writer, anterior to the Christian era ; 
generally known by the name of Paou-po-tsze. 

§ One of the immortals ; famed for his skill in medicine. 

|| An allusion to the above-mentioned Ko, who used to carry a 
book of famous prescriptions up his sleeve. 


verily lie is a physician of repute, for the succour of 
mankind ; the first of his class, and the founder of his 

" Hence his door is thronged by the sick, and the seats 
are all occupied by those seeking treatment ; as one 
leaves, another comes ; with consultation, and reply, 
he thinks nothing of the trouble. He distinguishes the 
true from the false ; examines the case and tends it 
with care ; he draws from his blue bag a genial re- 
storative, while the smoke floats over his alembic. 
When the person becomes unnaturally sensitive to the 
changes of the weather, he removes the cold tendency 
as he were penning a memorandum, and restores com- 
fort without the aid of medicine. When the bodily 
functions of a child become disordered, it is not ne- 
cessary to enjoin abstinence from meats. Equity he 
esteems weighty as the hills ; wealth he regards lightly 
as the autumn leaf. He has built a series of neat 
chambers for the convenience of his patients, and re- 
tains a corps of servants to wait on the sick. He re- 
ceives no fee for his labours, but Iris ground is a grove 
full of almond-trees.* The medicine he dispenses is 
of a superior character, more efficacious than the water 
from the orange well spring.*!' -^ s W0I "ks of merit 
are uninterrupted ; his fame is spread to the ends of the 
earth ; bystanders look on, and talk, telling of his pri- 

* A reference to a famous physician of old, who would receive no 
reward from those ayIio had derived benefit from him, but recom- 
mended each patient to plant an almond-tree before his door, as an 
acknowledgment of his gratitude ; when, in time, his ground was 
tilled with these free-will offerings. 

f This alludes to one of the Sien, u immortals," who had a well, 
the water from which was a cure for all complaints. 


vate virtues ; they rejoice to unite in sustaining his 
efforts, and strive to testify their admiration. 

" Now he speaks of returning to his country on board 
a double-decked ship. May he commence his journey 
on a fortunate day, and the way be marked out by 
felicitous stars ; by favour of the wind may the waves 
be subdued for a thousand million miles. Having been 
absent from his country and his native place for ten 
years and more, he will diligently hasten to the palace 
of his sovereign and exhibit the report of his labours. 

" Her Majesty will express her approbation, and extol 
the unfailing success of his practice. His colleagues 
will praise his excellence, for the unerring precision of 
his views. Habitually correct and respectful, having 
never dishonoured his royal commission, further favours 
will be bestowed by his sovereign, and all will pray 
for blessings on his head. 

" We now wish to do honour to his laudable pro- 
priety, and recall to remembrance his innate bene- 
volence. We will play a few airs on the flute, and 
listen to the tune of the Dragon refrain. Dejectedly 
we bid adieu at the eastern gate, and with wounded 
hearts we gaze over the water to the south ; turning 
around at the river's brink, the sand becomes yellow, 
and the grass has grown white ; shaking hands at the 
bridge over the stream, the snow becomes black, and 
the clouds are obscure ; we are ashamed to say that 
we cannot carry Tsoo-Teih's switch*, but, as a small 

* Tsoo-Teih was a scholar of the Tsin ctynasty, who wishing to 
keep pace with his friend Lew-Kwan, undertook to whip his horse, 
as they rode on together. 


apology, we present the whip of Jaou-Chaou.* As the 
variegated sails move gently along, we look far over 
the distance, — happy the man ! May he return again 
next year, when the migrating swallows come back in 
the spring. If our words are compared to the croaking 
of the frog, we heed it not, but freely express the feel- 
ings of our hearts. 

" Presented by the undersigned thirty-two flourishing 
Chinese mercantile firms. (Here follow the names.) 

" The following twenty-four wealthy Chinese gentle- 
men also subscribe to the above. (Here follow the names. ) 

" Ta-tsing dynasty, Hien-fung, eighth year (mow-woo, 
1858), mid-spring month, on a fortunate day." 

* A counsellor during the Chow dynasty, who presented a whip 
to his compatriot Sze-Hwuy, on occasion of his departure to 
another state. 









The allusions in the foregoing account of the hospital 
at Shanghai, to the capture and siege of the city in 
1853-54, call for a more detailed notice of that event 
— one of the many occurrences which of late years 
enacted in China, have revealed to the eyes of foreigners 
more of the internal condition of the country, and of 
the relation between the government and people ; it is 
also a Link in the chain of events, which are steadily 
advancing the empire to her acknowledged place 
amongst the nations. The record which is given is 
of what passed under personal observation during the 

When the adherents of the Tai-ping rebellion came 
down the Yang-tsze-kiang and captured Nanking, the 
members of the Triad Society, who thought the oppor- 
tunity favourable for the attempted overthrow of the 
Manchu dynasty, organised themselves into various 
societies. One of : these, " the small-knife or dagger " 
branch, after failing in their attempt on Canton, suc- 



ceeded in taking Amoy and Shanghai. For some weeks 
previously it was known that they were organising 
themselves ; as they had been seen, on more than one 
occasion, meeting in a temple outside the walls of 
Shanghai, and enrolling adherents. As they did this 
openly, without interference from the authorities, they 
were not supposed to have any particular object in 

On the morning of September 4th, my servant 
aroused me by the news that the city had been seized. 
A body of men had collected near the north gate, and 
at dawn, when the gate was opened, had rushed in, 
killed the gatekeeper, and hastened through the city 
to the office of the magistrate. They put him to death 
in his office as he was hurrying to see the cause of the 
uproar, and took possession of the other gates of the 
city, setting guards over them, and holding the city at 
their mercy. They next threw open the jail, liberating 
the prisoners, and seized the city treasury, in which 
was half a million dollars of Imperial tribute, which 
should have been sent away the day before, the loss of 
which the collector had to make good out of his own 
purse. On going into the city in the afternoon all was 
in confusion. The Triads, in a state of great delight 
at their easy conquest, had issued placards calling the 
citizens to join them as adherents of the Ming (or native) 
dynasty, and denouncing the Emperor and the Manchu 
as tyrants and enemies to China. The scene at the 
Taou-tae, or Governor's office, was a strange one. The 
holder of this office had been a Hong merchant at 
Canton, officially known as H. E. Wu-kien-chang, but 
to foreigners by the name of Sam-qua. He had fled, 


and being a Canton man, the Triads, who were Canton 
and Fuh-kien men, had favoured his escape, relying on 
his promise not to act against them. This promise he 
violated on the first opportunity, by leading troops 
against the place. His house and office now were 
thoroughly ransacked of their many valuables, and the 
arms and ammunition found there and in the other 
official houses in the city at once appropriated. 

In this office the Triads held their council, if such a 
rabble conclave could be so described, where, amid 
noise and turbulence, every one, with furious gesticu- 
lation, shouted his opinion. The chief was the local 
grand master of the society. He was a Fuh-kien man, 
by profession a sugar broker, and by habit a confirmed 
opium-smoker. In his personal appearance he was 
mean and contemptible, but he was said to be of a 
quiet, self-reliant spirit. He had for his subordinates 
men of some courage and energy, but of utterly un- 
scrupulous principles. They did not shrink from any 
cruelty in carrying out their ideas, and for gain would 
commit any atrocity upon the people. The citizens 
kept aloof from these Triads, the shops were closed, no 
business was done, and everything thrown into utter 

On the second evening, in consequence of a great 
uproar in the city, a report spread through the foreign 
settlement that the Triads intended an attack upon the 
settlement. This was in the hope of plunder, and 
because the foreigners would not espouse their quarrel. 
The apprehension was increased, as the night before 
some musket-balls had struck the French consulate, 
which was not far from the walls. As this was sup- 

u 2 


posed to be intentional, the tumult in the city on the 
following evening was taken as the preparation for an 
attack upon ourselves. In company with a Chinese 
servant I went into the city to inquire the cause of the 
uproar. On passing through the suburbs, to within 
half a mile from the little east gate, we found a large 
body of the Triads in the street armed and in great 
excitement. I approached them and asked what was 
doing amongst them, and why they were armed ? 
They said that a number of Fuh-kien men, in the junks 
on the river, were planning an attack on the city in 
order to a share in the plunder, and they had turned 
out to drive them back, and expected a fight. Passing 
through this body of men to the gate, and finding all 
quiet, I returned and spoke to the men, telling them, in 
reply to their question as to what I was doing at that 
late hour in the suburbs, that I had wished to know the 
meaning of the noise we had heard in the city. On 
communicating the result of this visit to the city, the 
alarm in the settlement subsided. In fact, these Triads 
had sufficient sense to be assured that a collision with 
the foreigners would not in any way help their cause. 

For several days they had their own way, and sup- 
posed they were approaching to the restoration of the 
Ming dynasty. They constituted themselves officers, 
and issued all their notifications in the name of the 
dynasty. Their chief object for the present, however, 
was the gettmg of money. In addition to the half 
million of dollars from the city treasury, large sums were 
obtained by contributions levied on the shops and 
wealthy inhabitants. The majority of the people were 
not much molested, and remained in a state of sullen 


indifference. The Triads also visited several towns and 
villages in the neighbourhood, and took the nominal 
charge of them, having first dispersed the officials. 
This was a season of the year when a large fleet of 
junks from the north and from Fuh-kien were in the 
Shanghai river. Some of the more cunning of the 
Triads, with valuable plunder and money, contrived to 
get on board the Fuh-kien junks and slip away with 
their booty. Very soon the vessels of all kinds began 
to leave ; they dropped down to Woo-sung, at the 
mouth of the river, and in a few weeks the anchorage 
was wholly free of native craft. 

At about the end of September a large body of 
imperial troops arrived. They marched at once to the 
city walls, expecting an easy conquest, but the Triads 
turned out and repelled the attack. The imperialists 
retreated, carrying their wounded with them. Many 
of the latter were brought to the hospital, which was 
situated about half a mile from the city wall, on the road 
between the city and the camp, the latter being a little 
to the westward of the hospital. By the middle of 
October the camp was regularly constructed, with a mud 
wall and a ditch around it. A large number of soldiers 
had been brought together, and the force was con- 
tinually increasing. The Triads had burned down all 
the houses between the city wall and the ditch, cleared 
away the rubbish, blocked up all the gates except one on 
the eastern side, near the river, and prepared for a siege. 

The fighting now became constant. The troops that 
had first arrived soon tired of their occupation. Every 
fresh band as it arrived was sent to the walls in the 
hope of success; but their ardour soon cooled under 

u 3 


the resistance they met with, and the only result was 
that many wounded men were sent to the hospital. 
The greater part of the wounds were flesh wounds, of 
more or less severity, but there were many serious in- 
juries which occasioned numerous amputations just at 
this period. It was common for the soldiers who 
were recently arrived, and were desirous to win laurels, 
to advance boldly up to the walls with their scaling 
ladders, until repulse made them cautious. Thus 
warned they would advance as far as the hospital with 
great alacrity ; and here finding themselves exposed to 
the fire from the walls, they woidd slacken 'their pace 
and pause, discharge their matchlocks, flourish their 
swords and flags, and then retrace their steps, satisfied 
with this, their day's work. 

Such was the routine for many days. When the day's 
fighting was over, the country people from the neigh- 
bouring villages would approach the walls with rice, 
vegetables, fish, and other provisions, which they sold to 
the citizens. These supplies were hoisted over the wall, 
and the money thrown down to the sellers. Hundreds 
of people might often be seen along the top of the wall 
bargaining for these articles, for which the price was 
faithfully paid, as the citizens were depending on this 
market for their food. This lasted until the Imperialists, 
weary of their slow progress, besieged the place more 
closely. To stop the supply of provisions to the city, 
they caught several villagers engaged in the trade, and 
cut off their ears as a warning to others ; this failing, 
they next beheaded a few, and stuck the heads on poles 
in the road, with labels attached to them, " Traitorous 


After a month's fighting, nothing had been done for 
the recovery of the city, which seemed to be held more 
firmly by the Triad party. I find, however, from the 
hospital register, that I had amputated for the wounded 
soldiers, two thighs, two legs, two arms, and one foot ; 
removed a large number of balls from various parts of 
the body ; had many severe compound fractures ; many 
cases of gunshot wounds in the abdomen and thorax ; 
and shortly afterwards a note of the performance of 
thirteen amputations of the larger limbs in six weeks. 
The hospital was crowded after every contest by 
soldiers carrying in their wounded comrades or officers, 
who were attended to without delay, and as many of 
them as could be sent on to the camp. Those who 
could not be removed had to remain in the hospital, 
where frequently sixty or seventy badly wounded men 
have lain at one time. All the available space was 
occupied with them and their attendants ; beds had to 
be placed on the verandahs round the hall, and in the 
dispensary ; the in-patients' wards could not accommo- 
date them. After an unusually hard fight the scene in 
the hospital hall was terrible to behold : men lying in 
every part of it severely injured ; many dying ; others 
bleeding to death from wounds in the thorax and 
abdomen, — the place a scene of suffering and blood. 

It was only by very hard labour and perseverance, 
and by giving directions to the hospital servants (all 
natives) I was able to properly attend to all these 
wounded. As they came in they were at once examined, 
the treatment to be adopted decided on and carried 
out. In this way much relief was afforded to those 
who would otherwise have been wholly neglected, or 

v 4 


unskilfully treated. The soldiers who stood by were 
often much surprised to see how much might be done 
for a wounded comrade. One circumstance in connec- 
tion with foreign surgery which impresses the Chinese 
mind is the mode in which a violent haemorrhage can 
be speedily arrested. The soldiers frequently brought 
in a man bleeding to death from a sword cut. They 
were much alarmed, and had little hope ; but when 
they saw the arteries tied, the blood cleansed off, the 
wound closed, a bandage applied, and the man re- 
vived by a stimulant, they were filled with admiration 
and delight. They weU knew that their own surgeons 
could have done nothing in such a case, and that the 
man must sink and die. 

During the foggy nights, such as prevail in December, 
the hospital was in great danger. The Imperialists 
availed themselves of the obscurity to approach to the 
walls, and the Triads, expecting the attacks, were accus- 
tomed to fire round shot from the fort on the north wall 
which commanded the road to the imperial camp. The 
hospital was situated on this road, and the shot came 
whizzing over and about the premises. It was not 
the most pleasant sound while sitting engaged with a 
book or a pen, to hear the balls flying about. One 
evening I was caUed to a carpenter's house, at the hos- 
pital gate, in the road, to see his wife, who had been 
struck. There was a thick fog, and the Triads, sup- 
posing the soldiers would be on the alert, were firing 
down the road. A ball had entered this man's house ; 
his wife, who was in bed, and sitting up nursing her 
baby, hearing the ball coming, ducked her head (as 
people usually do when they hear a shot), and it was 


taken off, while the baby was uninjured. Had the 
poor woman not dropped her head at that moment 
probably she would have escaped also. On entering 
the apartment the sight presented was very sad : the 
young woman was lying back in the bed, but the head 
lay in shreds around. Her husband was much to be 
pitied; only a year before he had held a feast on 
occasion of his marriage, and was now overwhelmed 
with grief and dismay. The people were in alarm lest 
other balls should strike the house, which was likely 
enough — so comforting the man as far as possible, and 
offering the people quarters in the hospital, which was 
perhaps a little safer, I judged it best to get out of the 
line of fire. 

In about a fortnight afterwards, on another foggy 
evening, I was sent for to see a man in the same house. 
He and his fellow-workmen had been employed in 
some repairs on my premises during the day, and were 
sitting talking together after their day's work, when a 
ball came into the room through the roof, which struck 
him on the sternum, causing instant death. It was 
thought at first that the blow having been from a spent 
ball, the man was only stunned, but on opening his 
dress the thorax was found completely beaten in. 
During the examination several balls went by, and the 
men were advised to leave such dangerous premises. I 
was not sorry to get safely back to my own house, which, 
though only a few yards distant, was a little removed 
from the camp road. The most disagreeable thing on 
such nights was to have the balls flying about in the 
darkness ; and I often had to make a barricade of mat- 
tresses by the side of my bed. In the daytime you 


could generally see the gun that was fired, and might 
ascertain the direction of the shot. Frequently, when 
operating in the hospital during one of the fights, the 
balls have gone over the building. Had they fallen 
short of their mark, which was not an uncommon case, 
they would have entered the hall. 

In this road, there were also other casualties. A 
soldier had run into a woman's house for shelter ; the 
Triads on the wall seeing this, fired at the house, and 
the shot so shattered the woman's less: that it had to be 
amputated. A tailor, who lived in the road, seeing 
some soldiers go by, ran to bring in a child, when a six- 
pound shot passed between his knees, destroying both 
legs. When brought to the hospital, he was advised to 
have the hmbs amputated at once ; but his wife would 
not consent, saying, " How could he work if he had no 
legs ? " She saw no force in the representation, that 
were he to die he would certainly work no more. 
As the haemorrhage was considerable, the operation was 
urgently pressed ; but. the friends delayed their consent, 
till they found the man was dying, when it was too late 
to do anything for him. In the same road a woman 
was in bed, with her baby lying on her arm, when a 
shot took off the baby's head and struck the mother 
on the shoulder, causing great laceration of the soft 
parts, and compound fracture of the head of the 
humerus. She was for a long time in the hospital, but 
eventually recovered. A shopkeeper, finding the road 
dangerous, asked a friend to help him in the removal of 
his goods. While thus engaged, a shot struck the friend 
on the nates, and made an enormous wound, carrying 
away the large muscles down to the bones of the pelvis, 


so that the trochanter major of the thigh-bone was 
exposed. After much suffering the wound healed, 
and the man left the hospital limping, but still able to 
walk. In the same vicinity two soldiers took refuge 
during an action behind an upright gravestone. As 
they sat on the grave, sheltered by the stone, they 
thought they were safe, but forgot that their knees 
projected ; and a ball passing by carried off their four 
knees. One man was killed instantly ; the other, after 
losing much blood, was brought to the hospital : both 
thighs were amputated in the hope of saving life, but 
the man died in a few hours. He had lost so much 
blood before admission, that he could not rally after 
the operation. 

Thus passed the last three months of 1853, skirmish- 
ing and fighting constantly going on, with many killed 
and wounded on both sides. Of the Triads who were 
severely injured, I saw many in various parts of the 
city, and gave them such attention as was possible. 
Though these men were little better than pirates, I did 
what could be done to relieve the wounded. We were 
allowed to go in and out of the city, which we were 
anxious to visit, that we might see the Christian converts, 
who, like other inhabitants, were not allowed to leave. 
We took in with us a quantity of rice, which we dis- 
tributed to the poor inhabitants at the dispensary ; and 
held as many of our usual services in the Chinese 
chapels as was possible. To these services the people 
of the city came in crowds, every time the chapel was 
opened. Occasionally fighting would begin between the 
soldiers and the Triads, when it was deemed best for us 
to retire speedily. 


Hardly anything had been effected towards the 
capture of the city, after three months' siege. The 
Triads had erected batteries in various directions, and a 
fort at the end of the jetty, opposite the little east gate. 
The Imperialists had a large battery on the other side 
of the river, and conflicts were of regular occurrence. 
The imperial camps to the westward of the foreign 
settlement were strengthened by a large accession of 
troops, and a fleet of Canton junks had been hired to 
attack the Triads on the east side or river front. The 
latter had procured a few junks, which they armed, 
and had purchased a foreign ship, the "Glenlyon," 
which lay off the battery at the east gate. She was 
protected on the inside of her bulwarks by a mud wall ; 
had several guns on her deck, and was supposed to be 
a powerful battery. The Canton junks immediately 
upon arrival attacked the city on the east side, while 
the soldiers opened the assault on the west, or land 
side. The junks went boldly up the river; two of them, 
ranging alongside the " Glenlyon," threw fire-pots on to 
her deck from their crows' nests, and driving her Chinese 
crew overboard, the men took possession, and sailed off 
with their prize. The other junks attacked the shore 
battery, and their men fired a number of houses on the 
river side, but no impression was made on the city. 
Nor did the attack on the west produce any result 
beyond a number of wounded, some of whom were 
brought to the hospital. 

A few days afterwards the fleet sailed up again. 
The two junks that captured the ship courageously 
advanced close to the battery, expecting to take it, and 
running stem on, took the ground close to its guns. 


The fight then became severe. The Imperialists poured 
down fire-pots on the men in the battery, who, in their 
turn, covered the deck of the junks with the same 
materiel, while the guns on both sides were discharged 
with the greatest rapidity. First one, and then the 
other of the junks took fire and blew up, most of the 
crews being burned to death or shot down. The 
captains of these vessels were brave men, and did their 
best, but were too confident from the success of the 
previous day. The remainder of the fleet, warned by 
the fate of these two vessels, declined to engage at 
close quarters, and the crews landing set fire to the 
eastern suburb to the length of a mile. The confla- 
gration was terrible; a dense cloud of smoke obscured 
the heavens ; the houses of the inhabitants, and the ware- 
houses, which were full of goods, all being destroyed. 

During the attack on the river, the soldiers in large 
numbers attempted to take the Triads in rear and seize 
the city ; but after some hours of desperate fighting 
at the river front, and on the land side, the Imperialists 
drew off, being as far as ever from the possession of the 
city. Their fleet of junks was so much injured that 
the crews refused to engage the battery again, except 
at a distance. They contented themselves with block- 
ading the entrance of the river, to cut off the supply of 
ammunition and food to the Triads. 

At the end of December the city was threatened 
with attack by the French, whose settlement was close 
to the wall of the city on the east side. On a Sunday 
afternoon, two native catechists had left the consulate 
to go to their mission establishment, on the south side 
of the city. When near the east gate they were seized 


by the Triads, on the ground that they were imperial 
spies. The men denied this, and claimed protection as 
servants of the French bishop, and known to the 
French Consul ; but the Triads beat and tortured them, 
and kept them in captivity. The bishop heard of this 
the next day, and sent a priest to demand their release, 
which was not granted until after an appeal to the 
Consul was threatened. This officer considering the pro- 
ceeding altogether an insult to the French flag, intimated 
to the chief of the Triads that unless he sent the officer 
who had injured the catechists to him to be punished, 
he should refer the matter to the commander of the 
French ship of war in the port, who had already deter- 
mined to cannonade the city. This threat threw the 
Triads into great consternation. They agreed, when 
the affair was explained to them, to yield to the Consul's 
demand. The officer was sent to make his submission, 
and a full apology, which he did, and humbly sued for 
pardon. The Consul, having gained his point, forgave 
the offender, but warned the chief against the recur- 
rence of the offence. 

One evening in November, a body of about 300 Impe- 
rialists made an attack upon the guards, who had been 
posted at different points of entry to the foreign settle- 
ment. The guards, consisting of sailors and marines, 
who had been landed for the purpose of protection, 
while so much fighting was going forward, turned out, 
and fired on the Imperialists to drive them from the 
settlement. These, however, rushed upon the guards, 
and the noise arousing the settlement, several members 
of the community armed themselves, and helped the 
guards to expel the intruders. Several soldiers were 


killed in the engagement, and upon them were found 
fire-pots and fire-bags. It appeared that the general 
of the Imperialists accused one or two foreigners of 
selling guns to the Triads, and had sent this force to 
search their premises, and seize any guns they might 
find. The fire-bags which they had brought with them, 
revealed their true intention to burn the houses. The 
British Consul thereupon notified to the general that 
such conduct would not be tolerated ; that armed 
soldiers were not to enter the settlement ; if they at- 
tempted to do so, they would be shot ; and that, if at 
any time he had complaints to bring against foreigners, 
they would be heard and attended to at the consulate. 

It was supposed for some time that the Triads, not- 
withstanding their being idolaters, were in some way 
connected with the army engaged in the Tai-ping 
rebellion. The novel occurrence was seen on one 
occasion in the city, of the carrying out a large 
quantity of idols, which were taken away in baskets, 
and either burned or thrown aside. The Triad officers 
said they wanted to be Christians ; their professions 
could not be believed, however, while their lives and 
actions were at open variance with Christianity; they 
revelled in scenes of rapine, murder, and lust, and 
every vice that degrades humanity. Though they 
sought an alliance with Tai-ping-wang, the head of the 
Nanking rebels, sending messages to him entreating his 
favour, and reported the advance of his troops to their 
assistance, and to garrison the city, there was never any 
connection between them ; the Tai-pings refused to assist 
or to associate with them at all. 

While the city was in possession of these men, there 


was a prolonged discussion between the foreign mer- 
chants and their Consuls, as to the payment of duties to 
the imperial government. It was contended, on the 
one hand, that as the government gave no protection, 
its right to the duties had lapsed ; to which, on the 
other hand, it was properly replied, that the treaty was 
still in force ; and though, owing to peculiar circum- 
stances, the government was under temporary diffi- 
culties, the obligation upon foreigners to pay the usual 
duties was in nowise absolved. For some time after 
the capture of the city by the Triads, while the custom- 
house was abolished, the Consuls had taken promissory 
notes from the merchants for the payment of the duties. 
Afterwards, when the custom-house was re-established, 
and the Chinese officials proceeded to collect the usual 
payments on goods, the Consuls assented, and required 
their countrymen to accede to the levying of the duties ; 
which were also paid. The Chinese officials then de- 
manded the payment of the bonds for the back duties, 
incurred before the re-estabhshment of the custom- 
house. This demand gave rise to long discussions be- 
tween the Consuls and the Chinese government, and 
between the merchants, Consuls, and foreign govern- 
ments ; and it was ultimately found, after many repre- 
sentations and much contention, that the requirement 
of the bonds was not strictly legal, and that the demand 
could not be sustained. The back duties were there- 
fore not paid to the Chinese. This demand was the 
source of discussion for many months ; reasons for pay- 
ment, and reasons for non-payment, being enforced by 
both parties, the matter ending in the Chinese govern- 
ment being much disgusted at not receiving the money, 


to which, however, as they had had no custom-house of 
any description, they had probably no legal claim. 

A fearful tragedy occurred in the city early in 1854. 
A number of Canton men from the district of Kia- 
ying-chau had determined to go over to the Imperialists 
and give them possession of the place. The Triads 
discovered the plot but allowed it to proceed. The 
appointed signal was the burning of a certain house in 
the city, upon which the Imperialists were to begin 
their attack, and the east gate was to be opened 
to them. The Triads watched for the signal, and no 
sooner was the house fired than they surrounded the 
traitors, and in the course of that and the following 
day caught two hundred of them in various parts of 
the city. At the first onset they seized thirteen men, 
whom they instantly bound and cast into the burning 
house, in the ruins of which their corpses were after- 
wards seen. The remainder were beheaded in front of 
the Confucian temple, in which the Triad chief resided. 
The large square enclosure, where the men had been 
placed in rows for the execution, was covered with 
blood when I saw the spot shortly afterwards. With 
the exception of a few who had escaped over the walls 
during the night, all the conspirators came to this 
bloody end. 

Towards the end of January, as I was engaged in 
the hospital attending to some wounded soldiers, 
hearing a gun and the sound of a ball striking the 
ground close at hand, I went into the road to see 
if the Imperialists were there, and engaged in an 
attack on the city. There were no soldiers in sight, 
but another ball came, followed presently by a third, 



and then another, which struck the ground close by. 
Concluding the hospital to be the object which was 
fired at, I hastened to the bastion where the gun was 
placed, and called out to the gunner to know what he 
was about, as the shots were falling around the hospital, 
and I would not permit him to fire at my premises. He 
said that soldiers were coming along the road, which I 
was able to deny. I charged him with deliberately 
firing at my house, and insisted that he should cease 
his amusement, telling him that a complaint to his chief 
would bring him into trouble. The man laughed, and 
said he " did not wish to do me any harm, but as I 
disliked it he would not fire any more." 

While standing under the wall the absurdity of the 
affair struck me very forcibly. I, standing outside, 
scolding the man on the bastion, he, match in hand, 
firing his gun at my house, and turning the whole 
thing into a joke, saying " he did not wish to hurt me !" 
Not being over-confident in his promise, I proceeded to 
the city to the office of the chief, and objected to my 
house being made a target for the skill of their men. 
The officer repeated the gunner's excuse that soldiers 
were on the road, but I assured him such was not the 
case, as I had not found any soldiers in the neighbour- 
hood. " Well, they are firing at the hospital because 
soldiers are there ; you ought not to care for wounded 
Imperialists." — " But you are aware that all are alike 
to me, I attend to those who are wounded. Your own 
people are taken into the hospital, and you know that 
many of your wounded have been looked after in the 
city as well." Again he was informed that although 
during the fighting I would take my chance of the 


balls, my house should not be fired at for amusement's 
sake. And, as he had admitted that the hospital had 
been dehberately made a mark for their gunners, I said 
I would bring the matter before the British Consul, when 
they might find it too serious a game to be repeated. As 
he laughed at this, and jeeringly asked, " what will the 
Consul do ? " evidently disposed to be mischievous, I 
demanded that he should at once send to the gunner to 
forbid the firing at the hospital. With this the inter- 
view closed, and I proceeded to the consulate to state 
what had occurred and make a formal complaint. Mr. 
Alcock, her Britannic Majesty's Consul, regarding the 
matter as requiring prompt measures, secured the co- 
operation of the naval commander at the port. This 
he readily granted, and landing some of his marines, 
they accompanied the interpreter, with a letter to the 
Triad chief, recounting the transaction, and telling him 
that if by accident or design the hospital should be 
struck again they would blow up the north gate of the 
city, and take such other steps as might be necessary. 
After this the firing at the hospital and the amusement 
ceased together. Though during the entire siege the 
risk was great of being caught by a shot, I was never 
again fired at designedly, and in the thickest of the 
danger, when the fights raged hotly in the neighbour- 
hood, no one in the mission enclosure was struck by a 

One day, proceeding with a servant down the mission 
compound, as he walked in advance an iron shot passed 
between us, and entering a house, shattered to splinters a 
chair from which a friend had just risen. On another 

x 2 


occasion, a one-pound ball fell amongst a party of 
children who were playing on a grass plot, without 
hurting any of them. One of the children picked up 
the ball, and took it for a new plaything. 

Gunpowder was now getting scarce in the city, and 
the Triads set up a powder mill in one of the temples. 
The Chinese do not use sublimed sulphur, but are con- 
tent to grind the rough material, winch is not easily 
pulverised. The powder turned out of this manufactory 
was coarse and not very effective, but it answered the 
purpose for the time. 

In February the Imperialists sprung a mine early one 
morning under the north-west corner of the city, which 
destroyed several yards of the wall, and made a clean 
breach. By some mismanagement the soldiers were 
not at their advanced posts, but only on their way from 
the camp when the mine exploded. The Triads, seeing 
them advantage, rushed from the city through the 
breach, and attacking the soldiers as they hurried up 
to the wall, broke their ranks. A fierce contest ensued 
which lasted for some hours, with great loss on both 
sides. The Imperialists suffered most, and were com- 
pelled to retire ; and the Triads following up their 
success, attacked the fort whence the mine had been 
dug, and after driving out the soldiers, took their arms 
and ammunition, and returned to the city. 

Thus the siege proceeded, month after month, amid 
scenes of confusion and blood, with now and then in- 
cidents of mock-bravery and ludicrous fear. Frequently 
in the course of a fight soldiers would run forward to 
a mound near the wall, fire their matchlocks in the air, 
and having made sufficient noise and used up all them 


powder, would return to their comrades at a safe dis- 

A soldier was seen one day chasing a Triad round 
the embankment of a grave. The one had a matchlock 
and the other a sword. The soldier chased the Triad 
for some time and at last ran up and over the embank- 
ment to fire at him. In depressing his piece, however, 
the ball (which is put in loose without wadding) fell 
out. The soldier being now helpless, the Triad in 
turn gave him chase, but trying to strike with his 
sword, slipped and fell. The soldier ran off. 

Fighting was carried on at the south side of the 
city, while these conflicts proceeded at the north. The 
Imperialists had established themselves in houses near 
the wall on that side, and erected batteries, which were 
taken and retaken many times, to the great loss of both 
parties. It was here that the imperial officer and his 
men were killed by the explosion of one of their own 
mines, as detailed in another place.* 

In the afternoon of April 3rd, an alarm was raised 
that the Imperialists had attacked several foreigners. 
For some time the soldiers had been troublesome, and 
complaints made of their firing at persons who passed 
near their camps. This time, three or four separate 
parties had assaulted foreigners on the outskirts of the 
settlement, in one instance striking at a lady with a 
sword. The lady was not wounded, but the gentleman 
with her received several sword cuts. They attempted 
to seize others, and attacked one of the foreign houses. 
Immediate measures of defence were necessary. Men 

* Page 3 GO. 
x 3 


were landed from the ships of war ; the volunteers, 
organised for some time previously from amongst the 
foreign residents, turned out, and the soldiers were 
driven from the settlement. One of their camps 
was set on fire, and into another several shells were 
thrown. Guards were posted for the night on the 
boundary of the settlement. 

The consuls of the three Treaty Powers complained to 
the general of the Imperial troops of the outrage that 
had been committed, and required the camps to be re- 
moved farther from the settlement, that future collision 
might be avoided. To this communication the general 
returned an evasive reply, and declined to change the 
position of the camps. The next day, finding that 
nothing had been done for the withdrawal of the troops 
up to four o'clock in the afternoon, which was the limit 
of the time allowed for decision, the consuls referred 
the affair to the English and American naval com- 
manders. Men and guns were landed, and the volun- 
teers joining, the camp nearest to the settlement was 
attacked. After a two hours' engagement, the Imperi- 
alists who lost many of their men, retired, and their 
camp was destroyed. Of the English and Americans 
engaged, two were killed, and fifteen wounded ; two of 
the volunteers died from then* wounds. One of the 
volunteers, an American, Mr. G. G. Grey, received a 
gun shot wound through his knees, which necessitated 
the amputation of one thigh the same evening. 

After this conclusion of the difficulty which was oc- 
casioned, in the first place, by the bad conduct of the 
soldiers, the settlement was exposed to no further mo- 
lestation. The foreigners lived in perfect harmony with 


the troops for the remainder of their stay in the locality. 
Had not prompt and effective measures been taken, 
however, there is no doubt the settlement would have 
been attacked, and great mischief have resulted. The 
thanks of the community were accorded to the consuls 
and the naval commanders for their energetic action for 
the defence of the settlement, in the face of an enemy 
more than ten times the number of the defenders. 

A few days subsequently to this affair, the Triads at- 
tacked and burned a large camp of the Imperialists, 
which had recently been formed to the westward of the 
city, and on the same evening were repulsed in a sortie 
and nearly cut off. They only saved themselves by 
taking to their heels, and retreating within the walls. 

On returning from the city one afternoon in the com- 
pany of the late Dr. Medhurst, after one of the usual 
visits to the native converts, we noticed that an impe- 
rialist batteiy was firing shot across the river into the 
suburbs. Soon after reaching home, a woman was 
brought to the hospital who had been struck in the leg 
by one of the balls. The limb was dreadfully mangled, 
and she was told it must be amputated. She declined 
to have this done ; her friends would not allow her to 
remain. She died shortly after. While attending to 
this poor woman, an imperialist soldier was carried in 
with his arm shattered. He was a gunner at the bat- 
tery just mentioned, and had discharged his gun only 
twice ; the first time the shot struck the woman, the 
second time the gun itself burst and he lost his arm ; 
the two wounded persons meeting at the hospital within 
a few minutes of the accidents. The soldier's arm was 
amputated, and he was soon discharged. 

x 4 


At one period the Triads would go out in small 
parties and kidnap any soldiers they found loitering 
astray from their camps. These were taken into the 
city, and immediately beheaded, or cruelly tortured till 
they died. One day, some Chinese came to the Mission 
lamenting that a relative of theirs, a shopkeeper, had 
been seized, and carried into the city. They begged us 
to go and save his life. We found, on proceeding to 
the city, that the man was condemned to be killed ; we 
stated the facts of the case, assuring the Triad officer 
that the capture was a mistake, as the man was not a 
soldier, and begged for his life. The request was 
granted, and the man left the city with us, greatly de- 
lighted that his head was on his shoulders. After we 
had reached home his friends came, as we thought to 
express their thanks. Not so ; they were disappointed 
that we had not also saved a new jacket which their 
friend had been wearing, and begged that we would go 
back and reclaim it ! Instead of this we upbraided them 
with their want of proper feeling in the matter. 

We were often thus successful in obtaining the release 
of people who had been seized, but at times were not 
so fortunate. On asking for a man, one day, the officer 
produced his list, on looking over which I saw opposite 
the man's name a red circle, the Chinese full stop. I 
inquired the meaning of the mark, and the officer said, 
" Why, he has just been beheaded ; I am very sorry, 
but it is too late, or I would have released him." 

We found that the leaders of the gangs of kid- 
nappers were foreigners, who had deserted from English 
or American ships, and been tempted by the high wages 
given them by the Triads. They had a reward for 


every soldier they seized, and were enraged at us for 
interfering in the rescue above mentioned, threatening 
to shoot us if we came again. Not caring to cause a 
disturbance we left the spot, knowing that the threat 
would not be executed. 

Amongst the incidents that occurred in the city at this 
time was the following: — A young Chinese, educated 
at Singapore, said to speak English well, and to have 
held several lucrative posts, had for some months been 
acting as secretary to the Taou-tae-Woo (Sam-qua). 
He told several persons that he had refused to act 
longer in this capacity. He now offered his services to 
the Triads for a good payment. They accepted his 
offer, but for some reason suspected that he was acting 
the part of a spy, and while treating him with all 
seeming confidence and respect, had him narrowly 
watched. He was detected one evening writing a letter 
to his former master, with an account of what was 
doing in the city. He was thereupon seized, and sub- 
jected to most cruel torture ; made to kneel on chains, 
while a red hot iron rice-boiler was put on his head ; other 
cruelties were then practised on the unfortunate youth, 
and he was at length slowly cut to pieces. Being a 
native of Singapore, he was a British subject, and his 
friends besought the Consul to demand his body from 
the executioners. The Consul very properly said the 
young man entered the city as a Chinese, and not as a 
British subject ; was clearly a spy ; and that he should 
not, therefore, make any demand. The Consul did ask 
if the body could be given up, but the Triads made 
excuses — they could not find his body, and did not 
send it ; the fact being, the body was so mutilated they 


did not wish it to be seen. Such were the practices of 
both parties towards spies ; the worst cruelties of all 
were inflicted by the Imperialists. 

In their treatment of the common people also, these 
were by far the more oppressive, cruel, and licentious. 
The soldiers would go into the villages, break open the 
houses, and after plundering set them on fire. They 
would beat, and if they resisted, often kill the men, and 
afterwards abuse the women most foully ; abusing them 
sometimes until they died. At times a small body of 
soldiers would visit a secluded hamlet for the purpose 
of pillage, and the men of the place aware of their 
intentions, would overpower and kill them all ; then a 
larger body of soldiers would go and burn the place. 
These things were of daily occurrence, until the country 
around Shanghai was desolated. All the large trees 
within a circuit of several miles were cut down for 
firewood by the troops ; and the country, instead of pre- 
senting its usual fertile and flourishing aspect, was 
wretched and impoverished in the extreme. The soldiers 
were not permitted to leave the camps in large numbers 
at one time ; and a handful of them dared not go far from 
the camp, or into any of the large villages, for they were 
so hated by the people that they would have been 
attacked forthwith, and driven away, most probably 
with loss of life. 

In September, 1854, the foreign residents at Shanghai, 
presented to Captain O'Callaghan a piece of plate, with 
thanks for his energetic efforts for the protection of the 
settlement during the troubles caused by the Imperialists 
in April. 

The French frigate, "Jeanne D'Arc," with Admiral 


Laguerre on board, arrived in the course of the same 
month. In ascending the Yang-tsze-kiang, owing to the 
unskilfulness of the pilot, she grounded on the bank, and 
was so much injured that her guns and stores had to be 
removed, and the ship laid up in the graving dock, and 
repaired at a heavy expense. 

Up to this time the Triads had been allowed to 
pass unmolested through the French part of the settle- 
ment, a guard of French marines having been placed 
near the consulate to prevent their passing with arms. 
The Imperialists, who had been hindered from carrying 
on their skirmishes in the English or French settle- 
ments, pressed their request to Admiral Laguerre that 
the Triads should not be permitted to enter the settle- 
ment and thus obtain provisions. The Admiral granted 
their request, and allowed them to build a strong wall 
from the river, through the French settlement, towards 
the north gate. French marines protected the work- 
men, and the wall was eventually carried across the 
fields and a cemetery, to the bank of the creek, and 
then in a westerly direction. The Triads were now 
shut off from communication with the settlement ; the 
only entrance through the wall being a gate near the 
river, kept by a French guard, who allowed no person 
from the city to pass without leave from the officer. 
The Imperialists at the same time investing more closely 
the western and southern sides, provisions grew scarce 
in the city, and but that the soldiers were bribed by the 
country people to allow them to sell their articles under 
the wall as before, the people inside would have starved. 

Early in December, there were many severe conflicts 
between the contending parties ; the Triads in vain en- 


deavouring to break through the imperialist camps. 
They succeeded in firing one of the camps, doing 
much damage, and capturing some guns, but were 
obliged to retire to the city. In these contests many 
were killed on both sides. On the 9th of the month a 
brief engagement took place between the French and 
the defenders of the city. These latter had commenced 
building a mud fort on the border of the French settle- 
ment. When ordered to remove the erection, they not 
only refused, but fired on the marines who had been 
sent with the men to demolish the fort, and wounded two 
of them. The fire was returned, killing several of the 
rebels, and later hi the day the Admiral cannonaded 
the city, and destroyed some portion of the defenders' 
works on the wall. He declared the city, a few days 
afterwards, in a state of siege, commanding the Triads 
to surrender it to him, and submit themselves to his 
mercy. On their refusal to accede to these terms, the 
Admiral threatened to use force, and at daylight one 
morning a force proceeded in boats from the " Jeanne 
D'Arc " and " Colbert," attacked the Triad battery at 
the east gate, and having captured it, driven out the 
garrison, and spiked the guns, returned to their ships. 

One night, during these proceedings, between the 
French and the holders of the city, hearing there was 
to be another attack on the following morning, I sought 
permission of the Admiral to pass his guards, that I 
might go into the city, unofficially, and endeavour to 
induce the Triads to submit to his demand. He warned 
me of the probable danger of the expedition, but assur- 
ing him that I was not afraid of the Chinese, but only 
of the possibility of his men firing upon me in going or 


returning, or lest the attack should begin before I could 
leave the city ; he courteously gave me leave until a cer- 
tain hour, about five o'clock in the morning. I promised 
to report to him by that time the result of my mission. 
Tins was at eleven o'clock at night ; after arranging at 
home for my absence, I passed, along with Mr. Wylie 
of the London Mission, who, hearing of the intention, 
volunteered to join me, through the outposts of the 
French guard. Asking at the wall for leave to go to 
the east gate, we proceeded thither, having to push 
through the embrasure of an extemporised fort on the 
way. The Triads at the gate were much amazed to 
see us, and took us for spies. I asked to see one of the 
chiefs, and desired a man to go with us, that we might 
not be molested. At the quarters of the chief a council 
was being held, although it was now two o'clock in the 
morning. A message was sent in that I had urgent 
business to speak of, and two or three of the leaders 
made their appearance. I then told them my errand ; 
that, acting on my own responsibility, without any 
official message or authority, I ventured to represent to 
them the state of affairs between them and the French 
admiral ; that they could not hope to withstand the 
force that would be brought against them, and know- 
ing their provisions would not last much longer, when 
they must soon be starved out, I would strongly advise 
them to yield to the admiral's demand. They listened 
to my representations, and retired for some time for 
consultation. At length, returning, they said they had 
resolved to fight it out. They were numerous and 
strong, and though the French might do them much 
damage, and kill their men, yet to give up the city 


would be destruction to them all, therefore they would 
not submit ; if the French did attack them, they might 
perhaps not succeed in driving them out of the city. I 
tried to convince them that sooner or later they would 
be vanquished, when they would get no terms at all ; 
whereas, now, an arrangement might be made for their 
lives, and the lives of their followers. " No," said they, 
" Ave will stand or fall together." After expostulating 
with them in vain for two or three hours I left them, 
and returning to the settlement reported the interview 
to the admiral. 

The attack did not take place that day, and all was 
quiet until January 6th, 1855. At daylight, the French 
breached the city wall from a small battery, and as 
soon as the breach was practicable, a force consisting of 
250 marines and seamen ascended the wall, having with 
them a couple of howitzers, one of which, however, 
was at once disabled by an accident to its carriage. 
The Triads had concealed themselves in a pawnbroker's 
large warehouse, the walls and tiled roof of which they 
had loop-holed, and here they made a stout resistance, 
killing two of the French officers and several men, and 
wounding others. Still, the French made good their 
position, besides takmg the north gate; but the success 
of their attack was seriously hindered by the Im- 
perialists, who, contrary to the express orders of the 
admiral, crowded in at the breach in great numbers. 

During the attack on the wall, the French ships 
threw shot and shell into the city ; but notwithstanding 
an entrance had been effected, the Triads made so ener- 
getic a resistance that the admiral, leaving the city in 
their possession, withdrew his men. Out of two hun- 

triads' revenge. 319 

dred and fifty who had been engaged, no fewer than 
two officers were killed and four wounded, of whom 
two died from their wounds. Of the privates, there 
were thirteen killed, and thirty-three wounded. 

The result was quite unlooked for. The French 
acted with their accustomed bravery, but the Triads 
were numerous, and fought with desperation. They 
had amongst them several deserters from foreign ships ; 
and being sheltered by the warehouse, which was near 
the breach, they picked off through the loopholes the 
French force, as it mounted the city wall. The Im- 
perialists, when they were in the city, thought every- 
thing was in their hands ; but by their crowding on the 
wall, and blocking up the way, they effectually pre- 
vented all successful action. IsTo sooner had the French 
retired, than these Imperialists, already intent on 
plunder, and recklessly wandering about the city, were 
attacked by the Triads ; and before they could escape 
from the city, sixty of them were seized and shut up in 
a large temple. When all the stragglers were thus 
imprisoned, a large quantity of wood, the remains 
of broken-down houses, was thrown into the temple, 
and the building and prisoners were burned together, 
in revenge for the day's attack on the city. It was a 
fearful burning. 

Besides this capture, the loss of the Imperialists was 
heavy. Their flight from the walls was so precipitate, 
that many were killed in the confusion, the Triads 
shooting down great numbers. Of those who entered 
the- city that morning, it was said that as many as four 
hundred were slain. After rushmg into the city, they 
not only decapitated those who had been killed in the 


engagement with the French, but attacked the unfor- 
tunate inhabitants, cutting off their heads, and in some 
cases their ears, as trophies of valour. A soldier, brought 
to the hospital with a gun-shot wound in his head, had 
his wallet filled with ears, and a portion of a scalp with 
the bone attached, which had been chopped from a 
man's head. After the clay's work, however, in which 
they suffered severely, the Imperialists fled to their 
camp, sorely discomfited. 

At this period Mr. Alcock, the British Consul, issued a 
notification stating the wish of the Imperialist officers to 
carry forward the wall before mentioned, between the 
English settlement and the city, to the westward, near 
the camp. All communication would thus be shut off 
between the city and the foreign settlements ; and 
foreigners were forbidden to interfere with the in- 
tended operations. The Imperialists were also aUowed 
to erect a battery at the end of the road, near the 
hospital ; in which they placed two enormous iron 
guns. These guns were of great weight ; and the mode 
of their transport was somewhat curious. As the roads 
were too narrow to admit their passage, they had to be 
dragged across the country. The ditches were bridged 
by beams of timber, which were carried from place to 
place along the route ; large quantities of flattened bam- 
boos, smeared with oil or grease, were laid on the ground 
in front of the gun, to which long ropes were attached ; 
then the soldiers and others who had been impressed 
for the service, with a good tug, dragged the 
gun over. It was surprising with what rapidity the 
gun was brought to its destination, even by such 
clumsy means. When it had reached the battery, 


beams of wood were lashed to it, and across these 
several poles. Then, by main strength, a crowd of 
men lifted the gun on to its carriage and into position. 

The siege of the city was now very close. The 
Triads made sorties in vain to break through the 
Imperialist lines, but succeeded in disabling and car- 
rying off for slaughter not a few, both of officers and 

This battery was finished about the middle of Janu- 
ary, and was at once made the central point of the 
Imperialist fire. Being near the hospital, as the Triads 
moved their guns so as to command the position, their 
shot soon became very annoying. On one occasion, 
shortly after morning prayer in the hall, some fifty 
or sixty persons present were just leaving the apart- 
ment, when a six-pound shot came through the roof, 
and passing over their heads, went through the par- 
titions, across the yard, and buried itself in some 
firewood in the kitchen, whither the people from the 
hall were going to cook their breakfast. Though this 
site had been granted for their battery, the Imperialists 
were not allowed to approach nearer to the foreign settle- 
ment ; yet, with their usual obstinacy, they persisted in 
occupying forbidden positions; and this, notwithstanding 
they were fired upon by our guards, who had orders not 
to allow approach to our lines. They would come in 
front of the hospital premises, and showing their flags, 
draw the fire of the Triads towards the settlement. 
This was supposed to be done for the purpose of ex- 
asperating the foreigners against the defenders of the 
city; the consequence was, that shot were always 
flying about. Frequently iron shot would fall in the 



field close in front, sending up a column of earth and 
sand, but happily not reaching the hospital. 

Towards the end of January 1855, the Imperialists 
expelled the inhabitants from the houses along the road 
alluded to already, near the hospital, and then set the 
houses on fire. They would have been pleased to do the 
like by my premises, at which they cast wistful glances 
as they prowled around ; but outside they had all their 
own way, and plundered and burned as they chose. 
The poor people who were thus made homeless gathered 
round the gates of the hospital. About two hundred 
of them found refuge within, with what portions of pro- 
perty they had saved. They were made as comfortable 
as possible in the hall, many of the foreigners offering 
assistance to the poor people, carrying in their goods, 
and some of them having a large quantity of food cooked 
in their houses and prepared for this numerous family, 
so many more than could be provided for in the hospital 
kitchen. This supply was kindly maintained as long as 
the people remained on the premises. They gradually 
went away to their friends, or found accommodation in 
the neighbouring villages. 

The day after this occurrence a brass shell, thrown 
by the Triads (a deserter from the marines on board 
an English ship of war had taught them the manu- 
facture, though very imperfectly), came smashing 
through the roof of the hospital, and bursting, fell 
among a crowd of people in the hall. It tore up the 
floors, shattered the furniture, and flew in all direc- 
tions ; but to our surprise no one was hurt. The part 
of the floor which was laid open had been occupied 
by an old woman just brought in with a broken leg. 


She had been removed and put to bed in another 
place, and hardly had this been done when down came 
the shell. This was the last shot that struck the 
hospital, though shells might frequently be seen after- 
wards bursting in the air a few yards in front of the 
place. The gun in the bastion that had formerly 
caused such annoyance was now replaced by a larger 
one, which, happily for me, was directed towards the 
French settlement. The French admiral caused a 
howitzer to play upon it, and one morning at daylight 
I had the satisfaction of seeing shell reaching the 
bastion. The first knocked the gun over, and the 
remainder demolished the bastion entirely, to my un- 
qualified gratification, for I was never safe when that 
gun was being fired. 

Up to the middle of January, through the courtesy 
of Admiral Laguerre, who granted me a pass for the 
purpose, I could enter the city through the gate in the 
French wall, and was thus able to attend to the 
wounded citizens, and visit the Mission chapels, sup- 
plying those in charge with provisions and money. At 
this time, the siege being now much more strict, the 
admiral requested me not to use the pass any longer, 
and I did not enter the city again while the siege 

As February drew on, there were occasional fights 
between the contending parties ; but though the Triads 
suffered the least in these, it was known that there was 
a growing scarcity of food within the walls, and that 
many had died of starvation. Ammunition also had 
run so short that it was now most carefully used. It 
was concluded from these circumstances that the siege 

T 2 


would soon end, especially as the French on the one 
side, and the Imperialists on the other, would easily 
wear out the endurance of the Triads. But for the 
action of the French admiral, it is certain that the Im- 
perialists would not have taken the place ; they, how- 
ever, said, had it not been for the liberty which the 
Triads had enjoyed of access to the settlement, they 
could not have held out so long as they had. This 
was proved by their present distress since that leave 
had been withheld. 

By the middle of February it was known that the 
Triads were in great straits. They had very little food, 
and were quarrelling amongst themselves, and in their 
quarrels killing each other. There was much firing 
heard in the city at this time. The division of feeling 
amongst the Triads approached to its climax ; one 
party was for surrender ; another for fighting out the 
quarrel ; while a third party counselled flight. Many 
of them dropped over the city wall and surrendered to 
the French, who received them kindly and gave them 
food. Afterwards they were handed over to the 
Chinese officers, but on the pledge that their lives 
should be spared. Pardon was then offered by the 
French to as many as should surrender without delay ; 
and great numbers of Triads and citizens deserted the 
city. It was shortly known, however, that nearly all 
these were at once put to death by the Chinese, greatly 
to the indignation of the admiral. But this conduct of 
the officers was in character. They will promise, but 
are not to be trusted, as with them a he is of no mo- 
ment ; they will affirm, or deny, or promise, as it may 
suit their present purpose ; and there is httle doubt 


that in this instance they used the French in the way 
of decoy, to get people out of the city into their own 

Considerable anxiety was felt lest at the breaking 
up of the siege the beleaguered party should make a 
rush across the foreign settlement towards the open 
country, or towards Wu-sung, where they could take 
passage by native junks to the sea-board. In either 
case the Imperialists would give chase, and we should 
certainly be involved in the conflict. The guards were 
strengthened at all points, and every precaution taken 
to keep the combatants outside of neutral territory. 
To this plan was owing the safety of the premises in the 
foreign settlement ; and much of the credit is due to 
Mr. Alcock, H.B.M. Consul, for his wise suggestions to 
the naval commanders, and his own forethought and 
energetic action. 

In addition to the French and the English guards about 
the settlements, an important post was occupied by a 
guard which was sent on shore to aid in their pro- 
tection, by Captain Pope, of the United States sloop 
" Vandalia." As this guard was at the point nearest 
to the camps, peculiar vigilance was required, lest 
the Imperialists, by coming too near, should draw upon 
it the fire of the city. On more than one occasion, 
indeed, this guard had by force to beat off both Triads 
and Imperialists, who were about to fight round the 
guard-house, and at one time, were about to discharge 
the field-piece before the soldiers would retire from a 
road too near at hand. 

The night of the 17th and 18th February, 1855, will 
long be remembered by me as a night of surprise, 

T 3 


and astonishment. It was the night of the Chinese 
new year's day. There had been no fighting in the city, 
and it was known that the Triads were reduced to 
extremity, and must shortly quit the place, if not pre- 
viously destroyed by the Imperialists. Their quarrels 
amongst themselves had increased in vehemency ; united 
action was wholly at an end ; and how to terminate the 
siege seemed to be all that remained to be settled. 

This day had been remarkably quiet ; no one had 
been seen on the wall ; there had been an entire absence 
of desultory firing, and the unusual general silence 
seemed ominous. The Chinese concluded that the 
Triads, in extremity, were about to evacuate the city. 
At about eleven o'clock, when retiring for the night, 
hearing a dull, heavy sound from that direction, I went 
to the verandah, which commanded a good view of the 
city, but saw nothing to explain the noise, which was 
not repeated. Afterwards I learned that the sound was 
caused by the explosion of an Imperialist mine under 
the wall, near the south gate. On going to the verandah 
about half an hour later, I discerned a light at a great 
distance, evidently on the south side of the city. This 
light gradually expanded, and was accompanied by an 
explosion. Presently another light appeared, followed 
by a third — the first light burning in the centre, and 
explosions following at certain intervals. Similar fights 
sprung up by degrees all round the walls, until their 
entire circuit was illuminated. The sight was so extra- 
ordinary that I at first thought myself in a dream. 

The lights were the burning tents (made of canvas 
and mats) of the Triad outposts, which had been set on 
fire by the soldiers. Meeting with no resistance on the 


south side, they had climbed up and fired the tents as 
they passed along the wall. They killed some of the 
guards whom they found in their tents, either drunk or 
asleep, and left their bodies in the fire : the explosions 
resulted from the jar or horn of powder kept in each 
tent. As the fires travelled to the wall nearest to 
the hospital, the soldiers at the battery in front began 
to discharge their big guns and volleys of musketry 
(or matchlockery), beating their gongs with a great 

It now became evident that the Triads were leaving 
the city without any fighting, as there was profound 
silence in that quarter. From the top of the house 
this ring of flame was seen all round the city, the more 
distant fires beginning to die away. Suddenly other fires 
burst out in various parts, then others flamed up, until 
on all sides there were thirty or forty fires burning furi- 
ously. I then went down to the American guard-house, 
to ask what was doing in the city, and found there a 
number of Triads who had fled to it for refuge. They had 
dropped from the walls, and after wading the creek, had 
climbed over into the settlement, and begged for shelter. 
It appeared on inquiry, that the chief and his officers 
had been disputing early in the day as to the course to 
be taken, but not being able to agree had broken up in 
anger, and fled as they best could. Some of them had 
escaped in the afternoon, and others as the dark evening 
had set in. Their followers, finding themselves deserted in 
this dastardly manner, after all the assurances from their 
leaders that they would remain together, and conquer 
or die, then took to flight. Many went to the French 
guard, others to the American guard. Many more 

T 4 


scattered themselves over the settlement, begging for 
shelter, and others fled into the open country. 

In this condition of affairs the Imperialists entered 
the city, setting it on fire, and killing all the Triads 
they found there. It was afterwards learned that the 
Triads, as they escaped, commenced the conflagration, 
setting many of the streets in a blaze as they passed 
through them : so that both parties were concerned 
in the burning of the city. A French guard, to whom 
I applied for information, said that several Triads had 
surrendered at the gate ; but he knew nothing more 
than that there were large fires in the city. 

It was now two o'clock in the morning. The fires 
had spread in all directions, and many more had broken 
out, apparently uniting from all parts of the city. On 
every side poured forth a mighty cloud of smoke, with 
a body of flame wonderful to behold, which illuminated 
the whole heavens. I had seen very large conflagra- 
tions in China, as well as in England, but never any to 
be compared to this. The flames were still increasing, 
especially in an easterly direction, when it was evident 
that the large, respectable houses and shops on that 
side of the city, where the chief business was done, were 
on fire. The roar of the flames was now distinctly 
audible ; a light breeze had sprmig up which fanned 
the blaze ; hour after hour the flames hicreased, and an 
extraordinary spectacle, such as I can never forget, was 
the sight of that burning city. 

As the morning broke, the soldiers were seen making 
their way over the walls, many of them returning to the 
camp, laden with plunder. At the earliest moment, 
towards noon, I went in through the breach made by 


the French the month before, to learn the safety of our 
mission chapels. One of them, and its keeper, was safe ; 
the only damage was the loss of a few articles of trifling 
value, which a soldier had stolen. The other chapel 
also was safe. In front of this one lay the headless 
trunk of a Triad, who had sought refuge in the build- 
ing. He was observed by a soldier, who dragged him 
out, and at once beheaded him. 

The fire was still raging. Many streets had been 
entirely consumed, and the flames were keeping on 
their fierce march through the houses ; intercourse 
was cut off between different parts of the city, and 
caution was needed lest the passer-by shoidd be hemmed 
in amongst the numerous fires. One third of the city 
had by this time been destroyed, and of the better class 
of shops and houses of business almost all were burned 
down, or in process of destruction. 

It was feared that on getting possession of the city, 
after a protracted siege of eighteen months, the soldiers 
would revenge themselves upon the inhabitants in acts 
of cruelty and indiscriminate slaughter. I looked about 
into the houses and the public places for evidences of 
this, but found none. In passing through all the ac- 
cessible streets, I did not meet with a citizen who had 
been even wounded by the soldiers since the flight of 
the Triads. Of these latter there were many dead 
bodies and headless trunks lying about ; a circumstance 
not to be wondered at, as the rule in China is to take 
no prisoners, but to kill your enemy. This surprising 
absence of injury by the soldiers to the people, was 
partly owing to the orders of their officers, and of the 
French admiral, who had insisted that the iinfortunate 


citizens, who were not to blame because the rebels had 
held the place, should not be molested. It speaks well, 
however, for the discipline of a Chinese army, as well 
of officers as of men, that such orders were, as far as 
appeared, so implicitly obeyed. As for the Triads, they 
were beyond the pale of protection ; they had lost their 
game, and must pay the penalty. No one pitied them ; 
while the forbearance of the soldiers towards the inha- 
bitants of the city could not probably have been surpassed 
by European troops under the like circumstances. 

They roamed through the place, however, in search 
of the Triads, whom when they found they instantly 
put to death. They were discovered secreted in every 
out-of-the-way place : in coffins, in old graves, and other 
unlikely holes and corners. In one house they dis- 
covered a woman, well known to have been a Triad 
officer. She had had a company under her command, 
which she had often led to the attack, and had herself 
fought vigorously. The daughter of a man who had 
early joined the Triads, but falling into the hands of the 
Imperialists, had suffered a cruel and lingering death, — 
she vowed vengeance against them, in honour of her 
father's memory. She was the bravest leader the Triads 
possessed, and a perfect fury in battle. Expecting that, 
being a woman, she would be overlooked, or not recog- 
nised, she did not, or perhaps could not, flee. She was 
found hiding under a bed, and dragged forth to instant 

Supplies of food were at once carried to the people, 
who, in their half-starved condition, yet rejoiced in their 
hberty. Crowds flocked in, seeking for relatives and 
friends ; and the scenes of joy and sorrow, as these were 


found alive or otherwise, were touching to behold. When 
I left the city, wearied with excitement and fatigue, and 
after helping to the utmost those of the people in whom 
we were interested, the fires were still burning, new 
fires occasionally bursting forth from the smouldering 
ruins ; but the fury of the conflagration was abated. 

Such of the Triads as had escaped were dispersed 
in all directions. The chief was said to have got away 
with some of his immediate followers, but to have been 
taken by the Imperialists and put to death. This was 
probably correct ; though, being a man of wealth, he 
had many Chinese friends in the settlement, who could 
have screened him. Others of the officers succeeded 
in passing the Imperialist fines. One, who had been 
the principal military commander, disguised as a coolie, 
returned to the settlement, and got on board a foreign 
ship. After spending his money at Singapore, he at 
last became a pirate in Siam. Those who were caught 
were beheaded by the soldiers. The men were seized 
in all parts of the country, and taken to the camp. They 
were beheaded in an adjacent field, which soon became 
an Aceldama, saturated with blood, and covered over 
with heaps of human heads, which were afterwards 
taken to the city in basketfuls, and fixed on poles around 
the walls. The number thus slain was variously stated. 
It probably reached as many as two thousand. A few, 
more fortunate, were secreted by native friends in the 
settlement, and afterwards went to sea. Eight or 
ten came to the London Mission, and implored refuge. 
They were kept for a day or two in the hospital, and 
then allowed to go by night to a vessel about to sail, 
by which they escaped. Though the conduct of these 


men had been sufficiently bad, we were unwilling to 
give them up to certain death. 

The Imperialists, after moving many of their men into 
the city, broke up the camps, and sent away the greater 
part of the force. The inhabitants returned in great 
numbers ; and when the fires had all died out, the deso- 
lation of the city was seen to be very great. The best 
streets were in ruins ; and the business places and 
houses where the Triads had lived, destroyed. As soon 
as the people had settled, the work of renovation began : 
the streets were cleared of rubbish ; boundaries of pro- 
perty were marked out by the owners ; and hundreds of 
coolies carried away the debris from the city. In a 
few days the whole place was full of life and activity : 
building materials in vast quantities were brought in ; 
houses began to rise ; shops of all kinds were opened 
with goods from Soo-chow, and other cities ; and a 
thriving trade soon returned. The Chinese junks from 
the mouth of the river took up their former anchorage ; 
and in a very few months whole streets had been built, 
and the business of the city flourished as before. 
Lookers-on were astonished to see how quickly the 
people established themselves in their old quarters. 
Money was lent in large sums to the traders and shop- 
keepers, by wealthy men ; and it is surely a testimony 
to the integrity of the Chinese character, that when 
people had been utterly ruined, as most of these trades- 
people were, others would come forward and cordially 
enable them to reinstate their business. For these ad- 
vances large interest was paid, and the principal liqui- 
dated gradually as trade prospered. 

Some wealthy men of the city were called upon to 


pay large sums to the local government. One, in par- 
ticular, who had been kept a prisoner at large in his 
own house by the Triads, had been, it was said, already 
fleeced by them to the amount of 300,000 dollars. 
When the Imperialists retook the place, the general in- 
formed him that, as he had paid so handsomely to the 
Triads, he must now redeem himself by paying 200,000 
dollars to the government. We had asked this man, 
while the city was occupied by the Triads, why he did 
not try to escape. He said, it would be of no use ; he 
could get away, but his family could not ; he might be 
killed or ruined if he stayed, but his family would be 
killed if he escaped ; so he was resolved to take his 
chance. He and the other rich men of the place had, 
at their own expense, to rebuild the public offices, ac- 
cording to plans which were sent to them, and to repair 
and put in good order the wall, gates, guard-houses, and 
other defences of the city. 

Gradually Shanghai regained its usual appearance. 
The astonishing elasticity of trade was seen, after its al- 
most total destruction, in its unprecedented revival in 
the city, which had been the scene of so much misery 
and loss to the inhabitants, during the eighteen months 
of the occupation by the Triads. 


CHAP. xn. 







Seveeal cases of diseased ancle-bones in girls were 
brought to the hospital at Shanghai, the result of the 
practice of binding the feet, common in China. Con- 
sidering the vast number of female children who 
suffer this distortion, the instances of diseased bone are 

The practice is begun when the child is from six 
to nine years of age ; if after the latter age, the suffer- 
ing is proportionately increased. Long bandages of 
cotton cloth, an inch in width, are folded round the 
foot, and brought in a figure of eight form, from the 
heel across the instep, and over the toes ; then carried 
under the foot, and round the heel, and so on, being 
drawn as tight as possible. This process is not effected 
without much pain, accompanied by bitter lamentation 
from the sufferer. The feet remain for a long time 
very tender, and can ill bear the pressure in walking ; 
sometimes there is great swelling of the foot and leg, 
caused by the ensuing inflammation. After some years, 


if the bandage has been well applied, so that the pres- 
sure is regularly maintained, the pain wholly subsides, 
and the sensibility of the foot is so far deadened, that 
there is hardly any feeling in the compressed parts. 
Bungling manipulation, however, causes unequal pres- 
sure, and various ill consequences follow. There is a 
class of women whose vocation is to bandage the feet 
of children, and who do their work very neatly ; and 
from what I have seen, the Chinese women, who in 
childhood have undergone careful treatment, do not 
suffer much pain, beyond the weakness of the foot, 
from the destruction of the symmetrical arch, and the 
inconvenience of being unable to walk when the foot 
is unbound and unsupported. If the feet have been 
carelessly bound in infancy, the ancle of the woman is 
generally tender, and much walking will cause the foot 
to swell and be very painful. 

To produce the diminution of the foot, which is the 
object of the bandaging, the tarsus, or instep, is bent on 
itself; the os calcis or heel-bone, is thrown out of the 
horizontal position, and what ought to be the posterior 
surface brought to the ground. The ancle is in this 
way forced higher up the leg than is natural, producing, 
in fact, talipes calcaneus ; the four smaller toes pressed 
down imder the instep, are checked in their growth, 
until at adult age they are like flakes of skin, folded 
under the ball of the great toe. Thus, all that is left 
to go into the shoe, is the lower end of the os calcis, 
and the whole of the great toe. In a healthy consti- 
tution, this constriction of the foot may take place 
without any very serious consequences ; but in scrofu- 
lous habits, the navicular and cuneiform bones support- 


ing the great toe are, from the constant pressure and 
irritation to which they are exposed, very liable to be- 
come diseased. Many cases have been seen, where 
caries, softening, and even death of the bone, have taken 
place, accompanied with much suffering. 

The Chinese women have very small hands and feet ; 
but this practice of bandaging the latter utterly de- 
stroys all symmetry, according to the European idea of 
symmetry, and the limping, unsteady gait which it pro- 
duces is to a foreigner distressing to behold. Not 
many of the women can walk far, or quickly, or even 
on rough ground, without appearing to be in pain. 
Another serious inconvenience of small feet, is the 
liability of their possessors to fall and injure them- 
selves. Several instances of such injury appeared at 
the hospital. An old woman of seventy years, hob- 
bling down stairs, fell, and fractured her legs. She was 
in a critical state for some time, owing to threatened 
mortification of one leg, but the unfavourable symptoms 
passed, and finally the bones of both legs united pro- 

Another woman, who was superintending the spring 
cutting of bamboo sprouts in her bamboo grove, fell, 
owing to her crippled feet slipping among the roots ; 
compound fracture of one leg was the consequence, 
and the upper fragment of the tibia stuck into the 
ground. The soft parts of the leg were so much in- 
jured, that amputation was recommended ; but her 
friends would not consent, and she soon afterwards 
died of mortification of the limb. 

A third case was that of a woman who had slipped 
and fallen down stairs, causing compound fracture of 


the leg ; she eventually did well, and the bones of the 
leg united completely. 

In my report of the Chusan hospital for 1840, it is 
said, that of all the women who came to the hospital, 
and of others seen in various parts of the island, not 
one had feet of the natural size. The feet of some of 
the women were not compressed so much as in other 
cases ; but the practice of confining the feet during 
growth is universal at Chusan, while at Canton and 
Macao, many women have their feet entirely free, and 
of the proper size. Many women came to the hospital 
with various diseases and ulcers of the leg, but only in 
one or two instances was the affection caused by the 
compression of the foot, and the unnatural distortion 
of its bones. How far this practice is injurious to 
health cannot be said with certainty, but from the ob- 
servation of many instances among both children and 
adidts, in different classes of society, it would appear 
not to cause so much misery as might naturally be 
expected. Frequently, in the country, strong healthy 
women, with their feet compressed, have been seen 
walking about with readiness, apparently wholly free 
from pain in the feet; others have walked several 
miles to the hospital, and returned the same day. The 
effects of the habits of a people upon their general 
health and activity, are always worthy of close obser- 
vation ; and though this treatment of the feet would 
appear to be torturing to the last degree, and its con- 
sequences are to us unsightly, it is perhaps on the 
whole not more injurious to health and comfort than 
some of the practices inflicted by fashion on the female 
sex in Western nations. 


Dr. Parker, who was then at Canton, gives, in his re- 
port for 1847, the following illustration of the effects 
that sometimes follow the compression of the feet hi 
Chinese children. 

" Luh Akwong, an interesting little girl from Ho- 
nan, seven years of age, was brought to the hospital. 
Agreeably to a custom that has prevailed in China for 
thousands of years, the bandages had been applied to 
her feet, occasioning excessive suffering, which after 
the lapse of a fortnight, became insupportable, and the 
parents were reluctantly compelled to remove the 
bandages, when, as the father represented, the toes 
were found discoloured. Gangrene had commenced, 
and when she was brought to the hospital, it had ex- 
tended to the whole foot. The line of demarcation 
formed at the ancles, and both feet were perfectly black, 
shrivelled and dry, and nearly ready to drop off at the 
ancle-joint. Both feet soon after separated, leaving the 
stumps healthy, the granulations rapidly covering the 
bone, and new skin forming at the edges. She was 
soon afterwards taken home, and the last time she was 
seen, the stumps were rapidly healing. Since the oc- 
currence of this case, others of a similar nature have 
been heard of, a painful comment upon the cruelty of 
this custom, to which millions in China have been sub- 
ject dming many centuries past." 

The origin of this practice has been ascribed to 
Tan-ke, an infamous Empress, B. c. 1100, who was born 
with club feet. She is represented as having great in- 
fluence over the Emperor, whom she induced to issue 
an edict, adopting her feet as the model of beauty, and 
requiring the compression of infants' feet, so as to con- 


form them to the imperial pattern. This account is 
necessarily traditionary, as it dates from a period long 
prior to the universal destruction of Chinese books in 
the Tsin dynasty, B.C. 300. Had the custom been in- 
troduced 200 years since, by the conquering Tartars, as 
some European writers have stated, it must have been 
so recorded in existing history. 

An intelligent Chinese furnishes the following ac- 
count of the origin of the custom. " The compression 
of the feet of female children, tradition says, com- 
menced under the Emperor Yang-te, of the Suy dynasty, 
A. D. 695, who ordered his concubine Pwan to bandage 
her feet, and in the sole of her shoe was placed the 
stamp of the lotus flower, with aromatics deposited 
within it, so that at each step she took there was left 
on the ground the print of the lotus flower : hence the 
saying, that her steps produced the golden lotus ; and to 
the present day, men compliment little girls with small 
compressed feet, by designating them ' the golden 
lotus.' " 

The fact that none of the Chinese classics alluded to 
the custom, is presumptive evidence that it did not 
exist so early as the days of Confucius. During some 
of the successive dynasties, as under the Ming dynasty, 
when it was inflicted upon comparatively few, the 
practice was partially suspended. In the present reign 
it is very general, except among the Tartars. 

Dr. Macgowan also, in one of his reports referring 
to this subject, says : " Ulcers are very common among 
the poor ; the worst form of these that have been 
treated were on the feet and legs of women. Ban- 
daging the feet, if not the cause of ulcer, certainly pre- 

z 2 


vents, to a great extent, the cure ; the women are also 
affected with corns and callosities of the feet. That a 
custom so barbarous could be imposed upon a com- 
paratively civilised country, is one of the most singular 
facts in the history of our race, and illustrates the de- 
ference which the Chinese pay to the imperial wishes. 

" The custom is of comparatively modern origin, 
and owes its existence to the whim of Li-Yuli, the licen- 
tious and unpopular prince of Keang-nan, whose court 
was in Nanking. He ruled from a.d. 961 to 976, and 
was subdued and finally poisoned by the founder of the 
Sung dynasty. It appears that he was amusing himself 
in his palace, when the thought occurred to him that 
he might improve the appearance of the foot of a 
favourite concubine. He accordingly bent her foot, 
so as to raise the instep into an arch, to resemble the 
new moon. The figure was much admired by the 
courtiers, who began at once to introduce it into their 
families. Soon after, the province of Keang-nan again 
became an integral part of the empire, from which. 
point the new practice spread throughout all provinces 
and all ranks, until it became a national custom. Many 
lives were sacrificed by suicide. Those females whose 
feet had not been bound were persecuted by their 
mothers-in-law, and despised by then husbands, so 
much so, that they hung themselves or took poison. 
About 150 years after the origin of the practice, we 
find a poet celebrating the beauties of the ' golden 
lilies ; ' and from his description, it would appear that 
six centuries ago, they were of the same size as those 
of the present day. According to the upholders of the 
development theory, such continued compression for 


centuries should have occasioned a national alteration 
in the structure of the Chinese foot, but nothing of the 
kind is observed ; for until they attain the age of seven 
or nine years, when the painful process of bandaging 
commences, the feet are perfectly natural both in size 
and figure. This custom, though deeply entwined in 
the feelings of the people, could be abolished by a 
single stroke of the vermilion pencil. The present 
dynasty could abolish the cruel custom, with less oppo- 
sition than was experienced in introducing that de- 
grading mark of subjection — the tonsure. 

" There have been and now are in China, those who 
possess the humanity and moral courage to express their 
dislike of the practice. Among them may be men- 
tioned Yuen, a member of the Hanlin College, a writer 
of celebrity in the latter part of last century. In one 
of his works he represents Prince Li-Yuh as suffering in 
purgatory for the introduction of such a vile custom, 
and awaiting with much impatience the expiration of 
the 700 years which he had been condemned to suffer 
before he could attain to his original state of a priest in 
Sungsau, but in profound ignorance of another punish- 
ment which awaited him on the completion of the first 
period. History relates that a celebrated robber, during 
the period of anarchy which ushered in the reigning dy- 
nasty, cut off the feet of an immense number of women, 
and made a pyramid of them. The spirits of these 
women, several myriads in number, are represented by 
Yuen as vociferously demanding of Heaven further 
chastisement upon Li-Yuh, whom they regard as being 
the author of their sufferings, and of small feet, to which 
the robber had an antipathy. Wherefore the prince 

z 3 


was condemned to make a hundred myriads of shoes 
for these women. 

" It may here be added, that Chinese females can 
scarcely stand, and cannot walk, without their shoes." 

Allusion has been made to the works of general in- 
formation, written and translated by Europeans in the 
Chinese language, for the use of schools and for dis- 
tribution amongst the educated portions of the people. 
In the year 1845, Lancelot Dent, Esq., then at Shanghai, 
acted in this matter with his accustomed liberality. 
He placed at the disposal of the writer, the sum of 
1000 dollars, for the publication of educational works 
adapted for the diffusion of useful knowledge among 
the Chinese. The first intention of using a portion of 
this donation in publishing a revised edition of Mr. 
Gutzlaff's work on geography, written some years ago, 
was abandoned ; and finally the Eev. W. Muirhead, of 
the London Missionary Society at Shanghai, undertook 
the preparation of a treatise on geography. Two vo- 
lumes were printed in 1853 — 54; the first, on political 
and descriptive geography ; the second, on physical 
and mathematical geography ; both volumes being illus- 
trated with maps and plates, and beautifully printed at 
the London Mission Press, with Mr. Dyer's metallic 
type. The preface thus speaks of the general charac- 
ter of the work : " In the East, the most confused and 
absurd notions have prevailed on the subject of geo- 
graphy. Some have supposed that their own country 
comprehended the greatest and fairest portions of the 
globe, while all beyond it was exceedingly limited in 
its extent, and formed the abode of mere ' outside bar- 
barians.' This idea has most extensively obtained 


amongst the Chinese, who have on that account been 
disposed to think and act in regard to foreigners under 
the influence of extreme narrow-mindedness and ridi- 
culous national pride. The astronomical, mathematical, 
and geographical labours of the Jesuit missionaries, and 
the commercial intercourse which Western nations have 
long had with the Chinese, might have convinced them 
of our superior science and civilisation, and altered 
their comparative estimate of foreigners and them- 
selves. But from the peculiar constitution of the Chi- 
nese mind, and the tenacity with which they adhere 
to old-established customs and opinions, it does seem 
that, hitherto, practically little has been done towards 
their enlightenment and improvement in this respect. 
At the same time, from the increasing intercourse, civil 
and religious, which they now have with Western na- 
tions, it is to be hoped that we shall soon see gratifying 
proof of advancing intelligence, and high appreciation 
of such useful scientific knowledge as foreigners are 
endeavouring to introduce among them. In aiming 
at this object, it is indispensable that we should give 
them satisfactory information on the extent and re- 
sources of the various countries of the globe, and the 
mental and moral status of their inhabitants. This 
will go far towards modifying their ideas of their own 
relative character and position, and breaking down the 
barriers that still exist between them and the civilising 
influence of the Western world." 

The work was compiled from various sources, 
Chinese and English. The excellent geography pub- 
lished in Chinese, in 1846, by Mr. Marquez, of Macao, 

z 4 


and Mr. Milner's English work, being chiefly em- 
ployed. The " Abstract of Geography," by the late 
lieutenant-governor of Fu-chau, has also been of great 
service. The entire work has, however, been care- 
fully revised and enlarged, so as to render it interest- 
ing and useful to the Chinese scholars who are en- 
gaged in studying the topography, population, climate, 
manners, and customs, religion, government, history, 
and productions of foreign countries. The second 
volume, on physical geography, contains three sec- 
tions ; the first treating of geology, the structure of 
the rocks, with their series and fossils, mineral veins, 
and general view of the science ; contour of the land, 
continents, islands, mountains, valleys, volcanoes, earth- 
quakes, &c. Hydrography : water, springs, rivers, 
lakes, oceans, tides, currents, &c. Meteorology : at- 
mosphere, winds, clouds, fogs, rain, snow, sleet, dew, 
temperature, climate, electric, magnetic phenomena. 
Light: nature of light, colour, rainbows, halos, dry 
fogs, ignis fatuus. Botany : plants, growth, nourish- 
ment, classes, age of trees, forms of vegetation, marine 
vegetation. Zoology : arrangement, distribution of spe- 
cies, insects, fishes, reptiles, birds, mammalia, &c. 

The second, or Mathematical Section. — Globular 
form of the earth, the size of the earth, space, forces of 
the universe, motions of planets, solar system, day and 
night, seasons, time, zones, and climates, latitude and 
longitude, maps, &c. 

The third, or historical section, notices the geogra- 
phy of the ancients, of the middle ages, and of modern 
times. The arrangement of the work is very much on 
the plan of Mrs. Somerville's " Physical Geography," 


additions being made from the works of Eev. T. Milner 


and Mr. Hugo Eeid. 

The importance of the several branches above noticed 
is a sufficient reason for communicating correct know- 
ledge of them to the Chinese. The acquaintance with 
some of them which they have had for a long period 
was, at the best, crude and imperfect ; the other branches 
of knowledge are now for the first time brought under 
their attention, and in a style which they will readily 

These volumes have been widely distributed, and 
applications for them have come from all quarters and 
people of all ranks. The officers of government have 
repeatedly requested that copies might be sent to them ; 
and in Japan also the book is well known and highly 
valued. Chinese merchants from that place have 
frequently called on Mr. Muirhead, stating they had 
been particularly commissioned by the Japanese autho- 
rities to take back with them as many copies as they 
could procure. 

In 1856 the same gentleman published a translation 
of two volumes of the " History of England," by Eev. 
T. Milner ; giving a record of events, and the actors in 
them, at a particular period, and illustrating their in- 
fluence upon the manners and civilisation of the people. 
Appended to it is a chapter on the constitution and re- 
sources of the British empire, from Chambers' "Informa- 
tion for the People." The Chinese histories, though very 
extensive and largely studied by native scholars, yet, as 
treating of a civilisation widely different from that of 
the West, have a feeble influence over the general mind. 
The English history, on the other hand, has awakened 


interest and inquiry on the part of several intelligent 
Chinese readers of this work, which it is believed will 
enlighten many of that people on matters pertaining to 
their present and future welfare. The work has a very 
large circulation, and, like the " Treatise on Geography," 
has been eagerly sought for, and taken to various parts 
of the empire. 

Chinese magazines have been issued at different 
times ; one at Hongkong, under the editorship of the 
Eev. Dr. Legge, W. H. Medhurst, Jim., and Charles 
Hillier, Esqrs. ; and one at Shanghai, by A. Wylie, Esq. 
These have been useful in supplying information to the 
Chinese in different branches of knowledge and ques- 
tions of politics, which did not, however, relate to 
matters of native government hi any wise. These books 
were circulated periodically, and sought and paid for 
by the people. 

In 1854, Alexander Wylie, Esq., superintendent of 
the London Mission Press, published a small com- 
pendium of arithmetic, to supply a want of such books 
in the native language felt by teachers amongst the 
Chinese, and intended this to be the first of a series of 
works on mathematics for the use of schools. The 
ability of the Chinese to deal with mathematical truths 
is evident from the number of works on the subject by 
native authors. These at once place the foreigner in a 
most favourable position who desires to ascertain the 
actual state of the science. He finds ready to his hand 
in these works a well-understood technical nomen- 
clature, the want of which in some other branches of 
knowledge has proved no slight embarrassment to those 
who have been wishful to give such knowledge a 


place in the native literature. There are native works 
on arithmetic, some on a particular branch, others 
diffuse and voluminous, the price of which excludes 
them from general use, the only works of a popular 
character being the small manuals on the use of the 
abacus, and these may be found in any book-store. 

The various rules of these books have been adopted 
in Mr. Wylie's work, so as to prepare the scholar for the 
study of the higher branches of European science ; ex- 
amples are given in illustration of the rules, so as to 
obviate any difficulty on the part of the student. The 
mathematical repository of the Emperor Kang-he forms 
the groundwork of the volumes, several of the rules 
being transferred verbatim, while others of them are 
modified and rearranged. Some of the questions for 
exercise are borrowed from Matteo Eicci's work, Tung- 
wanswan-che, and a few from a native work, Swan-pa ta- 
ching, all of them carefully recalculated and submitted 
to a Chinese scholar, Le-shen-lan, the author of Chinese 
mathematical works of considerable merit. 

In 1857, Mr. Wylie also published a translation of 
Euclid from the seventh to the fifteenth books. The 
first six books had been brought out by Mat. Eicci, who 
had been assisted by his native convert, Seu-kwong-ke 
(called Paid Seu, or Father Paul), in the year 1608. This 
science was new to the Chinese, who, though astronomy 
and several branches of mathematics had been studied 
by them from remote antiquity, had nothing analogous 
to the demonstrative reasoning of Euclid. Seu himself 
seems to have entered into the spirit of it with great 
zest, and anticipated that it would become a favourite 
study. This has been in great degree realised, for 


the book attained a greater celebrity than any other 
book published by Europeans in China, and almost 
every literary man is acquainted with it, at least by 
name. Seven editions have been printed, besides many 
copies taken in manuscript by those who could not 
purchase or obtain the printed book. The name of 
the new science was Ke-ko yuen-ppun, the elements of 
quantity (or so much), and this term is used in literary 
composition. In the second edition Seu regretted that 
the work had not been completed, and hoped that the 
remaining books would, ere long, be added. Of these 
Eicci had prepared part of the translation, but his 
death, Avithin two years of the publication of the six 
books, put a stop to the work. 

A Chinese mathematician of great celebrity in the 
commencement of the present dynasty, named Mei- 
wuh-gan, feeling the want of the remaining books, en- 
deavoured to supply the deficiency from his own re- 
sources, and prepared a supplementary treatise on 
geometry, in which he discusses the geometrical pro- 
perties of solids, &g. Others of the Chinese have also 
written on this subject, showing how great is the 
interest taken by native scholars in mathematical 

In 1631, Jules Aleni, a Jesuit missionary, published 
the "Essentials of Geometry," an explanation for the 
most part of the mode of drawing certain figures with 
those problems most requisite in practical astronomy. 

The present translation of the last nine books of 
Euclid was undertaken at the earnest wish of a native 
scholar, Le-shen-lan, who materially assisted in the trans- 
lation, and arranged the work hi its present form. His 


eminent qualifications for such a task were an inducement 
to proceed with the work, and helped much to lighten 
the labour of the foreign translator (Mr. Wylie), at the 
same time securing for their joint production greater 
accuracy. The first draft was little more than half 
completed when application was made by Han-ying-pe, 
a Keu-jin (M.A.) of Sung-kiang, for permission to print 
the work at his own expense. The finished manuscript 
was therefore entrusted to him, and was passed through 
the press with great care. Mr. Wylie concludes his 
preface with the remark, " To accompany this issue 
with an apology would almost seem out of place. 
Truth is one ; and while we seek to promote its ad- 
vancement in science we are but preparing the way 
for its development in that loftier knowledge which as 
Christian men and missionaries it is our chief desire to 
see consummated." 

This was followed, in 1859, by Mr. Wylie's trans- 
lation of " Loomis' Algebraic or Analytical Geometry, 
and Differential and Integral Calculus." This w T as 
another of the mathematical series already alluded to, 
the first of which was succeeded by a treatise on al- 
gebra, in preparation for the present work. "Although 
probably for the first time the principles of algebraic 
geometry are here placed before the Chinese in their 
own language, there is yet little doubt that this branch 
of the science will commend itself to native mathema- 
ticians, in consideration of its obvious utility. The 
readiness with which they adopted Euclid's elements 
of geometry, computation by logarithms, and other 
novelties of European introduction, cannot be forgotten. 
A spirit of inquiry is abroad among the Chinese, and a 


large class of students receive with avidity instruction 
on scientific subjects from the West. Mere superficial 
essays and popular digests far from suffice to satisfy 
such applicants, hence the desirableness of works which 
take a fuller view of the separate branches of science, 
and enter so far into detail, that students may be able 
to verify the statements which are laid before them. 
The present work will, it is hoped, supply in some 
measure what is now a desideratum, and for a ready 
understanding- of it a full list of the technical terms 
used in this work, and in the native works on mathe- 
matics, is afforded." 

The book is a beautiful specimen of printing in the 
Chinese mode, by wooden blocks ; the diagrams and 
illustrations are of excellent character. 

The Eev. A. Williamson, of the London Missionary 
Society, published in 1858 an excellent little treatise on 
the " Elements of Botany," giving an account of the 
structure, physiology, habits, and general character of 
plants, the mode of flowering, production of seed, and 
also the plan of classification of the vegetable king- 
dom. The book is beautifully illustrated, and, though 
concise, gives much valuable information, and will 
prove useful in introducing the Chinese to the know- 
ledge of this science. The Japanese, it is believed, 
having had copies of this work, and the others before- 
named, sent to them, after translating them into the 
Japanese language, published them as their oavii pro- 

In 1859—60, Sir John Herschel's "Elements of 
Astronomy " were brought out in Chinese by Mr. 
Wylie, in a series of beautifully printed volumes, illus- 

herschel's astronomy translated. 351 

trated by diagrams. Much labour has been bestowed 
on this translation, and the work is a very valuable 
addition to the works already referred to for imparting 
a knowledge of European science to the Chinese. Mr. 
Wylie hi his preface remarks, " that from a very early 
period the Chinese had been diligent observers of 
celestial phenomena ; many volumes of facts in the 
history of astronomy had been collected ; and on the 
principle of recurring sequence they were enabled to 
predict within certain limits the various phenomena 
which presented themselves to the eye. To ascertain 
the causes of the complex movements observable 
among the heavenly bodies was not so much an object 
with them as to employ their various irregularities in 
perfecting a system of mathematical chronology which 
should stand the test of ages unimpaired ; and if they 
failed in this respect, their failure was attributable to 
their imperfect means of observation. Their skill in 
calculating astronomical formulae was all that could be 
desired, but the want of efficient instruments prevented 
their gaining a knowledge of those delicate perturba- 
tions which if left out of account derange the best 
theories of computation. 

" Such was the case when the Jesuit missionaries 
reached China in the 17th century. Astronomical cal- 
culations were sadly at fault, producing much confusion 
in the state calendar. Schall, Eho, Terence, and Lon- 
gobardi compiled, under imperial patronage, and with 
the aid of native scholars, an extensive work, which is 
a record of the astronomical knowledge they imparted 
to the Chinese. Since their time various works on 
astronomy have been written by native students, who 


more or less follow the works of the Europeans thus 
made known to them. 

" Towards the latter part of the last century, a Euro- 
pean missionary, known to the Chinese by the name of 
Tseang-yew-jin, drew up a clear and faithful description 
of the solar system, which, differing as it did from the 
teachings of earlier missionaries, naturally suggested 
doubts in the minds of thinking natives, but must have 
greatly aided them in the search for truth. In 1849, 
Dr. Iiobson wrote a short treatise on astronomical 
science, before alluded to. 

" This work, which is a translation of the enlarged 
edition of HerschePs ' Outlines of Astronomy,' gives a 
more complete view of this science as it now stands in 
Europe than has yet been presented to the Chinese ; and 
the various facts, theories, researches and phenomena 
here detailed cannot fail to awaken in inquisitive minds 
a desire to become better acquainted with these and 
kindred facts in nature, which is calculated to exercise 
a healthful influence on the intellectual character. That 
such facts may lead to juster and more exalted con- 
ceptions of ' Him who hath created these orbs ; who 
bringeth forth their host by number, and calleth them 
all by their names ; — who hath made the earth by 
His power, established the world by His wisdom, and 
stretched out the heavens by His understanding,' is the 
sincere desire of the translator." 

Liu-Chiu, Lew-Chew, or Loo-Choo. — In the year 1845, 
the Loo-Choo naval mission was established by naval 
officers in England for the purpose of sending Christian 
missionaries to the island above named. In the fol- 
lowing year Dr. Bettelheim, a native of Hungary, of an 


Israelitish family, educated as a physician after his con- 
version to the Christian faith, becoming known to the 
society, was sent as their agent to Loo-choo. 

These islands, though having a king, are dependencies 
of Japan, and entirely under the control of the em- 
peror of that country, the exclusive policy of winch 
in relation to foreigners is applied to them also. So 
rigorously was this policy exercised towards Dr. Bet- 
telheim, that the Japanese authorities at Loo-choo 
co-operated with the Chinese government to induce 
Governor Seu, the Chinese Imperial Commissioner, to 
urge his Britannic Majesty's plenipotentiary to remove 
him from Napa by force. 

At this place, the port of the larger island, Dr. Bettel- 
heim had much difficulty in obtaining a residence, the 
people being exceedingly jealous of his object in com- 
ing amongst them, and the government using all means 
to prevent his continued residence. Year after year 
this persecution continued. Guards were placed round 
and even within his house, that he might not obtain 
influence over them ; his servants were changed from 
time to time ; he might not walk along the streets 
except in the company of his guards ; every difficulty 
was placed in the way of his procuring provisions ; 
and all means were adopted to render his life miserable. 
After he had acquired a knowledge of the language he 
was not allowed to have any intercourse with the 
people ; only by stealth could he preach the gospel 
to them, or when escaping or outwalking his guards 
for a few minutes he would step into a house and 
speak to the inmates. To prevent even this the guards, 
as they went along the streets, would call out to the 

A A 


people to shut the doors, — and as they dared not offer 
personal violence to the foreigner, they punished those 
natives to whom he might speak, so causing the people 
to flee such dangerous conversation. His appeal to the 
government to be allowed to minister to the many 
sick and diseased whom he saw, was at once refused, 
on the ground that their own physicians were well 
skilled, and that no foreigner could possibly be ac- 
quainted with the nature of their diseases, and that he 
could do them no good. What Dr. Bettelheim was 
able to effect in the way of medical and surgical aid, 
during his stay, is best told in his own words : — "Ad- 
vantages have been obtained through my medical 
practice. Numerically they are least because most 
opposed by government, and the practice of medicine 
is difficult where free access to the patient is impossible. 
Our rulers went so far as to confiscate medicines, to- 
gether with the bottles and boxes in which I had 
carried them to sufferers, and subjected the latter to 
punishment. Still, upwards of a hundred cases have 
fallen under my observation, fifty of which were in 
the first year, when the opposition was least. So con- 
vinced are the people of the efficacy of our medical 
aid, that they wait in the dark in the bushes and jungle 
near my house till I pass by, to beg for medicines. 
Our servants and them relatives, having greater facilities 
than others, have repeatedly had the benefit of our 
drugs ; and as they are usually changed every tenth 
day this constitutes rather a considerable item of 
medical occupation. Our guards or spies, afraid of 
these my servants, yet consult me for themselves and 
friends ; the difficulty of giving advice in unseen cases 
being overcome, as far as it can be, by minute inquiries. 


There are some whom the door-guards from friendship 
or other reasons allow to pass, for the very purpose of 
medical relief, and even now and then persons connected 
with the government. One day I operated in haste 
upon a case of cataract in a dark hovel near the sea- 
side, while the yearly return junk from China, borne 
by a strong breeze into port, fixed all eyes upon itself 
including those of the spies. The patient was on the 
same day, and almost from under the knife of the 
operator, dragged away and driven where no one 
would tell me. Many months after, I succeeded in col- 
lecting circumstantial evidence that the man had re- 
covered sight in one of the eyes operated upon. I 
was plainly told so by one of his relatives, though I 
do not consider his evidence as conclusive. This week 
I had information also of an alarming case of dropsy 
having been cured by my advice and by using my 

Faith in God and an indomitable perseverance could 
alone sustain the missionary, in the midst of the op- 
position which imperilled his safety by night and by 
day. He was attacked in the street, beaten, and left 
senseless on the ground ; at another time, robbed, and 
all his movables taken from his house ; persecution was 
adopted to weary out his patience and drive him from 
the island. Every kind of annoyance and violence 
was used for this purpose ; and had his enemies not 
been afraid of the consequences to themselves of put- 
ting him to death, they had doubtless proceeded to 
that extremity. The above account makes it plain, 
however, that but for the enmity of the government 
the people would gladly avail themselves of the help 


of the medical missionary, who by that means could 
have secured a most valuable influence amonsrst them. 
As it was, an intelligent young man, one of the guards, 
listened frequently to the reading and explanation of 
the gospel, and became convinced of its truth. He 
was denounced to the authorities, imprisoned and 
loaded with chains, beaten, and almost starved to 
death. The efforts which were made by stealth to see 
liim and converse with him were discovered, and in 
consequence the young man's sufferings were increased, 
and after many months of torture he sank under his 
miseries and died a proto-martyr, in the evangelisation 
of these islands. To Dr. Bettelheim his death oc- 
casioned deep grief and distress ; the knowledge that 
this would be the case, instigated the officers of govern- 
ment to their cruel course, that the missionary might 
be made to feel the bitterness of having caused the 
misery and death of their prisoner. This policy of the 
government was maintained with increasing virulence, 
until after eight or nine years of the unequal strife, Dr. 
Bettelheim sought for a time quieter scenes and more 
propitious circumstances in Europe, whither he returned 
in 1855 or 1856. He was succeeded at the station by 
Mr. Morton, who was compelled shortly to retire owing 
to broken health. Dr. Bettelheim has not since re- 
turned to the islands, and probably the mission will not 
for the present be resumed. 

Notwithstanding the determined opposition which, 
as the foregoing statement shows, was manifested to 
the presence and actions of a foreign missionary, I yet 
believe that an important auxihary to our obtaining 
an influence in Japan, as well as at Loo-choo, will be 


a medical mission to the sick and diseased amongst the 
people. The renewed attempt to bring amongst them 
relief of this kind, of which some experience has 
already been gained, will be followed by a similar re- 
sult to that realised hi China, where medical science 
has to a large extent been the pioneer of the gospel of 

It has been stated in the account of the siege of 
Shanghai, that the Triads who held the city against 
the Imperialists, had acquired the art of making shells 
from a marine who had deserted from one of the 
foreign ships, and who had previously been employed 
in the ordnance department. The shells were four and 
five-inch shell, but very irregularly cast, the sides of 
different thickness. The brass fuse with which they 
were furnished was tolerably made. The constant 
firing of the Triads against the Imperial troops, who 
were posted not far from my house, enabled me to 
notice the range of their shells, which were thrown 
half and three quarters of a mile, frequently bursting 
in the air. A shell breaking through the roof one day 
fell in the hall of the Chinese hospital amongst a 
number of people, and though it burst as it fell, 
damaging the tiled floor and tearing up the benches 
and other furniture, no person was injured. The frag- 
ments of the missile were gathered up, and with the 
brass fuse are now in the Jermyn Street Museum. 

During the conflict cannon shot from both parties 
were thrown in and around the mission premises. The 
best balls were such as had been procured from 
foreigners, who at one time supplied these articles as well 
as gunpowder to the Chinese. Of the balls which the 

A A 3 


latter make for themselves, several were brought to 
me. Some were twelve and eighteen-pounclers of 
wrought iron, roughly hammered to a roundish form, 
and others of cast iron very irregular, and a few of 
brass. In several instances articles of brass had been 
hammered into a lump, and placed in a mould for 
a sixteen-pounder ; the mould was then filled with 
pewter or lead. Some twelve-pounders had been 
made by placing a clay core in the mould, and then 
running melted tin and pewter round it ; the clay was 
left inside and fired with the ball. These balls were 
brought to me after they had been fired, and one of 
them, which had been much dinted by striking against 
a wall, showed how it had been made. Small balls, 
four and six-pounders, were made of solid lead ; if a 
ball happens to be too small and a larger is not at hand, 
it is wrapped in cotton rags or any kind of cloth to 
make it fit the gun. 

The most effective weapon used by the Chinese, and 
which does the greatest injury to an enemy is the 
gingall, a long musketoon like a large duck-gun, 
carrying a two-ounce ball, or more frequently pieces of 
iron rod or scrap n*on. The range is wide, and the 
use of this arm is confined to certain of the troops, 
who are exercised with it. Two men are attached to 
each gun ; in carrying it, one is at each end, the man 
at the stock end is the marksman. Arrived at their 
ground the other man places the middle of the barrel 
on his right shoulder, and stoops a little to give the 
marksman a good rest, who thus takes aim easily. 
The piece is held on the shoulder by means of a red 
cloth, thrown or tied round the barrel, and by pulling 


down the ends of the cloth the supporter keeps the 
barrel firm in its place. 

Several of the cannon seen at the sieg-e had been 
brought down from the north, and were very large. 
They carried a thirty-pounder shot, but were large, 
massive guns, thick and heavy, much longer and 
heavier than our ten-inch guns. They had been 
brought a long distance by boats, and were then dragged 
across the country by human labour, as has been 
already explained. 

The fireball is simply a small bag of coarse gun- 
powder with a slow-match introduced, which being 
lighted, the ball is thrown at a man or on board a 
ship. It speedily ignites, and the explosion is very mis- 
chievous. The firepot is thrown in like manner ; this 
is a small jar filled with powder and lighted by means 
of a slow-match. These are thrown in large quantities 
from the crow's-nest on the mast of the attacking junk 
on to the deck of the enemy's ship, to set it on fire or 
to drive the men from the guns by the sulphureous 
smoke these missiles produce. The powder with which 
they are made is so coarse and badly mixed as to 
ignite very partially and cause much smoke, from which 
they are called by foreigners " stink-pots." Foreign 
war-ships attacking pirate crafts have often had then 
decks covered with these firepots, the men being com- 
pelled for a time to leave their guns ; and it became 
customary to station one or two good marksmen in the 
tops of the man-of-war to pick off the occupants of the 
crow's-nest before they had time to throw these com- 
bustibles. These hand-grenades, which inflict severe 
personal injury, are a favourite weapon with the 

A A 4 


Chinese. At the siege of Shanghai they were thrown 
by both parties with great dexterity and effect. 

Another weapon used by Imperialists and Triads, 
when righting about the walls, was a bamboo, five or six 
feet in length, and two or three inches in diameter. This 
being cleared out to form a tube, and a thick plug of clay 
thrust into one end, the tube was wrapped round with 
rattan and filled with meal powder, which was rammed 
tight. When engaged in a hand to hand struggle, the 
tube was lighted at the open end, and the fountain of 
fire which poured forth was played on the assailants 
with irresistible effect. The imperial troops, having 
mined the wall, when rushing into the city, have often 
been driven back by these firetubes in the hands of 
the Triads. 

The mines which the soldiers before Shanghai, dug 
under the ditch to the walls, large portions of which 
were on several occasions dislodged, were so well made 
as to excite the astonishment of foreigners : the counter- 
mine was also tried, and in several of these " diggings " 
severe conflicts took place. On one occasion the 
general officer over a large body of troops ordered the 
preparation of two mines, expecting so large a portion 
of the wall to be breached as to enable his men to 
make a rush and take the place by storm. All pre- 
liminaries for the event were accomplished, and the 
mine was sprung. As had been expected the wall was 
breached, but, owing to some miscalculation, the general 
and his men stood over the mine, thinking they were 
at the side, and were blown into the air! He and 
many of his men were killed, the rest were alarmed 
and ran away ; on which the Triads, taking advantage 


of the confusion, rushed out and signally defeated that 
part of the besieging force. 

On the occasion of springing another large mine it 
had been arranged that at a certain hour, early in the 
morning, a large body of troops should be on their way 
to the city, and the mine explode at a given moment 
and they would rush through the breach. By some 
error the mine was fired before the troops had 
reached the given place, and when only a few unsup- 
ported soldiers were at hand. The Triads now swarmed 
out, and meeting the troops confusedly hurrying on, de- 
feated them. After capturing one of the outside forts 
and burning a camp, they returned to the city with 
much booty and several prisoners whom, with their 
accustomed brutality, they cruelly murdered. 

In another instance, before the Imperialists could ex- 
plode a large mine in which they had placed about half 
a ton of powder, the Triads came upon them, drove 
away the soldiers, and seized the powder for their own 
use, at a time when they were in great need of a 

Eockets also are largely used in Chinese warfare. 
Fixed near the end of a long bamboo arrow having 
an iron point, these weapons, besides inflicting severe 
wounds, would set fire to houses. Most of those I 
saw used fell short of their mark, either from being 
badly made or inexpertly handled ; the rest reached 
their destination after a long flight, and fell amongst 
men or houses. These rockets were well seen during 
a night attack, when both parties used them in great 
numbers. I have observed, when watching their flight 
with interest, the superiority of the imperialist rocket. 


The Chinese matchlock is of rough and unfinished 
construction, and very liable to burst, owing to the 
imperfect welding of the barrel. The bullet cannot 
be rammed home, nor can any wadding be used, or 
the piece would burst immediately. 

So careless are the Chinese in relation to gunpowder 
that it is not very pleasant to go near any of their 
powder stores. They will smoke at the door of their 
powder mills, and seem ignorant of the hardihood of 
the proceeding, as was witnessed in the case of a man 
in a boat laden with the material, who sat on one of 
the barrels smoking his pipe. One day, as I was walk- 
ing along a street in the city, I observed two men, one 
of whom carried a large tub of gunpowder on his 
shoulder, the other walked behind with the lid of the 
tub in his hand and smoking his pipe. As the tub 
was more conveniently carried without its cover, this 
had been taken off. Judging by the indifference with 
which they passed along with the exposed gunpowder, 
they might have forgotten the habit of the people of 
sitting at their upper room windows smoking with 
their pipes outside. 

on o 










The relations between Great Britain and China have of 
late attracted a large amount of public attention, and 
assumed an importance which they never had before. 
In endeavouring to give a short account of the state of 
things affecting our intercourse with that country, it is 
necessary briefly to review the various steps of that 

In the year 1793, Lord Macartney was sent as 
ambassador from Kino- George III. to Kien-luno;, the 
emperor of China, and obtained an audience of his 
Majesty, but no concession was made as to increased 
facilities for trade at other ports than Canton. 

In 1816 Lord Amherst was sent on an embassy to 
obtain permission for the residence of an English officer 
at Pekin, and again to press on the Chinese government 
the desire of liberty to trade at one or more northern 


ports ; but he was not permitted to see the then em- 
peror, Kea-hing, and was treated with much rudeness 
and contumely by the Chinese officials. 

These embassies were sent out by the English go- 
vernment at the instance of the East India Company. 
In reading the accounts of these embassies the same 
jealousy and suspicion is seen to be exhibited, and 
much the same line of argument followed by the Chi- 
nese, as is detailed in the account of the Eussian em- 
bassy under M. de Ismayloff to the emperor Kang-he 
in 1721, in the work of John Bell, of Antermony ; and 
it is amusing to notice how the same tactics were used 
on all these occasions to tire out the patience and for- 
bearance of the foreign visitors, and at the same time to 
make as few concessions as possible. When the trade to 
China was thrown open on the expiration of the Com- 
pany's charter, the English government determined to 
send out a nobleman, as chief superintendent of trade at 
Canton, in the hope that he might be able to hold direct 
communication with the Chinese officers, instead of 
through the Hong merchants, as formerly. Lord Na- 
pier accordingly was sent out in this capacity in 1834, 
but the Chinese government would not recognise him 
in his official character, nor would they correspond 
with him. All intercourse took place through the 
Hong merchants. Much ill feeling was exhibited to- 
wards his lordship, and the harassing nature of his 
duties preyed upon his health to so great an extent that 
lie fell sick, and died in October of the same year, four 
months after his arrival in China. Captain Elliott, E.N., 
succeeded Lord Napier as chief superintendent. 

The first war broke out in 1839, in consequence of 


the violent conduct of Commissioner Lin in Ins en- 
deavours to put down the opium trade. In doing this 
he threatened the lives of her Majesty's civil officers, 
and resorted to such obnoxious measures, that repara- 
tion was demanded on the part of the English govern- 
ment. A force was sent from India to give effect to 
the demands made through Captain Elliott, who was 
appointed her Majesty's plenipotentiary at this juncture; 
but little was done beyond the occupation of Hong- 
kong as a dependency of the British crown. The 
Chinese deluded Captain Elliott with hope of peace, 
which they never intended to carry out, and after 
many mistakes and much blundering diplomacy, he 
was recalled, and Sir Henry Pottinger sent out with 
full powers to settle the business. He arrived in China 
in 1841, and the capture of Amoy, the re-occupation of 
Chusan, and the capture of Nmgpo, followed in rapid 

In 1842 the expedition occupied Chin-kiang, and 
arrived off Nanking, where the treaty of Nanking was 
agreed to and signed. 

Prompt and decisive as were Sir H. Pottinger's 
actions, still the exact stipulations of the treaty were 
not at once arranged, but left for after agreement. Con- 
sequently, though access to the interior of the city of 
Canton was stipulated for, when the time came for the 
carrying out of this concession endless excuses were 
made and delay requested by the Chinese commissioners. 
Sir Henry, instead of at once insisting on the fullest 
carrying out of this measure, consented to the delay. A 
time was, however, fixed when the entry should indeed 
be granted, and at the expiry of this interval in 1847, 


Sir John Davis proceeded with a strong force to Canton. 
Not without opposition and some hostile measures 
he reached the city, and made Iris demand for the ful- 
filment of the treaty. Delay was again required, and 
Sir John left Canton without having accomplished his 
object, another period of two years being agreed upon. 
On the expiry of this third interval, Sir G. Bonham 
went to Canton with a large number of ships of war, 
and required that the entry to the city should be finally 
granted. But again the point was evaded, and nothing 
was gained from the Chinese but insult and derision. 
Sir George was, however, not responsible for this re- 
sult, as his orders were explicit not to use force in 
carrying out his demand as stipidated for by treaty. 
Thus the affair was left undecided. 

Much has been said and much more misunderstood 
about the demand for right of entry to the city of 
Canton, and a few remarks here will not be out of 
place. The right of entry was necessary because it 
was impossible to reach and hold that direct communica- 
tion with the high provincial officers, by which many dif- 
ficulties would be prevented. The officers always 
required delay in granting this demand, on the ground 
that they feared the people were not prepared for so 
great a change, and that they could not restrain the 
people if they opposed such entry, the fact being, 
that the officers themselves incited the people to oppose 
it. The natives would have been content to allow 
foreigners access to Canton, as were the natives of 
Fu-chau, Shanghai, and other places. The difficulty 
was not with the people, but with the officers. They 
called us barbarians, insulted us whenever they had 


the opportunity, and stirred up ill feeling against us 
on tire part of the people, who, seeing that their offi- 
cials were opposed to us, naturally carried out the same 
idea, and were placed in antagonism to us in every 
way. It was this spirit, excited by the officials, that 
made property and life itself so insecure at Canton. 
In the suburbs and in the country .constant collisions 
took place, foreigners were insulted, pelted with stones, 
chased along the streets, and every indignity offered 
them that was possible, their boats on the river and the 
canals were attacked, and the lives of the passengers 
often endangered. At the village of Hwang-chuh-ke, 
in 1847, six unoffending foreigners, taking a walk, were 
attacked and murdered by the villagers, and when 
their mangled remains were demanded, they were sent 
down to Canton in a common leper boat, as adding the 
last insult that could possibly be made. Murderous 
attacks in constant succession kept up this feeling of 
insecurity, and it became necessary for foreigners 
habitually to carry defensive weapons. 

Year after year thus passed by, till in 1857, the affair 
of the English lorcha " Arrow " occurred, in conse- 
quence of the Chinese officers at Canton seizing part of 
the lorcha's crew and taking away her flag, instead of 
applying to Her Britannic Majesty's Consul, if there was 
any ground of complaint against the master. A demand 
was very properly made by Mr. Parkes, the acting Con- 
sul, for an apology, but this was refused, and after a 
long correspondence in which the demands of the Consul 
were ridiculed and despised, the threat was made that 
force would be resorted to in order to compel the 
requisite reparation. This also being ridiculed, Sir M. 



Seymour went up to Canton and desired a personal 
interview in the city, according to treaty arrangements 
with Commissioner Yeh. This being positively refused, 
no possibility of explanation regarding the question of 
the lorcha remained, and now only were hostilities 
resorted to to compel the Chinese to listen to the 
remonstrances previously made. 

These measures resulted in the burning of the facto- 
ries by the Chinese, the capture of the city of Canton, 
and of Commissioner Yeh himself, and his deportation 
to Calcutta, on the part of the English. 

In the meantime Lord Elgin had arrived in China as 
minister plenipotentiary, to make such demands on the 
Chinese government as the circumstances required, for 
although Canton had been occupied, no apology had 
been made, nor any notice taken by the imperial 
government of the question that had led to the hostili- 
ties. The affair of the lorcha was not the real cause of 
the war, but rather the denial of right to entry into 
Canton, and the evasion of this stipulation of the treaty 
of 1842. 

To prevent the recurrence of such evasions for the 
future, Lord Elgin, and Baron Gros the French pleni- 
potentiary, proceeded to the mouth of the Pei-ho in 
1858, with the allied forces, to require apology for what 
had passed, to demand that the former treaty should 
be revised, and that for the prevention of evasions by 
the provincial officers in future, the English minister 
should be allowed residence in Pekin, and direct com- 
munication with the high officers of the Chinese govern- 
ment be obtained. Thus our relations would not, as 
before, be continually baffled, and peace endangered at 


the will of any subordinate who chose to be trouble- 
some, and set himself in opposition to the rights pro- 
vided for, but not secured by treaty. As the Chinese 
government would not listen to any arguments thus 
made, the Ta-ku forts were taken, the Chinese army 
dispersed, and the expedition moved on to Tien-tsin. 
Upon this, commissioners were sent to arrange the terms 
on which peace should be made, and the treaty of 
Tien-tsin was agreed upon, granting the residence of 
the English minister occasionally at the court, and 
conceding entrance to all parts of the empire, as well 
as the opening of several new ports for trade, both on 
the coast and up the Yang-tsze-kiang. 

Now was the time when the right of entry to Pekin 
should be settled, and Lord Elgin ought to have secured 
an audience of the emperor, on the ground that the 
commissioners who had been sent to treat with him 
were found not to have the plenipotentiary powers they 
professed to hold. This was not done, and doubtless 
there were difficulties in the way of its accomplishment. 
As usual, in all our diplomatic arrangements with China, 
the persistent objections of the commissioners were 
listened to instead of being set aside, valuable time was 
lost, and the advancing season left no time to do more 
than get the treaty signed and the affair concluded. 
Whatever difficulties interfered with this audience of 
the emperor, subsequent events showed that a fatal 
mistake had been made by its omission. 

Lord Elgin left China, and the Secretary of Legation, 
his brother, Mr. Bruce, was left in charge as Plenipo- 
tentiary, to exchange the ratifications of the treaties, 
and to claim his admission to Pekin. He proceeded to 

B B 


the mouth of the Pei-ho in 1859, and to his surprise 
found the forts rebuilt and fully garrisoned, and the 
bed of the river obstructed by piles and rafts. On his 
remonstrating that the entrance of the river was closed, 
he was told that he must go by another route, — the 
Peh-tang river, — which he very properly refused to do, 
as the only river route to the capital was known to be 
by the Pei-ho. Admiral Hope then proceeded to clear 
the river of its obstructions, when the Chinese fired on 
the steamers engaged in this service. The ships re- 
turned the fire of the forts, the action became general, 
and our fleet was compelled, after suffering severe loss, 
to retire from the contest considerably crippled and 
disabled ; and had it not been for the gallantry and 
courage displayed by the admiral and his officers, the 
force could not have been taken out of action at all. 

Last year, 18G0, Lord Elgin was agahi sent to China, 
to demand an apology for the attack on the fleet by the 
Ta-ku forts, and to insist on the ratification of the 
treaty of Tien-tsin. He arrived at the mouth of the 
Pei-ho with a large force, in conjunction with Baron 
Gros, who had also returned to China. The first step 
taken was the capture of the Peh-tang and Ta-ku forts, 
the latter of which had caused the disaster of the pre- 
vious year. This was effected in a masterly manner, and 
the force marched on to Tien-tsin, thirty miles from the 
mouth of the river. The Chinese government instantly 
sent commissioners to effect a compromise, and promises 
were made that every demand should at once be granted 
if hostilities were stopped. It was supposed that this 
evinced a sincere desire for peace ; but after some nego- 
tiation, first one obstacle was made and then another 


until it appeared that the only object was to gain time 
by false offers of accommodation. 

Whereupon the march was made towards Pekin. This 
quickened the proceedings of the Chinese government, 
and when the force arrived within a short distance of 
Tung-chau, which is about sixty miles from Tien-tsin 
and twelve or fourteen mile3 from Pekin, promises were 
again made, that every demand should be granted, and 
arrangements were entered into for the convention pre- 
liminary to the treaty. As the army was not to retire 
till the treaty was signed, proposals were made as to the 
place of encampment, and a request was sent that 
English and French officers should go to Tung-chau to 
make the needful arrangements. There can be no doubt 
that this was a treacherous plot, entered upon partly with 
the hope of entrapping Lord Elgin and Baron Gros, 
the folly of the Chinese leading them to suppose that 
personal possession of them would bring the war to an 
end, without any concessions being made. In the Chi- 
nese historical novel, the San-kwoh-che or History of the 
Three States, such plots are often related in which the 
hostile generals and high officers are thus deluded into 
skilfully laid traps. 

Mr. Parkes, and his companions, civil and military, 
with a few soldiers, proceeded to Tung-chau, where the 
convention was finally agreed upon ; and after remaining 
at that place one night, officers were sent to conduct 
the party to the proposed camping ground, which how- 
ever was unexpectedly found to be occupied by the 
Tartar army. Mr. Parkes went to remonstrate with the 
commissioners on this point, fearing that some mistake 
had been made, for, as he had settled the terms of 

BB 2 


peace only the night before, he could not but suppose 
the Chinese government really wished for peace. He was, 
however, rudely treated by the commissioners, and find- 
ing that the hopes of peace were futile, he and his com- 
panions endeavoured, under the protection of their flag 
of truce, to regain the allied camps ; which however it was 
found impossible to accomplish, as they were stopped by 
a Chinese force. When Mr. Parkes and Mr. Loch ap- 
plied to the commander in chief, Sang-ko-lin-sin, for a 
pass, they were seized and put into confinement. Then 
followed the binding with cords, loading with chains, 
imprisonment with felons, threats of decapitation, and 
other cruelties. Finally, after twenty-one long days had 
passed away, when the Chinese found that the army 
was close to the walls of Pekin, these two prisoners 
were set at liberty, with a French officer, two Indian 
soldiers, and four French soldiers and only then it 
was ascertained, to the horror of all, that all the English 
and French officers and gentlemen, and many of the 
privates, had died under the cruel treatment of the Chi- 
nese, who had allowed them to die one by one in the 
most distressing manner. 

Of Mr. Parkes' conduct while in captivity Lord Elgin, 
in one of his despatches, thus writes : — " Mr. Parkes' 
consistent refusal to purchase his own safety by making 
any pledges or even by addressing to me any represen- 
tations which might have embarrassed me in the dis- 
charge of my duty, is a rare example of courage and 
devotion to the public interest ; and the course which he 
followed in this respect, by leaving my hands free, en- 
abled me to work out the policy which was best calcu- 
lated to secure his own release, as well as the attain- 


nient of the national objects intrusted to my care." But 
it may well be asked, why were twenty-one days allowed 
to elapse before the prisoners were returned ? 

It was not until the army approached the walls of the 
capital and the palace of Yuen-ming-yuen had been 
seized, that any of the party were sent to the allied 
camp. The army waited till siege guns were brought 
to the front, and the French soldiers were also brought 
from Tien-tsin, before the advance was made ; but 
surely the force that had defeated Sang-ko-lin-sin's army 
at Chang-kia-wan and Pa-li-chau could have proceeded 
to and taken Pekin. Had stern demands for instant resto- 
ration of the prisoners been seconded by continued ad- 
vance of the army, long acquaintance with the Chinese 
and their official policy leads us to the conviction, that 
all the prisoners would have been set at liberty, nor 
any of them have died by inches from the savage 
cruelty of their captors. It is true that it was believed 
the whole party were in safety and well treated, but it 
is noticeable that this account came only from the Chi- 
nese officers, no communication of any kind having 
been received from the prisoners till nearly the time of 
their release. 

It is with regret we read that day after day passed 
by in the interchange of letters and communications, 
the hollo wness of which on the Chinese side is painfully 
evident, without any decisive step being taken to force 
the Chinese to return the prisoners. Had this been 
done, the sad tale of anguish and woe brought to camp 
had not, we think, been told to harrow the feelings of 
all who heard it ; and, instead of the merciful deliver- 
ance from death of only Messrs. Parkes and Loch, the 

B B 3 


whole party had been restored to their friends in as 
many hours as were the days painfully numbered by 
the unhappy captives. 

On its being known that such cruelty had been 
inflicted on the victims of this treachery, and that the 
remaining captives were not given up, immediate steps 
were taken for the capture of Pekin, and finally one 
of the gates was surrendered to the allies. The city 
thus lay at the mercy of its captors without any further 
hostilities. The palace of Yuen-ming-yuen was burned 
and destroyed by the English general on the 16 th of 
October, as a punishment to the government for the 
perfidious cruelty towards the prisoners, and more 
especially as it was in that place that the barbarous 
treatment towards them commenced. This was one of 
the last acts of the expedition. It was wholly war- 
ranted by the occasion, and signally marks the indig- 
nation of the army against those who entrapped persons 
into their hands, and then cruelly tortured them to 
death. A money compensation was also demanded, 
on account both of the survivors and the relatives of 
those who had died. 

The Chinese commissioners were doubtless in great 
fear when they found that the army was marching on 
Pekin, and that so many of the prisoners had died. 
Hence, in part, the hesitation and delay exhibited in 
the letters to Lord Elgin, and the so often expressed 
wish to Mr. Partes that peace should be signed, and 
the army depart before his surrender. Sanguinary and 
unsparing in their own revengeful acts, they could not 
but have a premonition that retribution would be dealt 
out to them as soon as the truth was known. 


During the negotiation at Tung-chau, on the 17th of 
September, and also while Mr. Parkes was a prisoner, 
the question of Lord Elgin's audience with the emperor, 
for the purpose of presenting the Queen's letter was 
discussed, and the ostensible reason given by Sang-ko- 
lin-sin for the renewal of hostilities, was, that this point, 
which had been left unsettled, would still be insisted 
upon by Lord Elgin. The persistence with which this 
question was pressed, showed that the Chinese attach 
great importance to this audience ; and until it is granted 
they will continue to hold the traditionary idea that 
prevails with them, that we are only rebellious vassals, 
not an independent people. It is true Lord Macartney 
was admitted to an audience, but through the trickery 
of the Chinese, he appeared only in the character of a 
tribute bearer ; whereas, if Lord Elgin were allowed 
that honour, it would be a concession that the 
emperor of China is not ruler over the whole world, 
but that there are other imperial sovereigns as well as 
himself. Hence the importance that attaches to this 
point ; and there can be little doubt that no peace 
between the Chinese and ourselves will be binding till 
the said audience is granted. The emperor, when he 
chooses so to do, can disavow the treaty and say that he 
never gave so great powers to his officers as to sign 
such a document, and nothing but the audience can fix 
on him the direct responsibility of the treaty conditions. 

On the 24th October the convention was signed by 
Lord Elgin and the Prince of Kung, the Chinese 
plenipotentiary, and the ratifications of the treaty of 
Tien-tsin, of 1858, were exchanged. All the condi- 
tions of the treaty and convention were to take imme- 

B B 4 


cliate effect, and arrangements were made for the return 
march of the army to Tien-tsin, where a part of the 
force is wintering ; that and other places to be gar- 
risoned by British troops till the indemnity of eight 
millions of taels be paid. 

In this convention nothing is said of the audience 
with the emperor, and as Lord Elgin had left Pekin, it 
is presumed that no such important ceremony had taken 
place. There is no doubt that this is a very grave 
error, indeed, a fatal mistake. It was the chief point 
of the whole expedition, and the non-mlnlment of this 
intention on Lord Elgin's part will, we fear, be found 
fraught with much future mischief. When the army 
was in position before the capital, and had power to 
enforce all just demands, was the time when this so oft 
contested question should have been set at rest for all 
time, by the fact that a fully accredited foreign ambassa- 
dor had been received to an audience with his imperial 
majesty, the Emperor of China, without being called 
upon to degrade himself by the slavish prostrations 
that are required from all others who approach the 
dragon throne, in token of their submission and fealty 
to the Chinese ruler. The question of the Kau-tau, or 
nine prostrations, has often been discussed, and it is said 
by some to be merely an act of politeness towards the 
sovereign ; but it is not this ; it is a direct recognition 
of inferiority and submission. Of course the Chinese 
government can require it from its own subjects, but 
for a European officer to perform this ceremony is 
degrading to himself and to the sovereign he repre- 
sents, and can, on no account, be yielded to. 

Had Lord Elgin even perilled the treaty, or the 


making of peace, it had been better, under any cir- 
cumstances, than thus to depart without the audience, 
so often discussed, and yet never obtained. How much 
more when accident, say rather providence, had so 
situated him, that the just desire of retribution might 
have exacted this bloodless sacrifice of an antiquated 
prestige, as part atonement for as bloody and treache- 
rous an action as ever soiled the annals of history. In 
the absence of further information, it is impossible to 
say why this subject was ignored. Probably Lord 
Elgin was not required by his orders from the Home 
Government to insist on this point. If so, it is very 
lamentable that the question should be so little under- 
stood by our statesmen. 

Another reason may have been that the cold weather 
was approaching, and that time did not allow of further 
negotiation ; and thus delays of the Chinese again effected 
the object they ever have in view when treating with 
us, endeavouring to baffle us by negotiation, till the 
time of action has passed away. 

From whatever causes, it is plain that no audience 
has been granted, and the chief difficulty in all our 
relations with the Chinese Government remains as 
insurmountable as ever. We have obtained the boon 
of free access to the interior of China, but the boon 
would have been far greater, and the benefits of it 
more easily realised, had the direct responsibility of the 
emperor been obtained for the treaty, and the equality 
of Her Majesty Queen Victoria with His Imperial Majesty 
Hien-fung been acknowledged, as would have been the 
case had our ambassador paid his respects to the latter 
without the degrading prostrations ; not in the capa- 


city of a tribute bearer, but as the representative of a 
great and independent sovereign. 

Among the subjects of great interest, as affecting the 
destinies of the Chinese empire, that of the present 
rebellion cannot be passed over. It arose in the pro- 
vince of Kwang-si, in consequence of persecution 
against a young man named Hung-sew-tseuen for a 
profession of Christianity. He had been brought to a 
knowledge of the Gospel, in the first place, from 
receiving a Christian tract from Leang-Afah, Dr. Morri- 
son's Chinese evangelist ; afterwards he appears to have 
had intercourse with one or more missionaries, and to 
have obtained a copy of the Chinese version of the Old 
and New Testaments. He and others like minded with 
him were, in consequence of this profession, driven 
away from their native place. After much persecution 
they attacked and defeated the soldiers sent against them, 
took a small city, and obtained a quantity of arms and 
ammunition. Many persons joined them ; an army was 
organised, having for its object the restoration of a 
native Chinese dynasty ; this army, in the course of a 
few years, swept through the country, and after many 
battles and much success, the chief established himself 
in the captured city of Nanking, the capital of the 
native Chinese emperors. 

The chief professed to assume the right of destroy- 
ing the Tartar ruler of China, because he had, in 
vision, received from God a seal as his commission to 
do this, on account of the idolatry upheld and prac- 
tised by the present rulers ; and also a sword, as a 
sign that he should carry this out by war. 

The capture of Nanking took place in 1853, and, 


shortly afterwards, Sir G. Bonharn went in H. M. S. 
" Hermes" up the Yang-tsze-kiang to see what was the 
character of these men in arms against the govern- 
ment. Much information was obtained, showing that 
the rebels were in great force, were determined to 
extirpate the Tartars, and establish themselves in their 
place, professing to rule their future kingdom accord- 
ing to the dictates of God's word. There appeared to 
be a certain amount of nominal Christianity among 
these rebels, and though the chief advocated and 
practised polygamy, he declared in his writings that he 
worshipped God, and wished the Bible to be the ride 
of conduct among his followers. Idolatry was put 
down, no idols were permitted in the army, portions of 
the Bible were printed and distributed, the Sabbath 
was observed, and public worship maintained. Not- 
withstanding all this, fearful cruelty was shown to- 
wards all prisoners of war, much of superstition and 
heresy was mixed with them confession of faith, and 
robbery and plunder were constant accompaniments 
of their progress. Occasional visits were after- 
wards paid to Nanking, but little further information 
was obtained as to the state of Christianity among the 
rebels. Meanwhile the imperial army attacked them 
again and again, but was as often defeated, and though 
the siege of Nanking by the imperialists was continued 
year after year, the rebel army could not be dislodged. 
An expedition had been sent to the north of 40,000 
men to seize Pekin, but this was not effected ; the 
Tartar army attacked them on the way, and the 
slaughter that was dealt out to them, and the famine 
they suffered from, reduced their force to 5000 men, 


who had the greatest difficulty in effecting a retreat to 
Nanking. This loss, and the troubles consequent on a 
dissension among the rebel leaders, which did not end 
without frightful bloodshed, prevented the rebellion 
advancing for some years. During last year, 1860, 
however, they burst through the imperial army, which 
they effectually dispersed, and took the rich and im- 
portant city of Su-chau, eighty miles from Shanghai, 
also threatening to come and seize Shanghai from the 
imperialists. There can be no doubt that if the rebels 
had taken Shanghai at this juncture, they would have 
been very unpleasant neighbours to the Europeans in 
the foreign settlement, owing to the uncertainty of 
their movements, and the contests that would have 
been inevitable between them and the imperialists. 
Measures of defence were taken by the English and 
French ministers resident at Shanghai, and this defence 
was not only for the protection of the foreign settle- 
ment, but included the Chinese city also. 

There can be little doubt that had Mr. Bruce at 
this time taken more decided measures than he did to 
inform the rebels of his intentions, and of his reasons 
for holding the city, and had the position of foreigners 
been fully explained, the attack on Shanghai would, in 
all probability, not have taken place. Thus ill feeling 
on the part of the rebels towards foreigners would not 
have been aroused, and those who professed to be 
friendly not made hostile to us. For, however lightly 
some may esteem the rebels, there is no question as to 
their force, and to their possessing great power for 
good or evil. 

The rebels, being repulsed from Shanghai, did not 


renew the attack, but went off in other directions. 
For the present they occupy Su-chau. There is no 
imperial army in the field that can drive them away 
from the neighbourhood, and they take any of the 
cities in the plain just as they choose. 

One chief reason of the want of success by the rebels 
in winning the confidence of the people is that they 
appear to have no power of organisation among them. 
They take cities and plunder them, but do not institute 
any government ; when they see fit they leave, and go 
to another place, which they treat in the same manner. 
Thus the whole country is devastated, and no progress 
is made towards establishing their rule. Great as is 
the army of the insurgents, and victorious as it usually 
is when it meets the imperial army, this absence of 
organisation is the weak point of the movement, and 
throws doubt on its final success. The people are 
decidedly hostile to the rebellion, and after years of 
bloodshed and robbery, the whole of the district that 
has been occupied by them is left waste and desolate. 

What is to be the end of the rebellion, and what its 
influence on the future of China, remains to be seen, 
and no one would be presumptuous enough to prophesy; 
but it is clear that the Tai-ping dynasty will never be 
popular in the land until its adherents begin to organise 
a system of rule in the cities they occupy. 

As to our policy respecting these insurgents, it is 
manifest that absolute neutrality ought to be observed. 
We ought not to oppose them, or to help them, and 
the time to recognise them as a government in China 
has not come ; they are rebels in arms against the impe- 
rial government, and must be left to fight out their 


quarrel as they can ; it will be time enough to recog- 
nise them when they become the ipso facto rulers of 
the whole or of a moiety of the empire. So large is 
their army, and so wide-spread the movement, that any 
European forces we might bring against them would, 
we think, have little effect towards subduing them and 
thus trampling out the rebellion; as no such force 
could pursue an advantage into the interior of the 

Besides this Tai-ping rebellion and several minor 
local disturbances, there is said to be an organised in- 
surrection in the province of Shan-si, which is directed 
by many influential Chinese. 

This province is not far from Pekin, and if the 
movement assume any great importance, which from 
the latest accounts it would appear to be gradually 
doing, the Tartar government will be much affected. 
These rebellions not only prevent the raising of revenue 
from the disturbed districts, but also cause an enormous 
outlay in the equipment of the troops sent to subdue 
them. What with foreign war and hiternal rebellion, 
the finances of the empire must be in a deplorable 
state ; and should these troubles last for any great length 
of time, they will seriously injure the hold that the 
imperial government has hitherto maintained over the 
minds of the people. 




In the accounts of the hospitals there are many ob- 
servations on the practice of opium smoking by the 
Chinese, but it is desirable to enter more fully on this 
important subject, and even to recapitulate some pre- 
vious statements in Eeports of the Hospitals. 

It is the custom of Chinese physicians to pre- 
scribe the use of the opium-pipe in cases of obsti- 
nate ague and rheumatism, and no doubt this is use- 
ful in alleviating distress and pain for a time ; it also 
breaks up the periodicity of ague, but the patient, 
though relieved of these diseases, is left dependent on 
opium probably for the rest of his life, so that the cure 
is worse than the disease, and in many cases the first 
incitement to the use of the drug arose from its being 
recommended as a palliative for the relief of pain or 
distress of some kind or other, and the habit once ac- 
quired it has been almost impossible to discontinue. 
The first thing to be done for the cure of opium 
smoking is to insist on the discontinuance of the opium- 
pipe altogether, supplying its place by opium and 
camphor in pills, giving at the same time astringents, 
as pomegranate-skin powder, to check the diarrhoea 
that always follows the abandonment of the pipe. 
Tonics are also given, such as infusion of quassia, with 


bitter tincture of any kind, and any of the essential 
aromatic oils or camphor mixture. Other stimulants 
are also given as required, generous diet is recommended 
to the patient, and after continuing the opium pills for 
a few days, the pains in the bowels and limbs pass off, 
and the opium in the pills is reduced in quantity till it 
is left out altogether, when the tonic is given alone till 
the cure is complete. 

Several thousand cases of opium smokers were at- 
tended to at the hospital at Shanghai ; great numbers 
of these were relieved, and enabled to give up the use 
of the drug. The people themselves have an idea that 
they cannot be cured of opium smoking, and that they 
will die if they break off the use of the pipe. When 
they saw many persons who did give it up during their 
attendance at the hospital, they acquired confidence in 
the means used, and this helped largely in the cure, and 
added greatly to the reputation of the establishment. 

In the year 1849 great numbers of patients sought 
rehef from the habitual use of opium, when they found 
that many of their friends had been cured. Many 
of these applicants had not resolution of purpose 
sufficient to carry them through the process of treat- 
ment, and relapsed into the use of the drug, but, on the 
other hand, a large proportion of them persevered, and 
wholly broke off the pernicious habit which had en- 
slaved them. Among these was a young man, the son 
of an officer at Hang-chau, and himself a candidate for 
office. He applied at the hospital, and said he wished 
to stay there till he got well. He had, according to his 
own account, been in the habit of using eight drams of 
the drug daily ; his health was consequently very much 
injured by this excessive use of the pipe ; he was wholly 


unable to fulfil the duties of his station, and thus all 
prospect of his advancement was closed to him while 
he remained in this state. He steadily prosecuted 
the plan prescribed for him, and in six weeks left 
Shanghai much improved in health, and able to live 
without usmg the drug at all. His chief fear in 
leaving was, lest he should be attacked with ague on 
his return to Hang-chau, and then he did not know 
what he should do without the opium pipe. Quinine 
medicine was given him, and he was encouraged to 
resist his tendency to return to his former habit, which 
he promised to da On his departure he begged to be 
allowed to place a tablet in the hall of the hospital, 
expressive of his gratitude for the benefit he had re- 
ceived. He afterwards wrote saying that he was well, 
and able to resume his studies, and also sent some of 
his friends to be relieved as he had been. 

In the year 1855, the late Eev. Dr. Medhurst issued 
a short paper on the opium trade, accompanied by 
tables showing the results of the trade. 

The paper was drawn up partly by Dr. Medhurst 
and partly by the present writer. It is full of impor- 
tant matter, and though it has already appeared hi the 
Blue Book or Parliamentary Papers, it has not been 
much circulated, and it is thought well to introduce 
large extracts from it here. 

" In the ; China Mail ' for January of last year (1854) 
the total deliveries in China are stated to be 40,000 
chests from Bengal, and 27,000 from Bombay. In a sub- 
sequent number of the same journal, we find, as given 
in the preceding table, 53,000 chests exported from 
Bengal, leaving 13,000 chests from that port to be 

c c 


accounted for as consumed somewhere out of China. 
Perhaps we should not be far wrong in coming to the 
conclusion that 12,000 or 13,000 chests have been for 
several years past taken up by the Ultra-Gangetic 
nations, exclusive of China ; and from 5000 to 8000 
annually for the twenty years preceding 1850. 

" As to the probable number of smokers we have 
only approximate calculations. limes, writing on the 
subject in December 1836, supposed that a tael, or an 
ounce a day, is the proper allowance for a confirmed 
opium smoker. A writer in the ' Eepository,' for Oc- 
tober 1837, gives only 3 candareens, or 17^ grains a 
day for a moderate smoker. Both estimates seem to 
be in error, the one being excessive and the other de- 
fective. On inquiry of the Chinese in Shanghai, in the 
present day, the invariable answer is a mace or a dram 
a day for moderate smokers, adding that there are few 
who confine themselves to this amount ; the most of 
them consuming two, three, and five mace a day in 
order to keep up the stimulus once excited by a single 
mace. Let not any suppose that the common people 
and the labouring classes could not afford to use so 
much of so valuable a drug. It is horribly cheap. The 
last quotation in the Shanghai price current, was for 
Patna and Benares, $360 ; and for Malwa, $420. 
Taking the average at o400 the chest, as each chest 
contains 70 catties of smokable extract, the price for a 
mace or dram would only be 64 cash. It is actually 
sold in the retail opium shops at 90 cash per mace 
or drachm. This is only half the wages of a labouring 
man, which he might easily expend in the way above 
described, and leave enough for food and clothing 


Thus it is not beyond the means of the daily labourer 
to procure and consume a mace a day. The mercan- 
tile and literary classes can afford and do consume 
much more, and some even gratify themselves with a 
tael. These do not generally go to the retail shops, 
but buy the opium by the ball, and prepare it them- 
selves, in which case it does not cost them more than 
70 cash per mace. 

" An objection may be brought by some that such 
a quantity of the narcotic would kill them at once, and 
therefore they could not take it ; to which it will be 
sufficient to reply, that it does not. A medical man, 
who has had much to do with opium-smokers and is 
well acquainted with the quantity each consumes, and 
the effect produced upon his system, says that if a man 
uses only a drachm a day, it does his general health 
little injury. Confirmed inveterate pale-skinned smokers 
use two, three, four, and even six or eight mace a 

" Persons only acquainted with the effects of opium 
in Europe, would still stand aghast at the statement 
that a Chinaman will consume half an ounce a day 
without killing him. But it must be remembered 
that the Chinese only smoke it, they do not swallow 
it. One mace mixed up with ardent spirits and taken 
into the stomach would be sufficient to poison a man 
at once, and many do poison themselves in this 
way. But passing, as it does, by means of the pipe 
through the lungs, its poisonous qualities are greatly 

" The smokable extract above spoken of does not 
amount to one half of the bulk of the opium. From a 

c c 2 


careful experiment made it appears that 1 catty or 
16 taels, yields of extract 7 taels, 8 mace, 8 candareens, 
being a reduction of 51 per cent. A chest of Patna, 
therefore, weighing 140 lbs. gives only 70 lbs. of ex- 
tract. This is a very extravagant mode of using the 
opium, but it is the method the Chinese have adopted, 
and its awful cheapness enables them to throw away 
more than half the narcotic power of the drug, and to 
use the other in such a way that the results upon the 
system are only one tenth of what it would be if taken 
inwardly, as the people in Turkey, and unhappily some 
in Europe do. 

" Assuming the proportion of a mace a day as the 
average amount of daily consumption of each person to 
be correct, we can easily arrive at the number of 
smokers throughout the empire. Proceeding upon the 
statement of the ' China Mail ' that 67,000 chests were 
delivered in China last year, and that each chest con- 
tains 70 catties of smokable extract, allowing to each 
smoker one mace per day, we have little more than 
two million smokers for the whole empire. Some con- 
tend that a large quantity of opium is grown in China : 
Mr. Fortune saw the poppy growing for the purpose 
of obtaining the inspissated juice. Neither he, how- 
ever, nor any other man can teU how much is actually 
grown. Supposing it even to be one half of the amount 
imported, it would then raise the amount of smokers 
to somewhere about three millions, about one per cent. 
of the population. For this addition, however, the 
Chinese themselves are responsible. Foreigners have 
nothing to do with it, except hi as far as they gave 
them the appetite for the drug, and led them to supply 


their own wants at a cheaper or more convenient rate 
than they could do by procuring it from abroad. 

" Eegarding the physical evils of opium, much has 
been said to the purpose in some instances, and beyond 
the mark in others. The writer is obliged to a medical 
friend for the few remarks which follow. 

" ' The preparation of the drug may be briefly 
noticed as consisting in several decoctions of the raw 
material, which are strained, and the clear liquor 
evaporated, until the resulting extract is of a proper 
spissitude, about that of thick treacle. 

" ' The person who is about to smoke reclines on a 
couch, resting his head on a pillow ; with one hand he 
holds the pipe, taking the mouth -piece between his lips; 
with the other hand he takes up a small portion of the 
extract, and applies it to the little nozzle on the pipe's 
head with a pointed steel wire or long needle, at the 
same time holding the nozzle directly over the flame of 
a lamp, making a deep inspiration, so that the fumes 
of the drug pass into the lungs. This is said to be un- 
pleasant to those who first use the pipe, but they soon 
get over it. The fumes after being retained for a short 
time are allowed to pass away by the mouth and 
nostrils. Another application of the extract is then 
made as before, which is continued for a longer or 
shorter time, according to the effect wished to be pro- 

" ' When a smoker first commences the use of 
opium, as has been noticed above, it is a pleasant and 
refresliing stimulant ; an artificial vigour and tone are 
given to the system, followed by a corresponding re- 
laxation and listlessness ; after which an effort is made 

c c 3 


to remove the latter by a return to the pipe. This 
stage in the smoker's progress may be prolonged for 
some years without the health being interfered with ; 
but he soon becomes a victim to the habit thus formed, 
which cannot easily be shaken off ; the strength, how- 
ever, is not impaired, and attention can be paid to 
business as usual, indeed the stimulus of the* drug 
enables him to enter with vivacity upon any pursuit 
in which he may be engaged. At this time a little 
decision would enable him to throw off the habit, but 
this is seldom called for, and the smoker continues to 
use his pipe, thus accustoming himself more and more 
to dependence on his much-loved indulgence. By and 
by retribution comes ; he cannot live comfortably with- 
out the stimulant ; all the pleasure has gone, but he 
must obtain relief from the pain of body and dissipa- 
tion of mind which follow the absence of the drug; at 
any cost, the quantity of the drug called for being from 
time to time greater, and its use more frequent. 

" ' Among the symptoms that present themselves 
are griping pains in the bowels, pain in the limbs, loss 
of appetite, so that the smoker can only eat dainty 
food ; disturbed sleep, and general emaciation. The 
outward appearances are sallowness of the complexion, 
bloodless cheeks and lips, sunken eye, with a dark 
circle round the eyelids, and altogether a haggard 
countenance. There is a peculiar appearance of the 
face of a smoker, not noticed in any other condition ; 
the skin assumes a pale waxy appearance, and as if all 
the fat were removed from beneath the skin. The 
hollows of the countenance, the eyelids, root of the 
ala nasi, fissure and corners of lips, depression at the 


angle of the jaw, temples, &c., take on a peculiar dark 
appearance, not like that resulting from various chronic 
diseases, but as if some dark matter were deposited 
beneath the skin. There is also a fullness and pro- 
trusion of the lips, arising perhaps from the continued 
use of the large mouth-piece peculiar to the opium- 
pipe. ' In fine a confirmed opium-smoker presents a 
most melancholy appearance, haggard, dejected, with a 
lack-lustre eye, and a slovenly, weakly, and feeble gait. 

" ' Day by day, and year by year, the practice of 
opium smoking prevails more and more among this 
people, and by and by it will doubtless have a power- 
ful effect on the destinies of the country. It is said 
that the late emperor used the drug ; it is certain that 
most of the government officers do, and their innu- 
merable attendants are in the same category. Opium 
is used as a luxury by all classes, and to a great extent ; 
indeed so great that it cannot fail to exhibit its effects 
speedily upon the mass of the inhabitants. 

" ' In rich families, even if the head of the house 
does not use the drug, the sons soon learn to use it, 
and almost all are exposed to the temptation of em- 
ploying it, as many of their friends and acquaintances 
are in the habit of smoking, and it is considered a 
mark of politeness to offer the pipe to a friend or 
visitor. Many persons fly to the use of the pipe when 
they get into trouble, and when they are afflicted with 
chronic or painful diseases, sleeplessness, &c. Several 
persons who have been attended for malignant tumours 
were made victims of the drug, by the use of it to 
appease the pain and distress they had to endure. The 
beggars are to a great extent under its influence, but 

c c 4 


they use the dregs and scrapings only of the half-con- 
sumed drug, which is removed from the pipe-head when 
it is cleaned. 

" ' But the most common cause of the Chinese re- 
sorting to the use of the opium-pipe is their not know- 
ing how to employ their leisure hours. When the 
business of the day is over, there is no periodical 
literature to engage their attention, their families do 
not present sufficient attractions to keep them at home ; 
and sauntering about of an evening, with nothing to 
employ the mind, they are easily tempted into the 
opium shops, where one acquaintance or another is 
sure to be found who invites to the use of the drug. 

" ' As the use of the pipe grows upon a person, a 
great change is effected in its relation to the smoker ; 
he originally took it to produce pleasure ; he has now 
to take it to give freedom from pain, and soothe the 
series of evils consequent on the habit he has acquired. 
Till he has had his pipe in the morning, he is listless 
and uncomfortable, cares not for eating, nor indeed for 
his ordinary business or occupation ; and feels unlike 
himself till he has had his smoke. 

" ' There is perhaps no form of intemperance more 
seducing than the use of opium, nor is there any more 
difficult to be delivered from. To acquire a full ac- 
quaintance with the effects of the agent, the conse- 
quences of which are now being discussed, it is neces- 
sary to view it under two forms : 1st, As to its incipient 
effects, in the stage of exhilaration, while the individual 
is in good health, and the powers of life are in full 
vigour ; at this time the drug is a means of enjoyment. 
2dly, As to the effects produced by the drug when it is 


employed as a means of relief from the distress and 
pain resulting from the long-continued use of such a 
stimulant. This may be called the stage of depression ; 
in this condition the individual soon becomes a martyr 
to his former vices, and bitterly repents of his having 
submitted to the temptation. 

" ' When the pipe is first taken, during the incipient 
stage, a few grains are sufficient to produce the full 
effect. This small quantity requires to be gradually 
increased to produce a given result ; the times of using 
it must become more frequent, until the victim is soon 
compelled to use one drachm or sixty grains in the 
course of twenty-four hours. This quantity per day 
will supply the smoker for some years, but it has at 
last to be augmented till two, three, four, and even five 
drachms are daily consumed. This may be denomi- 
nated the second stage.' 

" Some are said to use ten drachms daily, but these are 
only the superior classes, who have no need to attend 
to any busmess or occupation, and can spend almost 
their whole time in intoxicating themselves with the 
use of the drug, or in recovering from its effects. The 
life of such persons is not prolonged, and the many 
complaints arising from the excessive indulgence soon 
put an end to their useless existence. 

" Besides the cases of death arising from the excessive 
use of opium among the higher classes, who can afford 
to gorge themselves with their stimulant till they die, 
there are many more unhappy dissolutions arising from 
the inability to procure the accustomed, and to them 
necessary quantity. In the case of those who are in 
middling circumstances and get inured to the habit, 


the enervating effects are such that they become after a 
time unable to attend to their ordinary avocations. 
They then lose their situations, or their business fails, 
and they are reduced to necessity. Gradually they 
part with their little property, furniture, clothes, &c, 
until they come to the level of the labouring poor, with- 
out those energetic habits which might otherwise form 
the ground of support. Among the lower classes, 
those who indulge in the use of opium are reduced to 
abject poverty sooner than the preceding. Having no 
property, furniture, or clothes to dispose of, their wives 
and children are sold to supply their ever-increasing 
appetite for the drug, and when these are gone, with 
greatly diminished strength for labour, they can no 
longer earn sufficient for their own wants, and are 
obliged to beg for their daily bread. As to the supply 
of opium, they must depend, as above stated, on the 
scrapings of other men's pipes ; and as soon as they 
are unable by begging to obtain the necessaries of life, 
together with the half-burnt opium on which their 
very life depends, they droop and die by the roadside, 
and are buried at the expense of the charitable. 

" The writer once knew two respectable young men, 
the sons of an officer of high rank, who died in this 
part of the country. They were both well-informed 
men, had received a finished education, were evi- 
dently accustomed to good society, and excited con- 
siderable interest in the minds of those with whom 
they came in contact. But they were opium-smokers ; 
so inveterate was the habit, and so large the quantity 
necessary to keep up the stimulant, that their available 
funds were exhausted during their stay in this city. 


Friends assisted them to some extent, and relieved their 
necessities again and again ; but it was impossible to 
give them bread and opium too, and they subsequently- 
died one after the other, in the most abject and desti- 
tute condition. 

" Whilst these notes were preparing, the writer had 
occasion to go into the city, and just inside the north 
gate, in front of a temple, he saw one of such destitute 
persons, unable to procure either food or the drug, 
lying at the last gasp ; there were two or three others 
with drooping heads sitting near, who looked as if they 
would soon be prostrated too. The next day the writer 
passed and found the first of the group dead and stiff, 
with a coarse mat wound round his body for a shroud. 
The rest were now lying down unable to rise. The 
third day another was dead, and the remainder almost 
near it. Help was vain, and pity for their wretched 
condition the only feeling that could be indulged. 

" It is impossible to say what is the number of such 
victims, either among the higher or lower classes. An 
American missionary who lately visited England is re- 
ported to have stated that ' the smokers of the contra- 
band article have increased from eight to fifteen millions, 
yielding an annual death-harvest of more than a 

" Such statements do great harm, they produce a 
fictitious and groundless excitement in the mind of the 
religious and philanthropic public at home, while they 
steel, against all reasonable and moderate representa- 
tions, the minds of the political and mercantile body 
abroad. The estimate given has not even the semblance 
of truth, it is an outrageous exaggeration. The writer 


lias ventured an opinion on the number of smokers, 
but he would not even hazard a conjecture as to the 
' annual death -harvest.' Every man must judge for 
himself in this matter. 

"As to the moral evils arising from indulgence in 
opium, they are very patent. It blunts the moral sense, 
causes good men to waver in virtue, and makes 
bad men worse. Even Coleridge, with all his fine 
sensibilities and acquaintance with religious truth, was 
tempted to prevaricate and deceive in order to con- 
ceal his indulgence in the habit, and elude the vigilance 
of those who were engaged in watching him. How 
much more then may we expect a lying nation like the 
Chinese to he so much the more in their attempts to 
conceal their vices from the eyes of observers. So 
invariably is it the practice of Chinese opium-smokers 
to deny their having any connection with the drug, that 
it is never advisable to ask them any questions about 
it, lest one shoidd induce them to tell unnecessary un- 
truths. No confidence can be placed in the religious 
profession of an opium-smoker, unless he abandon the 
vice, and even then the missionary should have very 
good evidence of his having done so before admitting 
him into connection with the church. Not only is the 
moral sense weakened in opium-smokers, but the habits 
they have acquired naturally and necessarily lead them 
into associations where they are directly tempted to the 
most profligate vices. A man accustomed to the use 
of the drug, therefore, soon becomes worse in other 
respects, and having commenced the downward career, 
every step in the rake's progress is more and more de- 
teriorating. Opium smoking is thus the parent of 


numerous evils, which are not originally chargeable 
upon it. When unable to procure the drug by honest 
means, such is the craving for it among its slaves, 
that fraud, peculation, and theft are resorted to in order 
to obtain it ; insomuch that the Chinese themselves 
are in the habit of withdrawing their confidence from 
those addicted to the vile habit, unless they have other 
methods of tying them down to honesty. 

" But it is unnecessary to pursue the theme further. 
All the evils usually springing from drunkenness by 
means of alcohol are to be met with among opium- 
smokers, except the uproariousness common to those in 
a state of liquor. 

" A few words relative to the remedy which may be 
applied in order to check or repress the evil complained 
of, and we have done. 

" In the first place, all exaggerated and one-sided 
statements should be avoided. The American mis- 
sionary, whose late speech we have already alluded to, 
is reported to have said, ' This traffic is staining the 
British name in China with the deepest disgrace, as 
some of the subjects of Great Britain continue to carry 
on an armed contraband trade in a destructive poison, 
enriching themselves by merchandising that which im- 
poverishes and murders the poor infatuated and be- 
sotted Chinese.' Now that missionary knew, or ought 
to have known, that American citizens are frilly as 
much implicated in this affair, in China, as the subjects 
of Great Britain. There are individual exceptions 
among the merchants of both nations, but on the 
whole, both English and American houses in China 
trade in the drug each to the full extent of their means. 


The speaker ought also to have known, that the arming 
of the vessels engaged in the opium traffic is simply 
for their own protection, and all little enough to defend 
themselves against the rapacious west-country pirates, 
who have of late years infested this coast. As it is 
told in England, it leads to the conclusion, that the 
opium vessels are armed for the purpose of resisting 
the revenue-officers of China, than which no idea could 
be more erroneous. 

" But the missionary may ask, Are we to do nothing 
to stop this growing evil ? Yes, there are a variety of 
things which missionaries may do. They may pray 
to God to avert this, as well as every other calamity 
which afflicts the human race. Nobody will find fault 
with a missionary for praying, and ' the effectual fer- 
vent prayer of a righteous man availeth much.' They 
may likewise exhort the Chinese not to smoke it, and 
they will find sympathising hearts among the crowds 
who listen to them, whenever they inveigh against 
opium. They may further insist on the utter abandon- 
ment of the practice in the case of all those Chinese 
who wish to be admitted to religious fellowship ; and 
no one will complain of a missionary's keeping his com- 
munion as pure as possible. We live in hopes of 
seeing the Gospel universally prevalent in China, and 
if every missionary were to make it a sine qua non, in 
admitting members, to reject all those who cling to the 
drug, then, in proportion as Christianity spreads, woidd 
the evils of opium- diminish, until the time came for 
China to be thoroughly evangelised, and then they 
would cease altogether. In addition to all this, mis- 
sionaries could collect and diffuse information on the 


subject. No persons are in a better position to obtain 
information relative to the effects of opium, in its social 
and religious aspects. Let this be carefully collected, 
and temperately set forth, and good must be the 

" Eeligious and benevolent persons at home may do 
much towards diffusing this information, and keeping 
the public mind alive to the subject. Care should be 
taken, however, lest the parties be misinformed, and 
deal out their blows in a wrong direction. Abuse also 
must be rigidly avoided, and the imputation of wrong 
motives to merchants or the government be repressed. 
Thus with discretion and perseverance something might 
be done, but patience is above all things requisite, lest 
discouragement prevail when the efforts employed do 
not result in attaining all the success desired. The 
opium traffic has now grown from a little rill to a 
mighty river, and the attempt to check it is like rolling 
back the flowing tide. But the effect of increased light 
on the human intelligence, and influential motives 
brought to bear upon the human conscience, may in 
time be successful in removing prejudice, and over- 
coming self-interest, so as to lead men to ' do to others 
as they would be done by.' 

" The writer cannot close without a few words of 
exhortation to those who deal in the drug in China. 
The principals are professing Christians, and justly pride 
themselves on being humane men. But Christianity 
and humanity both inculcate principles which, if carried 
out, would lead them to refrain from the traffic. Both 
of these would teach them that they are not to benefit 
themselves to the injury of others. Granting that a 


large quantity of the opium they sell is used only as a 
4 harmless luxury,' and that in those cases where harm 
ensues, it is the abuse and not the use of the article 
which causes it ; granting all this, they must admit, that 
the use leads to the abuse, by a natural and necessary 
process, and that if they did not import the drug, 
neither the use nor abuse of it could possibly take 
place. We do not say that all the opium imported 
does harm, but much of it assuredly does so ; and 
if every chest but killed its man, or shortened the 
life and happiness of a single individual, it cannot be 
denied that it does harm. And can any sit down con- 
tented with the thought that the gains they are ac- 
quiring are obtained at the expense of the diminished 
comfort or shortened existence of others ; while the 
wives and children of the deluded victims are bitterly 
bewailing the hour when the head of the family ever 
came in contact with opium ? Surely if all the results 
of the traffic were known, humanity would lead them 
to recoil from any participation in it. Mind we do not 
stigmatise them with hard names, as some have done, 
but we do think they are not sufficiently considerate of 
the well-being of their fellow-men. They are as it were 
mixed up with a thousand others, who are driving 
along the battering-ram, which is beating down the best 
interests of China, and because they do not just see 
where the rain's head strikes, or the effect it pro- 
duces, thoughtlessly conclude that no harm is done. 
Bystanders, however, see it, and they might see it, if 
they would but open their eyes ; could they but see it, 
we are sure they would not inflict it — they would not 
'needlessly set foot upon a worm' — and how can 


they blindly persevere in doing that which will interfere 
with the best interests of their fellow-men." 

The East India Company secured to itself the mo- 
nopoly of the opium trade, fostering the production of 
the drug by large loans or bonuses to the cultivators, 
who were required to bring all their opium to the 
warehouses or godowns of the Company. The drug, 
after being examined, and when found equal to 
standard, was packed in a ball of prescribed size and 
weight, and sold by auction, at frequent public sales, to 
agents or hawkers. It was notorious that nearly all 
the opium thus sold went to China, but was never sent 
by the Company on their own account after the 
regular trade in the article was carried on. These re- 
marks apply only to the Bengal opium and the Bengal 
side of India. In the Bombay presidency the practice 
is different. The Malwa opium is not grown in what 
was the Company's territory, but in the independent 
state of Malwa, whence the Malwarries can ship it only 
through Bombay under a heavy export duty. It had 
previously been shipped via Damaum, a Portuguese 
port ; but as, since the annexation of Scinde, the opium 
from Malwa could not reach that port except by car- 
riage through the Company's territory, it all goes to 
Bombay, subject to any amount of duty which its value 
will afford. 

On the Company lies the responsibility of fostering 
the trade hi every way possible, the revenue, from 
this source alone, in Bengal and Bombay amounting 
probably to some five millions sterling a year. Along 
with the East India Company's jurisdiction, this opium 
business was transferred to the British Crown, and at 

D D 


present the British government holds the position of 
a 'producer and dealer in opium ; a position not only 
anomalous, but highly derogatory to the dignity of, and 
which can hardly be maintained with honour to, the 
Crown. In this case the English government has cer- 
tainly taken upon itself a branch of trade, and a trade, 
moreover, involving many serious evils. Now that it 
possesses supreme authority in India, it is surely time 
to remove from itself this reproach, and cease to be a 
dealer hi opium. A mere regard to revenue should 
not be allowed to influence its determination. It is 
neither expedient nor consistent with the dignity and 
honour of the sovereign power to be directly concerned 
in commercial transactions, as the producer of a 
marketable article, and selling its goods by public 
auction, in the way and for the purposes of trade. 
With infinitely less objection, in a moral point of view, 
might the government open cotton-factories for the 
supply of longcloths to the foreign markets, than be a 
party to the carrying on of the trade in opium. How- 
ever the question may be viewed as to the power o 
the government peremptorily to forbid the cultivation 
of the drug; in India, its own encouragement of the 
growth of the poppy, and its monopoly and sale of the 
opium, might at once be terminated. Sir John Law- 
rence, in his admirable letter, has given advice which, 
if adopted, would at least relieve the government from 
the odium of being an opium merchant. Let it with- 
hold the advances to the cultivators, break up its opium 
godowns, have no part in the monopoly ; and, instead 
of the profits arising from trading in the drug, charge 
it with a heavy export duty as it passes through 


Calcutta ; doing in Bengal what is done in Bombay in 
this particular. And, further, let loans be granted to 
all those who should be willing to exchange for the 
cultivation of the poppy the cultivation of cotton, 
indigo, or sugar ; for these advances ample security 
might be obtained, without the government partici- 
pating in the business for the carrying on of which they 
are granted. 

The government would thus be freed from the 
anomolous position which it now occupies before the 
world, and the entire responsibility rest on the mer- 
chants and others who engage in the opium traffic. 

This arrangement would be good so far as it goes ; 
but the far better plan would be for the government 
directly to prohibit the growth of opium in all its 
territory, except for direct medical use, and also not to 
allow it even to pass through its territory from the inde- 
pendent states. Whether this could be carried out as 
a political measure cannot be discussed here. The 
Chinese are themselves growers of opium to a large 
extent in various parts of the southern and central pro- 
vinces. Though this preparation is not so good an 
article as that from India, it is extensively used by the 
people, all the efforts of the government hitherto to 
prevent its production having been vain. The local 
officers are bribed to connivance, but whenever, in a 
particular case, the fact is forced upon their notice, the 
cultivator is severely punished, and cultivation in that 
district ceases for a time, the only effect of prohi- 
bition by the Chinese government being to enhance the 
value of the article. 

Nothing certain is known as to when or how the use 


of opium was acquired by the Chinese. It is probable 
they were acquainted with the drug, cultivated and used 
it before the East India Company introduced the Indian 
drug, while the large importation of the latter has 
greatly encouraged the native habit. 











WILLIAM IV. AND VICTORIA. From Original Family Docu- 
Completing the Buckingham Papers. 2 vols. 8vo. with Portraits. 
30s. bound. 


Original Family Documents. By the DUKE OF BUCKINGHAM 
AND CHANDOS, K.G. 2 vols. 8vo. with Portraits. 30s. bound. 

Among the many interesting subjects elucidated in this work will be found : 
The Trial of Queen Caroline — The King's Visits to Ireland, Scotland, and Han- 
over — Female Influence at Court — The Death of Lord Castlereagh — Junction of 
the Grenville Party with the Government — The Political and Literary Career of 
George Canning — O'Connell and the Catholic Claims — The Marquess Wellesley 
in Ireland — The Duke of Wellington's Administration — George the Fourth as a 
Patron of Art and Literature, &c. 

"The country is very much indebted to the Duke of Buckingham for the publication of 
these volumes — to our thinking the most valuable of the contributions to recent history 
which he has yet compiled from his family* papers. Besides the King, the Duke of 
Buckingham's canvass is full of the leading men of the day — Castlereagh, Liverpool, Can- 
ning, Wellington, Peel, and their compeers. We are sure that no reader, whether he seeks 
for gossip, or for more sterling information, will be disappointed by the book. There aie 
several most characteristic letters of the Duke of Wellington." — John Bull. 

" There is much in these volumes which deserves the perusal of all who desire an 
intimate acquaintance with the history of the period. The comments of well-informed 
men, like Lord Grenville, and Mr. T. Grenville, disclosing as they do the motives of indi- 
viduals, the secret movements of parties, and the causes of public events, are of high value 
to the student, and exceedingly interesting to the general reader." — Daily News. 

" The original documents published in these volumes — penned by public men, who were 
themselves active participators in the events and scenes described — throw a great deal of 
very curious and very valuable light upon this period of our history. The private letters of 
such men as Lord Grenville, Mr. T. Grenville, Mr. Charles Wynn, Mr. Freemantle, Dr. 
Phillimore, and Mr. PlumerWard, written in the absence of all restraint, necessarily pos- 
sess a high interest even for the lightest and most careless reader ; whilst, in an historical 
sense, as an authentic source from which future historians will be enabled to form their 
estimate of the characters of the leading men who flourished in the reign of the last 
George, they must be regarded as possessing an almost inestimable value. The more reserved 
communications, too, of such men as Lord Liverpool, the Duke of Wellington, the Marquis 
of Wellesley, Sir Henry Parnell, &c, will be received with great interest and thankfulness 
by every historiographer, whilst the lighter billets of Sir Walter Scott and Mr. Henry Wynn 
will be welcome to every body. Taking this publication altogether, we must give the Duke 
of Buckingham great credit for the manner in which he has prepared and executed it, and 
at the same time return him our hearty thanks for the interesting and valuable information 
which he has unfolded to us from his family archives." — Observer. 



From Original Family Documents. By the DUKE OF BUCKING- 
HAM AND CHANDOS, K.G. 2 vols. 8vo., with Portraits, 30s. bound. 

" Here are two more goodly volumes on the English Court ; volumes full of new 
sayings, pictures, anecdotes, and scenes. The Duke of Buckingham travels over nine years 
of English history. But what years those were, from 1811 to 1820 ! What events at home 
and abroad they bore to the great bourne ! — from the accession of the Regent to power to 
the death of George III. — including the fall of Perceval; the invasion of Russia, and the 
war in Spain; the battles of Salamanca and Borodino; the fare of Moscow; the retreat of 
Napoleon ; the conquest of Spain ; the surrender of Napoleon ; the return from Elba; the 
Congress of Vienna; the Hundred Days ; the crowning carnage of Waterloo; the exile to 
St. Helena; the return of the Bourbons ; the settlement of Europe ; the public scandals a 
the English Court; the popular discontent, and the massacre of Peterloo ! On many parts 
of this story the documents published by the Duke of Buckingham cast new jets of light, 
clearing up much secret history. Old stories are confirmed— new traits of character are 
brought out. In short, many new and pleasant additions are made to our knowledge of 
those times." — Athenceum. 

"Invaluable, as showing the true light in which many of the stirring events of the 
Regency are to be viewed. The lovers of Court gossip will also find not a little for their 
edification and amusement." — Literary Gazette. 

" These volumes cover a complete epoch, the period of the Regency — a period of large 
and stirring English history. To the Duke of Buckingham, who thus, out of his family 
archives, places within our reach authentic and exceedingly minute pictures of the governors 
of England, we owe grateful acknowledgements. His papers abound in fresh lights on old 
topics, and in new illustrations and anecdotes. The intrinsic value of the letters is enhanced 
by the judicious setting of the explanatory comment that accompanies them, which is put 
together with much care and honesty." — Examiner. 


FRANCE AND NAVARRE. From numerous Original Sources. By MISS 
FREER. Author of " The Lives of Marguerite d'Angouleme, Elizabeth 
de Valois, Henry III." &c. 2 vols, with Portraits, 2ls. 

" Various circumstances combine to make us regard the Life of Henry IV. as one of the 
most attractive in the wide range of biography. The chequered nature of his career from 
childhood to manhood, the perils that environed him in a Court hostile to his religion and 
race, his unfortunate marriage, his personal bravery, his skill as a commander — these and 
many other characteristics that will suggest themselvts to our readers, cause us to hail 
Miss Freer's new work as a welcome addition to our stock of books. It is a well-known 
feature in Miss Freer's works, that not content with the ordinary sources of information to 
which popular writers have recourse, she investigates for herself the MS. documents of the 
period under review, and is thus enabled to supply us with new facts, and to bring us face 
to face with the persons whose actions are recorded. This, which constitutes one of the 
great charms of M. Michelet, as a historian, is likewise a marked characteristic of Miss 
Freer, and confers a great additional value upon her historical portraits." — Critic. 

"To become the chronicler of such a reign as that of Henry IV. is no mean task, and 
Miss Freer has accomplished it with singular good taste, good sense, and vigour. The 
story never flags. Our authoress is always faithful, accurate, and intelligent. Hei style 
is good, and her subject abounds with interest for every student of history." — Herald. 

" We know no works of this kind, with the exception, perhaps, of Macaulay's history, 
which are more pleasant reading than the histories of Miss Freer. The charm of the style 
and manner, and the accuracy of the details, combine to render her works a valuable 
addition to our literary treasures."— John Bull. 

" In telling the reign of Henry IV., Miss Freer has one of the most interesting portions 
of French history for her story. She has told it from first to last with taste, using a clear, 
vigorous style." — Examiner. 

" The public will thank Miss Freer most heartily for these delightful volumes. In her 
particular line she is the best historian of her day ."—Chronicle. 



HIS COURT AND TIMES. From numerous unpublished sources, in. 
eluding MS. Documents in the Bibliotheque Imperiale, and the Archives 
of France and Italy. By MISS FREER, Author of " Marguerite dAn- 
gouleme," " Elizabeth de Valois, and the Court of Philip II," &c. 3 vols, 
post 8vo. with fine portraits, 31s. 6d. bound. 

"Miss Freer having won for herself the reputation of a most painstaking and trust- 
worthy historian not less than an accomplished writer, by her previous memoirs of 
sovereigns of the houses of Valois and Navarre, will not fail to meet with a most 
cordial and hearty welcome for her present admirable history of Henry III., the last of 
the French kings of the house of Valois. We refer our readers to the volumes them- 
selves for the interesting details of the life and reign of Henry III., his residence in 
Poland, his marriage with Louise de Lorraine, his cruelties, his hypocrisies, his penances, 
his assassination by the hands of the monk Jaques Clement, &c. Upon these points, as 
well as with reference to other persons who occupied a prominent position during this 
period, abundant information is afforded by Miss Freer; and the public will feel with us 
that a deep debt of gratitude is due to that lady for the faithful and admirable manner in 
which she has pourtrayed the Court and Times of Henry the Third." — Chronicle. 

"The previous historical labours of Miss Freer were so successful as to afford a rich 
promise in the present undertaking, the performance of which, it is not too much to say, 
exceeds expectation, and testifies to her being not only the most accomplished, but the 
most accurate of modern female historians. The Life of Henry III. of France is a 
contribution to literature which will have a reputation as imperishable as its present 
fame must be large and increasing. Indeed, the book is of such a truly fascinating 
character, that once begun it is impossible to leave it."— Messenger. 

" Among the class of chronicle histories, Miss Freer's Henry the Third of France is 
entitled to a high rank. As regards style and treatment Miss Freer has made a great 
advance upon her 'Elizabeth de Valois,' as that book was an advance upon her 
'Marguerite D'Angouleme.' " — Spectator- 

" We heartily recommend this work to the reading public. Miss Freer has much, per- 
haps all, of the quick perception and picturesque style by which Miss Strickland has 
earned her well-deserved popularity." — Critic. 


THE COURT OF PHILIP II. From numerous unpublished sources in 
the Archives of France, Italy, and Spain. By MISS FREER. 2 vols 
post 8vo. with fine Portraits by Heath, 21s. 

" It is not attributing too much to Miss Freer to say that herself and Mr. Prescott are 
probably the best samples of our modern biographers. The present volumes will be a boon 
to posterity for which it will be grateful. Equally suitable fur instruction and amusement, 
they portray one of the most interesting characters and periods of history." — John Bull. 

"Such a book as the memoir of Elizabeth de Valois is a literary treasure which will be 
the more appreciated as its merits obtain that reputation to which they most justly are 
entitled. Miss Freer has done her utmost to make the facts of Elizabeth's, Don Carlos', and 
Philip II. 's careers fully known, as they actually transpired." — Bell's Messenger. 


Second Edition, 2 vols, with fine Portraits, 21s. 

"This is a very useful and amusing book. It is a good work, very well done. The 
authoress is quite equal in power and grace to Miss Strickland. She must have spent great 
time and labour in collecting the information, which she imparts in an easy and agreeable 
manner. It is difficult to lay down her book after having once begun it. This is owing 
partly to the interesting nature of the subject, partly to the skilful manner in which it has 
been treated. No other life of Marguerite has yet been published, even in France. Indeed, 
till Louis Philippe ordered the collection and publication of manuscripts relating to the 
history of France, uo such work could be published. It is difficult to conceive how, under 
any circuuistances, it could have been better done." — Standard. 



Under the Especial Patronage of Her Majesty and H.R.H. the 
Prince Consort. Corrected throughout by the Nobility. Thirtieth 
Edition, in 1 vol. royal 8vo., with the Arms beautifully engraved, hand- 
somely bound, with gilt edges, price 31s. 6d. 

Lodge's Peerage and Baronetage is acknowledged to be the most 
complete, as well as the most elegant, work of the kind. As an established and 
authentic authority on all questions respecting the family histories, honours, 
and connections of the titled aristocracy, no work has ever stood so high. It is 
published under the especial patronage of Her Majesty, and His Royal Highness 
the Prince Consort, and is annually corrected throughout, from the personal 
communications of the Nobility. It is the only work of its class, in which, 
the type being kept constantly standing, every correction is made in its proper 
place to the date of publication, an advantage which gives it supremacy over all 
its competitors. Independently of its full and authentic information respecting 
the existing Peers and Baronets of the realm, the most sedulous attention is 
given in its pages to the collateral branches of the various noble families, and 
the names of many thousand individuals are introduced, which do not appear in 
other records of the titled classes. For its authority, correctness, and facility of 
arrangement, and the beauty of its typography and binding, the work is justly en- 
titled to the high place it occupies on the tables of Her Majesty and the Nobility. 

" Lodge's Peerage must supersede all other works of the kind, for two reasons ; first, it 
is on a better plan ; and, secondly, it is better executed. We can safely pronounce it to be 
the readiest, the most useful, and exactest of modern works on the subject." — Spectator. 

" A work which corrects all errors of former works. It is the production of a herald, 
we had almost said, by birth, but certainly by profession and studies, Mr. Lodge, the Norroy 
King of Arms. It is a most useful publication." — Times. 

"As perfect a Peerage of the British Empire as we are ever likely to see published. 
Great pains have been taken to make it as complete and accurate as possible. The work 
is patronised by Her Majesty and the Prince Consort; and it is worthy of a place in every 
gentleman's library, as well as in every public institution." — Herald. 

"As a work of contemporaneous history, this volume is of great value — the materials 
having been derived from the most authentic sources and in the majority of cases emanating 
from the noble families themselves. It contains all the needful information respecting the 
nobility of the Empire." — Post. 

" This work should form a portion of every gentleman's library. At all times, the infor- 
mation which it contains, derived from official sources exclusively at the command of the 
author, is of importance to most classes of the community; to the antiquary it must be 
invaluable, for implicit reliance may be placed on its contents." — Globe. 

"This work derives great value from the high authority of Mr. Lodge. The plan 
is excellent." — Literary Gazette. 

" When any book has run through so many editions, its reputation is so indelibly 
stamped, that it requires neither criticism nor praise. It is but just, however, to say, that 
' Lodge's Peerage and Baronetage ' is the most elegant and accurate, and the best of its 
class. The chief point of excellence attaching to this Peerage consists neither in its 
elegance of type nor its completeness of illustration, but in its authenticity, which is insured 
by the letter-press being always kept standing, and by immediate alteration being made 
whenever any change takes place, either by death or otherwise, amongst the nobility of the 
United Kingdom. The work has obtained the special patronage of Her Most Gracious 
Majesty, and of His Royal Highness the Prince Consort, which patronage has never been 
better or more worthily bestowed." — Messenger. 

" ' Lodge's Peerage and Baronetage' has become, as it were, an 'institution ' of this 
country; in other words, it is indispensable, and cannot be done without, by any person 
having business in the great world. The authenticity of this valuable work, as regards the 
several topics to which it refers, has never been exceeded, and, consequently, it must be 
received as one of the most important contributions to social and domestic history extant. 
As a book of reference — indispensible in most cases, useful in all — it should be in the 
hands of every one having connections in, or transactions with, the aristocracy." — Observer. 



Edition. Uniform with " The Peerage" Volume, with the arms 
beautifully engraved, handsomely bound with gilt edges, price 31s. 6d. 

The desire very generally manifested for a republication of this volume has 
dictated the present entire revision of its contents. The Armorial Bearings 
prefixed to the History of each Noble Family, render the work complete in 
itself and uniform with the Volume of The Peerage, which it is intended to 
accompany and illustrate. The object of the whole Work, in its two distinct 
yet combined characters, has been useful and correct information ; and the 
careful attention devoted to this object throughout will, it is hoped, render the 
Work worthy of the August Patronage with which it is honoured and of the 
liberal assistance accorded by its Noble Correspondents, and will secure from 
them and from the Public, the same cordial reception it has hitherto experienced. 
The great advantage of " The Genealogy" being thus given in a separate volume, 
Mr. Lodge has himself explained in the Preface to " The Peerage." 


with Original Letters from Lords Chatham, Nelson, Castlereagh, 
Molgraye, Holland, Mr. Canning, &c, Edited, from Family Pa- 
pers, by Lady CHATTERTON, Second Edition, 2 vols. 8vo, 28s. 

" Lady Chatterton is not only a zealous but a skilful biographer. These volumes are 
among the most readable as well as most important books of the season." — Observer. 

"These volumes are an important addition to our naval literature; but they are also 
valuable for the light they throw on the domestic history of the time. The correspon- 
dence is particularly rich in anecdotes, glimpses of society and manners, and traits of 
character." — U. S. Magazine. 

"An important and valuable addition to the history of Lord Gambier's times." — 


Esa., Author of " Novels and Novelists," &c. 2 vols, with plates. 21s. 

"This is a rare book; a compliment to the medical profession and an acquisition to 
its members; a book to be read and re-read ; fit for the study and the consulting-room, as 
well as the drawing-room table and the circulating library. Mr. Jeaflreson takes a com- 
prehensive view of the social history of the profession, and illustrates its course by a 
series of biographic and domestic sketches, from the feudal era down to the present day. 
The chapters on the Doctor as a bon-vivant, the generosity and parsimony, the quarrels and 
loves of physicians, are rich with anecdotes of medical celebrities. But Mr. Jeaffreson 
does not merely amuse. The pages he devotes to the exposure and history of charlatanry 
are of scarcely less value to the student of medicine than the student ot manners. We 
thank Mr. Jeaffreson most heartily for the mirth and solid in ormation of his volumes. 
They appeal to a wide circle. All the members of our profession will be sure to read 
them." — Lancet. 

"A pleasant book for the fireside season on which we are now entering, and for the 
seaside season that is to come. Out of hundreds of volumes, Mr. Jeaffreson has collected 
thousands of good things, adding much that appears in print for the first time, and which 
of course gives increased value to this very readable book." — Athenaeum. 



and the COURT OF ENGLAND, chiefly at SHENE and RICHMOND. 
By Folkestone Williams, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., &d. 3 vols, with fine 
Portraits. 31s. 6d. 

" In the prosecution of his labours, the author has consulted antiquaries and archfe- 
ologists, and examined contemporary authorities. The result is, a work, pleasant and 
instructive, abundant in anecdote, and agreeably gossipping. It, moreover, evinces con- 
siderable research, and a generally sound historical judgment. Mr. Williams sketches the 
architectural arrangements of the King's Manor House at Shene in the time of Edward the 
Third, and adds an account of some of the sports and pastimes, the armour, costume, enter- 
tainments, tournaments, furniture, wardrobe, and court literature of the fourteenth cen- 
tury ; the organization of the royal household, and the family of the King. We must pass 
over the doings of Richard II., and ' Good Queen Anne,' at the resplendent Manor House, 
over its restoration by Henry V., and his religious foundations, with the visit from the 
Emperor Sigismund, and William of Bavaria; over Henry the Sixth's residence there; 
over the romantic incidents that occurred there in Edward the Fourth's time. We must 
pass, too, over the Court usages in Henry the Seventh's time. In the following reign, we 
make acquaintance with the Princess Mary, welcoming and entertaining the gentlemen of 
France, with ' most goodly countenance,' and with 'pleasant pastime in playing on the 
virginals.' A more tender interest hallows the spot that witnessed the affections of Dudley, 
Farl of Leicester, and Amy Robsart, of Guildford and Lady Jane Grey, of Sir Philip Sydney 
and Elizabeth Walsingham, of Stella and Dean Swift. On the accession of Elizabeth to the 
throne, the splendour of the Court at Richmond revived with its gaiety. We then pass to 
Prince Henry, the next royal resident. The author describes the establishment awi 
education of ' England's Darling,' as this accomplished Prince was designated; introduces 
us to Bishop Hall, Ben Jonson, and other notabilities, and to his gallery of paintings; 
Richmond under Charles I., the Protectorate and the Restoration, with Dr. Duppa and 
the Eikon Basilike, John Evelyn and William Lily; Richmond when the family of James 
II. resided there, when William of Orange May there last night, and hunted this day,' 
when Anne 'sometimes counsel took, and sometimes tea,' when George I. and Sir Robert 
Walpole followed the hounds in the new park, when Queen Caroline walked in the gardens 
with that politic minister. Richmond under all these aspects is described and illustrated. 
Later, we come to Horace Walpole, the Princess Emily, Addington, and the Duke of 
Queensbury. Later still, we hud the Sailor King, to whom we owe the terrace walk, de- 
lighting in the amenities of Richmond, and in our own day, we have seen the White 
Lodge selected as the educational residence of the Prince of Wales." — Spectator. 

"This work belongs to the best class of popular antiquarian books, because it is 
popular by reason of the entertaining character and the variety of its store of trust-worthy 
information." — Examiner. 


Life of the Duchess of Marlborough," " Memoirs of Sir Walter Raleigh," 
&c, 3 vols. 31s. 6d. 

"These volumes will increase the well-earned reputation of their clever and popular 
author. The story of the royal favourite's career is told by Mrs. Thomson very honestly, 
and is enriched abundantly with curious and entertaining details from the familiar letters of 
the time and the memorials of the State Paper Office, of which a full publication is now 
made for the first time. Labour and pains have, indeed, been well spent upon volumes that 
produce their evidence so fairly and are written so agreeably as these." — Examiner . 

" Mrs. Thomson is entitled to great praise. She has written the most complete bio- 
graphy of Buckingham that has appeared in the language. Those who commence the 
work by being amused will end in being instructed." — Literary Gazette. 


Being a Series of Biographical Sketches. By Walter Thorn- 
bury. 2 vols. 21s. 



and the russian acquisitions on the confines of india and 
China; with Adventures among the Mountain Kirghis, and the 
Manjours, Manyargs, Toungouz, Touzemtz, Goldi, and Gelyaks. 
By T. W. ATKINSON, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., Author of " Oriental and Western 
Siberia." Dedicated by permission, to Her Majesty. Second Edition. 
Royal 8vo., with Map and 83 Illustrations. «£2 2s., elegantly bound 

" Our readers have not now to learn for the first time the quality of Mr. Atkinson as an 
explorer and a writer. The comments we made on, and the extracts we selected from, his 
' Oriental and Western Siberia' will have sufficed to show that in the former character he 
takes rank with the most daring of the class, and that in the latter he is scarcely to be 
surpassed for the lucidity, picturesqueness, and power, with which he pourtrays the scenes 
through which he has travelled, and the perils or the pleasures which encountered him on 
the way. The present volume is not inferior to its predecessor. It deals with civilization, 
semi-civilization, and barbarous life. It takes us through localities, some of which are 
little, others not at all, known to even the best read men in the literature of travel. The 
entire volume is admirable for its spirit, unexaggerated tone, and the mass of fresh materials 
by which this really new world is made accessible to us. The followers, too, of all the ' ologies' 
will meet with something in these graghic pages of peculiar interest to them. It is a noble 
work."— Athenaum. 

"We must refer to Mr. Atkinson as one of the most intelligent and successful of the 
civilized travellers of our own day. By far the most important contribution to the history 
of these regions is to be found in Mr. Atkinson's recent publication on the Amoor — a work 
which derives equal interest from his well-stored portfolio and his pen." — Edinburgh 

" This is in every respect an aureus liber. Its magnificent apparel not inaptly sym- 
bolises its magnificent contents. Mr. Atkinson has here given us a narrative which could 
he told by no other living Englishman. The intrinsic interest of that narrative is enhanced 
by Mr. Atkinson's gift of vigorous and graceful description. Thanks to the power of his 
pen, and the still more remarkable power of his pencil we follow his travels with eager 
interest and anxiety. He himself is the chief object of interest, from his thirst for adventure 
and daring exploits, and the countless shapes of terror and death that he encounters. 
The work is a magnificent contribution to the literature of travel. More useful and 
pleasant reading can no where be found." — Literary Gazette. 

"Mr. Atkinson has here presented the reading world with another valuable book ot 
travels. It is as interesting, as entertaining, and as well written as his previous work. It 
is a volume which will not only afford intellectual entertainment of the highest order, but 
fitted to instruct both the philosopher and the statesman. The vast territorial acquisitions 
lately made by Russia in the Northern parts of Central Asia along the whole frontier of 
China, is described by an eye wi ness well qualified to estimate their real value and political 
advantages. Our readers, we feel sure, will peruse this interesting book of travels for 
themselves. It contains something for every taste." — Daily News 

" The success of Mr. Atkinson's ' Oriental and Western Siberia' has happily induced 
him to write and publish another volume, and written with the same unflagging interest. 
A more pleasing as well as more novel book of travels it would be difficult to find. The 
illustrations are admirably executed, and they add ten fold to the value of a volume already 
possessing intrinsic merits of the highest kind. Independently of the deep interest it excites 
as a traveller's tale, the work has other claims. It presents peculiar geographical and ethnolo- 
gical information, and points out a boundless field of commerce to English enterprise. It 
marks with a decided pen the gradual advances of Russia towards British India, and the 
sweeping rush of her conquering energy from Siberia to the Pacific. Thus Mr. Atkinson's 
book has not only a literary, but a political and commercial importance. There Is food for 
all readers and interest for all." — Globe. 

"This is noble and fascinating book, belonging in right both of subject and treatment 
to the choicest class of travel literature. The vast panorama unfolded is one of the most 
marvellous in the world, and has hitherto been among the least known to th c nations of 
the west. It is now set before them with exquisite clearness and force of expression by one 
who has the highest claims to confidence as an observer and delineator." — Spectator. 

" A really magnificent volume, which for many years to come must be a standard 
authority upon the country of which It treats. It is very interesting, and abounds in 
incident and anecdote both personal and local." — Chronicle. 



rative of Seven Years' Explorations and Adventures in Siberia, 
Mongolia, the Kirghis Steppes, Chinese Tartary, and Central 
Asia. By THOMAS WITLAM ATKINSON. In one large volume, 
royal 8vo., Price £2. 2s., elegantly bound. Embellished with upwards 
of 50 Illustrations, including numerous beautifully coloured plates, from 
drawings by the Author, and a map. 

"By virtue alike of its text and its pictures, we place this book of travel in the first 
rank among those illustrated gift-books now so much sought by the public. Mr. Atkinson's 
book is most readable. The geographer finds in it notice of ground heretofore left 
undescribed, the ethnologist, geologist, and botanist, find notes and pictures, too, of which 
they know the value, the sportman's taste is gratified by chronicles of sport, the lover of 
adventure will find a number of perils and escapes to hang over, and the lover of a frank 
good-humoured way of speech will find the book a pleasant one in every page. Seven 
years of wandering, thirty-nine thousand five hundred miles of moving to and fro in a wild 
and almost unknown country, should yield a book worth reading, and they do." — Examiner. 

"A book of travels which in value and sterling interest must take rank as a landmark 
In geographical literature. Its coloured illustrations and wood engravings are of a high 
order, and add a great charm to the narrative. Mr. Atkinson has travelled where it is 
believed no European has been before. He has seen nature in the wildest, sublimest, and 
also the most beautiful aspects the old world can present. These he has depicted by pen 
and pencil. He has done both well. Many a fireside will rejoice in the determination which 
converted the artist into an author. Mr. Atkinson is a thorough Englishman, brave and 
accomplished, a lover of adventure and sport of every kind. He knows enough of mineralogy, 
geology, and botany to impart a scientific interest to his descriptions and drawings j 
possessing a keen sense of humour, he tells many a racy story. The sportsman and the 
lover of adventure, whether by flood or field, will find ample stores in the stirring tales of 
his interesting travels." — Daily News. 

"An animated and intelligent narrative, appreciably enriching the literature of English 
travel. Mr. Atkinson's sketches were made by express permission of the late Emperor of 
Russia. Perhaps no English artist was ever before admitted into this enchanted land of 
history, or provided with the talisman and amulet of a general passport; and well has Mr. 
Atkinson availed himself of the privilege. Our extracts will have served to illustrate the 
originality and variety of Mr. Atkinson's observations and adventures during his protracted 
wanderings of nearly forty thousand miles. Mr. Atkinson's pencil was never idle, and he 
has certainly brought home with him the forms, and colours, and other characteristics of a 
most extraordinary diversity of groups and scenes. As a sportsman Mr. Atkinson enjoyed 
a plenitude of excitement. His narrative is well stored with incidents of adventure. 
His ascent of the Bielouka is a chapter of the most vivid romance of travel, yet it is less 
attractive than his relations of wanderings across the Desert of Gobi and up the Tangnou 
Chain." — Athenceum. 

"We predict that Mr. Atkinson's 'Siberia' will very often assume the shape of a 
Christmas Present or New Year's Gift, as it possesses, in an eminent degree, four very 
precious and suitable qualities for that purpose, — namely, usefulness, elegance, instruction 
and novelty. It is a work of great value, not merely on account of its splendid illustrations, 
but for the amount it contains of authentic and highly interesting intelligence concerning 
regions which, in all probability, has never, previous to Mr. Atkinson's explorations, been 
visited by an European. Mr. Atkinson's adventures are told in a manly style. The valuable 
and interesting information the book contains, gathered at a vast expense, is lucidly 
arranged, and altogether the work is one that the author-artist may well be proud of, and 
with which those who study it cannot fail to be delighted." — John Bull, 

" To the geographer, the geologist, the ethnographer, the sportsman, and to those who 
read only for amusement, this will be an acceptable volume. Mr. Atkinson is rot only an 
adventurous traveller, but a correct and amusing writer." — Literary Gazette. 



WESTERN AFRICA. By Francisco Valdez, Arbitrator at Loanda, 
and the Cape of Good Hope. 2 volumes demy 8vo. with numerous 
Illustrations, bound. 


By Fredrika Bremer. Translated by Mary Howitt. 2 vols. 

"Anew work from the pen of Miss Bremer is ever hailed, not only with a hearty 
welcome, but with general acclamation. Such a reception will be given to this last specimen 
of her literary labours, which is certainly one of the best works she has ever yet produced. 
Where could such subjects as Switzerland and Italy find a more generous exponent? Who 
could appreciate the grandeur of the scenery of the land of freedom better than Fredrika 
Bremer? Who could see and understand all the phases of Italian society in its approach- 
ing struggle for liberty, better than this warmhearted and generous woman ? We have 
revelled in the volumes and can scarcely find words adequately to express our admiration 
of the manner in which Fredrika Bremer has told all she saw and felt during the two years 
she passed in the loveliest parts of Europe. The book is the best that ever was written on 
such themes." — Messenger. 


By LYONS McLEOD, Esq. F.R.G.S.. &c. Late Biitish Consul in Mo- 
zambique. 2 vols. With Map and Illustrations. 21s. 

"Mr. M'Leod's volumes contains chapters for all readers — racy narrative, abundance 
of incident, compendious history, important matter-of-tact statistics, and many a page 
which will be perused with pleasure by the naturalist." — Athenteum. 

" Mr. M'Leod's work furnishes information concerning the commercial capabilities, 
not only of the Portugese settlements, but also of the Cape and Natal, together with par- 
ticulars concerning Mauritius. Madagascar, and the Seychelles. It likewise gives a peculiar 
insight into the combinations and iunuences which operate upon the Portuguese authorities 
in relation to the slave trade." — 'limes. 


coveries during Four Years' Wanderings in the Wilds op 
South-Western Africa. By CHARLES JOHN ANDERSSON. 1vol. 
royal 8vo., with Map and upwards of 50 Illustrations, representing Sport- 
ing Adventures, Subjects of Natural History, &c. Second Edition. 

"This narrative of African explorations and discoveries is one of the most important 
geographical works that have lately appeared. It contains the account of two journeys 
made between the years 1850 and 1854, in the first of which the countries of the Damaras 
and the Ovambo, previously scarcely known in Europe, were explored; and in the second 
the newly-discovered Lake Ngami was reached by a route that had been deemed imprac- 
ticable, but which proves to be the shortest and the best. The work contains much scientific 
and accurate information as to the geology, the scenery, products, and resources of the 
regions explored, with notices of the religion, manners, and customs of the native tribes. 
The continual sporting adventures, and other remarkable occurrences, intermingled with 
the narrative of travel, make the book as interesting to read as a romance, as , indeed, a 
good book of travels ought always to be. The illustrations by Wolf are admirably designed, 
and most of them represent scenes as striking as any witnessed by Jules Gerard or Gordon 
Cumming." — Literary Gazette. 


OF A NAVAL OFFICER. Edited by Captain Fenton Aylmer. 
2 vols. 21s. 

" A highly interesting work, written in the spirit o?a genuine sailor."— Lit. Gazette. 



OF MEER ALI MOORAD; with Wild Sports in the Valley of 
the Indus. By Capt. Langley, late Madras Cavalry. 2 vols. 8vo. 
with Illustrations. 30s. 

"A valuable work, containing much useful information." — Literary Gazette. 

" Captain Langley's interesting volumes will doubtless nttract all the attention they 
deserve on account of their political and commercial importance ; and as they are full 
of incident connected with the sports of British India, they will be as agreeable to the 
sportsman and general reader as to the politician."— Messenger. 


ELIZABETH MURRAY. 2 vols. 8vo. with Coloured Illustrations. 

" Mrs. Murray, wife, we believe, of the English Consul at Teneriffe, is one of the first of 
female English Water Colour Artists. She draws well, and her colour is bright, pure, trans- 
parent, and sparkling. Her book is like herpainting, luminous, rich and fresh. We welcome 
it (as the public will also do) with sincere pleasure. It is a hearty book, written by a clever, 
quick-sighted, and thou 'htful woman, who, slipping a steel pen on the end of her brush, 
thus doubly armed, uses one end as well as the other, being with both a bright colourer, 
and accurate deseriber of colours, outlines, sensations, landscapes and things. In a word, 
Mrs. Murray is a clever artist, who writes forcibly and agreeably."— Athenmum. 


by Mountaineer. 8vo. with Illustrations. 15s. 

" A book which we cannot commend too highly. It is a most interesting, pleasant, and 
well-written narrative. The sporting exploits which it describes are comparatively novel, 
and the accounts of the scenery among which they were performed is graphic and charming. 
A more satisfactory book could not be desired."— Literary Gazette. 

" This volume is altogether a pleasant one. It is written with zest and edited with care 
The incidents and adventures of the journey are most fascinating to a sportsman and very 
interesting to a traveller."— Athenaeum. 


Holiday, and How he Passed it, By the Rev. P. Beaton, M.A- 2 v. 21s 

" Mr. Beaton has done good service in the publication of these interesting volumes. 
He is an intelligent observer, enjoys himself heartily, and compels his readers to enjoy 
themselves also. Sagacitv, practical good sense, a healthy animal nature, a well culti- 
vated mind, are Mr. Beaton's qualifications as a traveller and a writer ot travels. He 
possesses the advantage, too, of having selected ground that is comparatively untrodden. 
His work is written with taste and skill, and abounds with anecdote and information." 
—Literary Gazette. 


of Life in the Roman States and Sardinia, during a Ten Years' Residence. 

By Mrs. G. Gretton. 2 vols. 21s. 
"Mrs Gretton has opportunities which rarely fall to the lot of strangers of becoming 
acquainted with the inner life and habits of a part of the Italian peninsula which is now the 
very centre of the national crisis. We can praise her performance as interesting, unex- 
aggerated. and full of opportune instruction. "— Timet. 



AND CIVIL ; with Lists of the Knights and Companions of each British 
Order. Embellished with Five Hundred Fac-simile Coloured 
Illustrations of the Insignia of the Various Orders. Edited 
by SIR BERNARD BURKE, Ulster King of Arms. 1 vol. royal 8vo., 
handsomely hound, with gilt edges, price ±2. 2s. 

" This valuable and attractive work may claim the merit of being the best ofits kind. 
It is so comprehensive in its character, and so elegant in styie, that it far outstrips all 
competitors. A full historical account of the orders of every country is given, with lists of 
the Knights and Companions of each British Order. Among the most attractive features of 
the work are the illustrations. They are numerous and beautiful, highly coloured, and 
giving an exact representation of the different decorations. The origin of each Order, the 
rules and regulations, and the duties incumbent upon its members, are all given at full 
length. The fact of the work being under the supervision of Sir Bernard Burke, and endorsed 
by his authority , gives it another recommendation to the public favour." — Sun 

" This is indeed a splendid book. It is an uncommon combination of a library book 
of reference and a book tor a boudoir, undoubtedly uniting beauty and utility. It will 
soon find its place in every library and drawing-room." — Globe. 


Contemporary. 2 vols. 21s. 

"The Authoress of these volumes, having been thrown into communication with 
celebrities of all ranks and professions during the last quarter of a century, has naturally 
thought that her reminiscences of their ways and manners would prove interesting to 
readers of the present day. Prominent among the subjects of her sketches are Lord 
Melbourne, the Duke of Wellington, Edward Irving, Thomas Moore, Edmund Kean, Mr. 
Spurgeon, Lady Blessington, and Mrs. Shelley. Of the great Duke she gives a very in- 
teresting description. We commend these agreeable volumes to the reader, assuring him 
that he will hud ample entertainment for a leisure hour in contemplating these varied and 
lite-like photographs." — Sun. 


PRAIRIES. By the Hon. Grantley Berkeley. Royal 8vo. with 
numerous Illustrations. (In February, 1861). 


By LORD WILLIAM LENNOX. 2 vols, with Illustrations. 21s. 

" This book should be in the library of every gentleman, and of every one who delights 
in the sports of the held. It forms a complete treatise on sporting in every part of the 
World, aud is full of pleasant goss : p ami anecdote. Racing, steeple chasing, hunting, 
driving, coarsing, yatching, and fishing, cricket and pedestrianism, boating and curling, 
pigeon shooting, and the pursuit of game with the fowling-piece, all find an able exponent 
i n Lord William Lennox." — Herald. 


of " FLEMISH INTERIORS," &c. 3 vols, with Illustrations. 31s. 6d. 

" ' Realities of Paris Life' is a good addition to Paris books, and important as affording 
true and sober pictures of the Paris poor." — Athenaeum. 



" John Halifax, Gentleman," " A Woman's Thoughts abodt 
Women," &c. 1 vol. 10s. 6d. elegantly bound. >* ; 

" Studies from Life is altogether a charming volume, one which all women and most 
men, would be proud to possess." — Chronicle. 

" Without being in the same degree elaborate, either in purpose or plot, as 'John 
Halifax,' these ' Studies trom Life' may be pronounced to be equally as clever in construc- 
tion and narration. It is one of the most charming features of Miss Muloch's works that 
they invariably tend to a practical and useful end. Her object is to improve the taste, refine 
the intellect, and touch the heart, and so to act upon all classes of her readers as to make 
them rise from the consideration of her books both wiser and better than they were before 
they began to read them. The ' Studies from Life' will add considerably to the author's 
well earned reputation." — Messenger. 


1 vol. with Illustrations by Birket Foster. 

" A volume of poems which will assuredly take its place with those of Goldsmith, Gray, 
and Cowper, on the favourite shelf of every Englishman's library. We discover in these 
poems all the firmness, vigour, and delicacy of touch which characterise the author's prose 
works, and in addition, an ineffable tenderness and grace, such as we find in few poetical 
compositions besides those of Tennyson." — Illustrated News of the World. 

" We are well pleased with these poems by our popular novelist. They are the expression 
of genuine thoughts, feelings, and aspirations, and the expression is almost always grace- 
ful, musical and well-coloured. A high, pure tone of morality pervades each set of verses, 
and each strikes the reader as inspired by some real event, or condition of mind, and not by 
some idle fancy or fleeting sentiment." — Spectator. 


LEIGH HUNT. 1 vol. (Just Ready). 


VICTORIA. By J. C. JEAFFRESON, Esa. 2 vols, with Portraits. 10s. 


By MARTIN F. TUPPER, D.C.L., F.R.S., Author of " Proverbial Philo- 
sophy," " Stephen Langton," &c, 1 vol. post 8vo. 5s. 


HOWITT. 3 vols, post 8vo. 

" A remarkable book, which refers to eventful times and brings before us some impor- 
tant personages. | It cannot fail to make a powerful impression on its readers." — Sun 


"A very beautiful and touching work." — Chronicle. 


The Narrative of Twelve Months' Experience in the Hospitals of Koulal 
and Scutari. By A LADY VOLUNTEER. Third and Cheaper Edition 
1 vol. post 8vo. with Illustrations, 6s. bound. 
" The story of the noble deeds done by Miss Nightingale and her devoted sisterhood 
will neve* be more elfectively told than in this beautiful narrative."— John Bull 




By Lady Emily Ponsonby. 

Author of "The Discipline op Life," 
&c, 3 vols. (In January 1861.) 


By the 
Author of " Margaret Maitland," 3 v. 

"This story is very interesting and the 
interest deepens as the story proceeds." — 


By the Author of *' Morals of May 
Fair," ' Creeds," &c. 3 vols. 


By the Author of "The Verneys," 3v 


A Christmas Story. 

By the Author of " Grandmother's 
Money," " Wildflower," &c. 1 vol., 
10s. 6d., elegantly bound and Illustrated. 


By the Author of " Margaret and her 
Bridesmaids," &c. 3 vols. 

"If asked to classify 'The Valley of a 
Hundred Fires' we should give it a place 
between 'John Halifax' and 'The Cax- 
tons. ' ' — Herald. 


By G. T. Lowth Esq. 

Author of "The Wanderer in 
Arabia," 3 vols. 

" A novel which contains interesting in. 
cidents, capitally drawn characters, and 
vivid pictures of life and society of the 
present day." — Post. 


By Colin Kennaquhom. 3 vols. 

"A clever novel. It can hardly fail to 
amuse all readers." — Spectator. 


2 vols. 

"An excellent story — excellent alike in 
design and execution." — Athenaum. 


2 vols. 

" There Is much to amuse and interest 
in these volumes." — Sun. 


By the Author of "Cousin 
Geoffrey," &c. 3 vols. 


By the Author of "Caste," 3 vols. 

"A clever and interesting novel. It has 
great power, and the story is well sus- 
tained." — Literary Gazette. 


By Silverpen. 3 vols. 
"The work of a very clever and able 
writer." — Literery Gazette. 


By the Author of " Wildflower," 3 vols. 

"A good novel. The most interesting 
of the Author's productions." — Athenaeum. 


By George Graham. 3 vols 
" A brilliant novel." — Sun. 


•'A very interesting story." — Sun. 


By the Hon. C S. Saville. 3. vols. 
"A capital novel." — John Bull. 


By Captain L. Wraxall. 3 vols. 

" ' Only a Woman is very readable." — > 


By Scrutator. 

Author of " The Master of the 
Hounds," &c. 2 vols., with Illustrations. 


By Martin. F. Tuppkr. D.CL. F.R.S. 

Author of " Proverbial Philosophy." 

&c, 2 vols, with fine engravings. 10s. 


By Julia Kavanagh. 
Author of " Nathalie," 3 vols. 


Recollections in the Life of a Clergyman- 





Each in a single volume, elegantly printed, bound, and illustrated, price 5s. 
A volume to appear every two months. The following are now ready. 



"The first volume of Messrs. Hurst and Blaekett's Standard Library of Cheap Editions 
of Popular Blodern Works forms a very good beginning to what will doubtless be a very 
successful undertaking. ' Nature and Human Nature' is one of the best of Sam Slick's 
witty and humorous productions, and well entitled to the large circulation which it 
cannot fail to obtain in its present convenient and cheap shape. The volume combines 
with the great recommendations of a clear, bold type, and good paper, the lesser, but 
still attractive merits, of being well illustrated and elegantly bound." — Morning Post. 

"This new and cheap edition of Sam Slick's popular work will be an acquisition to 
all lovers of wit and humour. Mr. Justice Haliburton's writings are so well known to 
the English public that no commendation is needed. The volume is very handsomely 
bound and illustrated, and the paper and type are excellent. It is in every way suited 
for a library edition, and as the names of Messrs. Hurst and Blackett, warrant the 
character of the works to be produced in their Standard Library, we have no doubt the 
project will be eminently successful." — Sun. 


" This is a very good and a very interesting work. It is designed to trace the career 
from boyhood to age of a perfect man — a Christian gentleman, and it abounds in incident 
both well and highiy wrought. Throughout it is conceived in a high spirit, and written 
with great ability, better than any former work, we think, of its deservedly successful 
author. This cheap and handsome new edition is worthy to pass freely from hand to hand, 
as a gift book in many households." — Examiner. 

" The new and cheaper edition of this interesting work will doubtless meet with great 
success. John Halifax, the hero of this most beautiful story, is no ordinary hero, and this, 
his history, is no ordinary book. It is a full-length portrait of a true gentieman, one of 
nature's own nobility. It is also the history of a home and a thoroughly English one. 
The work abounds in incident, and many of the scenes are full of graphic power and true 
pathos. It is a book that few will read without becoming wiser and better." — Scotsman 



"Independent of its value as an original narrative, and its useful an<T interesting 
information, this work is remarkable for the colouring power and play of fancy with 
which its descriptions are enlivened. Among its greatest and most lasting charms is its 
reverent and serious spirit." — Quarterly Review 

"A book calculated to prove more practically useful was never penned than 'The 
Crescent and the Cross'— a work which surpasses all others in its homage for the sub- 
lime and its love for the beautifui in those famous regions consecrated to everlasting 
immortality in the annals of the prophets, and which no other writer has ever depicted 
with a pencil at once so reverent and so picturesque." — Su?i. 


"'Nathalie ' is Miss Kavanagh's best imaginative effort. Its manner is gracious and 
attractive. Its matter is good. A sentiment, a tenderness, are commandeu by her which 
aie as individual as they are elegant. We should not soon come to an end were we to 
specify all the delicate touches and attractive pictures which place 'Nathalie' high among 
books of its class."— Athenceum. 

"A tale of untiring interest, full of deep touches of human nature. We have no hesi- 
tation in predicting for this delightful tale a lasting popularity, and a place in the foremost 
ranks of that most instructive kind of fiction — the moral novel." — John Ball. 

"A more judicious selection than 'Nathalie' could not have been made for Messrs. 
Hurst and Blaekett's Standard Library. The ser,es as it advances realises our first im- 
pression, that it will be one of tasting celebrity."— Literary Gazette, 

[continued on next pace.] 


Each in a single volume, elegantly printed, bound, and illustrated, price 5s. 



"A book of sound counsel. It is one of the most sensible works of its kind, well-writ- 
ten, true-hearted, and altogether practical. Whoever wishes to give advice to a young lady 
may thank the author for means of doing so." — Examiner. 

"The author of 'John Halifax' will retain and extend her hold upon the reading and 
reasonable public by the merits of her present work, which bears the stamp of good sense 
and genial feeling." — Guardian. 

"These thoughts are good and humane. They are thoughts we would wish women to 
think." — Atheneeum 

"This really valuable volume ought to be in every young woman's baud. It will teach 
her how to think and how to act." — Literary Gazette. 



'"Adam Graeme' is a story awakening genuine emotions of interest and delight by its 
admirable pictures of Scottish life and scenery. The plot is cleverly complicated, and 
there is great vitality in the dialogue, and remarkable brilliancy in the descriptive pas- 
sages, as who that has read ' Margaret Maitland* would not be prepared to expect > But 
the story has a ' mightier magnet still,' in the healthy tone which pervades it, in its femi- 
nine delicacy of thought and diction, and in the truly womanly tenderness of its senti- 
ments. The eloquent author sets before us the essential attributes of Christian virtue, 
their deep and silent workings in the heart, and their beautiful manifestations in the life, 
with.a delicacy, a power, and a truth which can hardly be surpassed." — Morning Post. 


"The best of all Judge Haliburton's admirable works.." — Standard. 

" ' The humour of Sam Slick is inexhaustible. He is ever and everywhere a welcome 
visitor; smiles greet his approach, and wit and wisdom hang upon his tongue. 
The present production is remarkable alike for its racy humour, its sound philosophy, 
the felicity of its illustrations, and the delicacy of its satire, We promise our readers 
a great treat from the perusal of these ' Wise Saws and Modern Instances,' which contain a 
world of practical wisdom, and a treasury of the richest fun." — Post. 


"A picturesque book on Rome and its ecclesiastical sovereigns, by an eloquent Roman 
Catholic. Cardinal Wiseman has here treated a special subject with so much generality and 
geniality, that his recollections will excite no ill-feeling in those who are most conscientiously 
opposed to every idea of human infallibity represented in Papal domination." — Atheneeum. 

" In the description of the scenes, the ceremonies, the ecclesiastical society, the manners 
and habits of Sacerdotal Rome, this work is unrivalled. It is lull of anecdotes. We could 
fill columns with amusing extracts." — Chronicle. 



" We are always glad to welcome Miss Muloch. She writes from her own convictions, 
and she has the power not only to conceive clearly what it is that she wishes to say, but to 
express it in language effective and vigorous. In ' A Life for a Life' she is fortunate in a 
good subject, and she has produced a work of strong effect. The reader having read the 
book through for the story, will be apt (if he be of our persuasion) to return and read again 
many pages and passages with greater pleasure than on a first perusal. The whole book is 
replete with a graceful, tender delicacy ; and in addition to its other merits, it is written in 
good careful English." — Atheneeum. 

[continued on next page.] 


Each in a single volume, elegantly printed, bound, and illustrated, price 5s. 


" A delightful book, of which the charm begins at the first line on the first page, for full of 
quaint and pleasant memories is the phrase that is its title, ' The Old Court Suburb.' Very full 
too, both of quaint and pleasant memories is the line that designates the author. It is the 
name of the most cheerful of chroniclers, the best of remembrancers of good things, the 
most polished and entertaining of educated gossips 'The Old Court Suburb' is a work that 
will be welcome to all readers, and most welcome to those who have a love for the best 
kinds of reading." — Examiner. 

" A more agreeable and entertaining book has not been published since Boswell produced 
his reminiscences of Johnson." — Observer. 


" We may save ourselves the trouble of giving any lengthened review of this work, for 
we recommend all who are in search of a fascinating novel to read it for themselves. They 
will find it well worth their while. There are a freshness and originality about it quite 
charming, and there is a certain nobleness in the treatment both of sentiment and incident 
which is not often found." — Athenceum. 


" This work is redolent of the hearty fun and strong masculine sense of our old friend 
' Sam Slick.' In these sketches we have different interlocutors, and a far greater variety 
of character than in ' Sam Slick,' while in acuteness of observation, pungency of remark, 
and abounding heartiness of drollery, the present work of Judge Haliburton is quite equal 
to the first. Every page is alive with rapid, fresh sketches of character, droll, quaint, racy 
sayings, good-humoured practical jokes, and capitally-told anecJotes." — Chronicle. 

"These popular sketches, in which the Author of ' Sam Slick' paints Nova Scotian life, 
form the 12th Volume of Messrs Hurst and Blackett's Standard Library of Modern Works. 
The publications included in this Library have all been of good quality; many give infor- 
mation while they entertain, and of that class the book before us is a specimen. The 
manner in which the Cheap Editions forming the series is produced deserves especial 
mention. The paper and print are unexceptional; there is a steel engraving in each 
volume, and the outsides of them will satisfy the purchaser who likes to see a regiment of 
books in handsome uniform." — Examiner. 


'This last production, from the pen of the author of 'The Crescent and the Cross,' 
has the same elements of a very wide popularity. It will please its thousands." — Globe. 

"This work will be read with peculiar interest as the last contribution to the literature 
of his country of a man endowed with no ordinary gifts of intellect. Eliot Warburton's 
active and productive genius is amply exemplified in the present book. We have seldom 
met with any work in which the realities of history and the poetry of fiction were more 
happily interwoven." — Illustrated News 


BY SIR BERNARD BURKE, ulster king op arms. 

" It were impossible to praise too highly as a work of amusement this most interesting 
book, whether we should have regard to its excellent plan or its not less excellent exe- 
cution. It ought to be found on every drawing-room table. Here you have nearly fifty 
captivating romances with the pith of all their interest preserved in undiminished poig- 
nancy, and any one may be read in half an hour. It is not the least of their merits that the 
romances are founded on fact — or what, at least, has been handed down for truth by long 
tradition — and the romance of reality far exceeds the romance of fiction. Each story is 
told in the clear, unaffected style with which the author's former works have made the 
public familiar." — Standard. 


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